Displaying all 7 publications

  1. Wai YZ, Ng QX, Lim TH, Lim LT
    BMC Ophthalmol, 2021 Feb 25;21(1):105.
    PMID: 33632162 DOI: 10.1186/s12886-021-01868-9
    BACKGROUND: Cogan's anterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) is characterized by INO with inability to converge and commonly thought to be due to rostral midbrain lesion. A lesion outside midbrain that causes unilateral Cogan's anterior INO combined with upgaze palsy and ataxia are rarely described.

    CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year old male presented with left Cogan's anterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO), left appendicular ataxia and bilateral upgaze palsy. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) brain showed a left dorsal tegmental infarct at the level of pontomesencephalic junction.

    CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the clinical importance of Cogan's anterior INO in combination with upgaze palsy and ataxia, and report possible site of lesion in patients with such constellation. Clinicians should consider looking for cerebellar signs in cases of Cogan's anterior INO, apart from just considering localizing the lesion at the midbrain.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ataxia/diagnosis
  2. Salehi MH, Kamalidehghan B, Houshmand M, Yong Meng G, Sadeghizadeh M, Aryani O, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(4):e94069.
    PMID: 24705504 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094069
    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is the most frequent progressive autosomal recessive disorder associated with unstable expansion of GAA trinucleotide repeats in the first intron of the FXN gene, which encodes for the mitochondrial frataxin protein. The number of repeats correlates with disease severity, where impaired transcription of the FXN gene results in reduced expression of the frataxin protein. Gene expression studies provide insights into disease pathogenicity and identify potential biomarkers, an important goal of translational research in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, using real-time PCR (RT-PCR), the expression profiles of mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) genes that encode for the mitochondrial subunits of respiratory oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex I in the blood panels of 21 FRDA patients and 24 healthy controls were investigated. Here, the expression pattern of mtDNA-encoded complex I subunits was distinctly different from the expression pattern of nDNA-encoded complex I subunits, where significant (p<0.05) down-regulation of the mitochondrial ND2, ND4L, and ND6 complex I genes, compared to controls, were observed. In addition, the expression pattern of one nDNA-encoded gene, NDUFA1, was significantly (p<0.05) down-regulated compared to control. These findings suggest, for the first time, that the regulation of complex I subunit expression in FRDA is complex, rather than merely being a reflection of global co-regulation, and may provide important clues toward novel therapeutic strategies for FRDA and mitochondrial complex I deficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Friedreich Ataxia/diagnosis
  3. Lim SY, Ishiura H, Ramli N, Shibata S, Almansour MA, Tan AH, et al.
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord, 2020 05;74:25-27.
    PMID: 32289521 DOI: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2020.03.025
    Two ethnic Chinese men with clinico-radiologic features of Fragile X-associated tremor-ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) were found on genetic testing to have neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID), highlighting that NIID should be considered in the differential diagnosis of FXTAS. NIID may also be much more common than FXTAS in certain Asian populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ataxia/diagnosis*
  4. Sim BNH, Joseph JP
    J R Coll Physicians Edinb, 2019 Dec;49(4):304-306.
    PMID: 31808458 DOI: 10.4997/JRCPE.2019.411
    Miller Fischer syndrome (MFS) is a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome first described in 1956 and is characterised by the clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and areflexia. However, since its discovery, forme fruste and overlapping syndrome have been described. A forme fruste of MFS implies an attenuated form where not all of the clinical triad are present. In this report, a case of MFS is highlighted that was mistakenly treated as posterior circulation stroke, as well as the challenges faced in reaching the correct diagnosis and hence the appropriate treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ataxia/diagnosis
  5. Botross NP, Riad AA, Viswanathan S, Nordin RB, Lock HN
    Scott Med J, 2014 May;59(2):e1-6.
    PMID: 24671628 DOI: 10.1177/0036933014529868
    Gaucher's disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of glucocerebrosidase. Gaucher's disease has three clinical types: non-neuronopathic (Type 1), Acute Neuropathic (Type 2) and chronic neuronopathic (Type 3). The chronic neuronopathic (Type 3) is characterised by a variety of disease variants with onset in childhood with hepatomegaly, skeletal lesions and later slow horizontal saccades, treatment-resistant generalised tonic-clonic and myoclonic seizures, dementia, progressive spasticity, cognitive deterioration, ataxia and death in the second or third decade of life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ataxia/diagnosis*
  6. Salehi MH, Houshmand M, Aryani O, Kamalidehghan B, Khalili E
    Iran. Biomed. J., 2014;18(1):28-33.
    PMID: 24375160
    BACKGROUND: Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by guanine-adenine-adenine (GAA) triplet expansions in the FXN gene. Its product, frataxin, which severely reduces in FRDA patients, leads to oxidative damage in mitochondria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the triple nucleotide repeated expansions in Iranian FRDA patients and to elucidate distinguishable FRDA clinical differences in these patients.

    METHODS: A number of 22 Iranian patients (8 females and 14 males) from 16 unrelated families were studied. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of patients. The frequency and length of (GAA)n repeats in intron 1 of the FXN gene were analyzed using long-range PCR. In this study, the clinical criteria of FRDA in our patients and the variability in their clinical signs were also demonstrated.

    RESULTS: An inverse relationship was observed between GAA repeat size and the age of onset. Although some distinguishable clinical features (such as limb ataxia and lower limb areflexia) were found in our patients, 90-95% of them had extensor plantar response and dysarthria. The results showed only one positive diabetes patient and also different effects on eye movement abnormality among our patients.

    CONCLUSION: The onset age of symptoms showed a significant inverse correlation with allele size in our patients (P>0.05). Based on comparisons of the clinical data of all patients, clinical presentation of FRDA in Iranian patients did not differ significantly from other FRDA patients previously reported.

    Matched MeSH terms: Friedreich Ataxia/diagnosis
  7. Yeak J, Zahari M, Singh S, Mohamad NF
    Eur J Ophthalmol, 2019 Jul;29(4):NP1-NP4.
    PMID: 30280587 DOI: 10.1177/1120672118803532
    BACKGROUND: Acute ophthalmoparesis without ataxia was designated as 'atypical Miller Fisher syndrome' as it presents with progressive, relatively symmetrical ophthalmoplegia, but without ataxia nor limb weakness, in the presence of anti-GQ1b antibody. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is characterized by signs of raised intracranial pressure occurring in the absence of cerebral pathology, with normal composition of cerebrospinal fluid and a raised opening pressure of more than 20 cmH2O during lumbar puncture. We aim to report a rare case of acute ophthalmoplegia with co-occurrence of raised intracranial pressure.

    CASE DESCRIPTION: A 28-year-old gentleman with body mass index of 34.3 was referred to us for management of double vision of 2 weeks duration. His symptom started after a brief episode of upper respiratory tract infection. His best corrected visual acuity was 6/6 OU. He had bilateral sixth nerve palsy worse on the left eye and bilateral hypometric saccade. His deep tendon reflexes were found to be hyporeflexic in all four limbs. No sensory or motor power deficit was detected, and his gait was normal. Plantar reflexes were downwards bilaterally and cerebellar examination was normal. Both optic discs developed hyperaemia and swelling. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain was normal and lumbar puncture revealed an opening pressure of 50 cmH2O. Anti-GQ1b IgG and anti-GT1a IgG antibody were tested positive.

    CONCLUSION: Acute ophthalmoparesis without ataxia can present with co-occurrence of raised intracranial pressure. It is important to have a full fundoscopic assessment to look for papilloedema in patients presenting with Miller Fisher syndrome or acute ophthalmoparesis without ataxia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ataxia/diagnosis
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