CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year old male presented with left Cogan's anterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO), left appendicular ataxia and bilateral upgaze palsy. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) brain showed a left dorsal tegmental infarct at the level of pontomesencephalic junction.
CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the clinical importance of Cogan's anterior INO in combination with upgaze palsy and ataxia, and report possible site of lesion in patients with such constellation. Clinicians should consider looking for cerebellar signs in cases of Cogan's anterior INO, apart from just considering localizing the lesion at the midbrain.
METHODS: A number of 22 Iranian patients (8 females and 14 males) from 16 unrelated families were studied. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of patients. The frequency and length of (GAA)n repeats in intron 1 of the FXN gene were analyzed using long-range PCR. In this study, the clinical criteria of FRDA in our patients and the variability in their clinical signs were also demonstrated.
RESULTS: An inverse relationship was observed between GAA repeat size and the age of onset. Although some distinguishable clinical features (such as limb ataxia and lower limb areflexia) were found in our patients, 90-95% of them had extensor plantar response and dysarthria. The results showed only one positive diabetes patient and also different effects on eye movement abnormality among our patients.
CONCLUSION: The onset age of symptoms showed a significant inverse correlation with allele size in our patients (P>0.05). Based on comparisons of the clinical data of all patients, clinical presentation of FRDA in Iranian patients did not differ significantly from other FRDA patients previously reported.
CASE DESCRIPTION: A 28-year-old gentleman with body mass index of 34.3 was referred to us for management of double vision of 2 weeks duration. His symptom started after a brief episode of upper respiratory tract infection. His best corrected visual acuity was 6/6 OU. He had bilateral sixth nerve palsy worse on the left eye and bilateral hypometric saccade. His deep tendon reflexes were found to be hyporeflexic in all four limbs. No sensory or motor power deficit was detected, and his gait was normal. Plantar reflexes were downwards bilaterally and cerebellar examination was normal. Both optic discs developed hyperaemia and swelling. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain was normal and lumbar puncture revealed an opening pressure of 50 cmH2O. Anti-GQ1b IgG and anti-GT1a IgG antibody were tested positive.
CONCLUSION: Acute ophthalmoparesis without ataxia can present with co-occurrence of raised intracranial pressure. It is important to have a full fundoscopic assessment to look for papilloedema in patients presenting with Miller Fisher syndrome or acute ophthalmoparesis without ataxia.