Displaying all 15 publications

  1. Hector A, Fowler D, Nussbaum R, Weilenmann M, Walsh RP
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 2011 Nov 27;366(1582):3165-7.
    PMID: 22006959 DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0174
    With a focus on the Danum Valley area of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, this special issue has as its theme the future of tropical rainforests in a changing landscape and climate. The global environmental context to the issue is briefly given before the contents and rationale of the issue are summarized. Most of the papers are based on research carried out as part of the Royal Society South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme. The issue is divided into five sections: (i) the historical land-use and land management context; (ii) implications of land-use change for atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (iii) impacts of logging, forest fragmentation (particularly within an oil palm plantation landscape) and forest restoration on ecosystems and their functioning; (iv) the response and resilience of rainforest systems to climatic and land-use change; and (v) the scientific messages and policy implications arising from the research findings presented in the issue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry
  2. Tan KC, Lim HS, Matjafri MZ, Abdullah K
    Environ Monit Assess, 2012 Jun;184(6):3813-29.
    PMID: 21755424 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-011-2226-0
    Atmospheric corrections for multi-temporal optical satellite images are necessary, especially in change detection analyses, such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) rationing. Abrupt change detection analysis using remote-sensing techniques requires radiometric congruity and atmospheric correction to monitor terrestrial surfaces over time. Two atmospheric correction methods were used for this study: relative radiometric normalization and the simplified method for atmospheric correction (SMAC) in the solar spectrum. A multi-temporal data set consisting of two sets of Landsat images from the period between 1991 and 2002 of Penang Island, Malaysia, was used to compare NDVI maps, which were generated using the proposed atmospheric correction methods. Land surface temperature (LST) was retrieved using ATCOR3_T in PCI Geomatica 10.1 image processing software. Linear regression analysis was utilized to analyze the relationship between NDVI and LST. This study reveals that both of the proposed atmospheric correction methods yielded high accuracy through examination of the linear correlation coefficients. To check for the accuracy of the equation obtained through linear regression analysis for every single satellite image, 20 points were randomly chosen. The results showed that the SMAC method yielded a constant value (in terms of error) to predict the NDVI value from linear regression analysis-derived equation. The errors (average) from both proposed atmospheric correction methods were less than 10%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry
  3. Lai SO, Huang J, Hopke PK, Holsen TM
    Sci Total Environ, 2011 Mar 1;409(7):1320-7.
    PMID: 21257194 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.12.032
    In this project, several surrogate surfaces designed to directly measure Hg dry deposition were investigated. Static water surrogate surfaces (SWSS) containing deionized (DI), acidified water, or salt solutions, and a knife-edge surrogate surface (KSS) using quartz fiber filters (QFF), KCl-coated QFF and gold-coated QFF were evaluated as a means to directly measure mercury (Hg) dry deposition. The SWSS was hypothesized to collect deposited elemental mercury (Hg⁰), reactive gaseous/oxidized mercury (RGM), and mercury associated with particulate matter (Hg(p)) while the QFF, KCl-coated QFF, and gold-coated QFF on the KSS were hypothesized to collect Hg(p), RGM+Hg(p), and Hg⁰+RGM+Hg(p), respectively. The Hg flux measured by the DI water was significantly smaller than that captured by the acidified water, probably because Hg⁰ was oxidized to Hg²+ which stabilized the deposited Hg and decreased mass transfer resistance. Acidified BrCl, which efficiently oxidizes Hg⁰, captured significantly more Hg than other solutions. However, of all collection media, gold-coated QFFs captured 6 to 100 times greater Hg mass than the other surfaces, probably because there is no surface resistance for Hg⁰ deposition to gold surfaces. In addition, the Hg⁰ concentration is usually 100-1000 times higher than RGM and Hg(p). For all other media, co-located samples were not significantly different, and the combination of daytime plus nighttime results were comparable to 24-h samples, implying that Hg⁰, RGM and Hg(p) were not released after they deposited nor did the surfaces reach equilibrium with the atmosphere. Based on measured Hg ambient air concentrations and fluxes, dry deposition velocities of RGM and Hg⁰ to DI water and other surfaces were 5.6±5.4 and 0.005-0.68 cm s⁻¹ in this study, respectively. These results suggest surrogate surfaces can be used to measure Hg dry deposition; however, extrapolating the results to natural surface can be challenging.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry
  4. Cracknell AP, Varotsos CA
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2007 Sep;14(6):384-7.
    PMID: 17993221
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry
  5. Cui J, Zhou J, Peng Y, Chan A, Mao J
    Environ Sci Process Impacts, 2015 Dec;17(12):2082-91.
    PMID: 26515781 DOI: 10.1039/c5em00383k
    A detailed study on the solution chemistry of red soil in South China is presented. Data are collected from two simulated column-leaching experiments with an improved setup to evaluate the effects of atmospheric N deposition (ADN) composition and ADN flux on agricultural soil acidification using a (15)N tracer technique and an in situ soil solution sampler. The results show that solution pH values decline regardless of the increase of the NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio in the ADN composition or ADN flux, while exchangeable Al(3+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) concentrations increase at different soil depths (20, 40, and 60 cm). Compared with the control, ADN (60 kg per ha per year N, NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio of 2 : 1) decreases solution pH values, increases solution concentrations of NO3(-)-N, Al(3+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) at the middle and lower soil depths, and promotes their removal. NH4(+)-N was not detected in red soil solutions of all the three soil layers, which might be attributed to effects of nitrification, absorption and fixation in farmland red soil. Some of the NO3(-)-N concentrations at 40-60 cm soil depth exceed the safe drinking level of 10 mg L(-1), especially when the ADN flux is beyond 60 kg ha(-1) N. These features are critical for understanding the ADN agro-ecological effects, and for future assessment of ecological critical loads of ADN in red soil farmlands.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry
  6. Cheah WY, Show PL, Chang JS, Ling TC, Juan JC
    Bioresour Technol, 2015 May;184:190-201.
    PMID: 25497054 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.11.026
    The unceasing rise of greenhouse gas emission has led to global warming and climate change. Global concern on this phenomenon has put forward the microalgal-based CO2 sequestration aiming to sequester carbon back to the biosphere, ultimately reducing greenhouse effects. Microalgae have recently gained enormous attention worldwide, to be the valuable feedstock for renewable energy production, due to their high growth rates, high lipid productivities and the ability to sequester carbon. The photosynthetic process of microalgae uses atmospheric CO2 and CO2 from flue gases, to synthesize nutrients for their growth. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the efficiency of CO2 biosequestration by microalgae species, factors influencing microalgal biomass productions, microalgal cultivation systems, the potential and limitations of using flue gas for microalgal cultivation as well as the bio-refinery approach of microalgal biomass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry*
  7. Tan KC, Lim HS, Mat Jafri MZ
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2014 Jun;21(12):7567-77.
    PMID: 24599658 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-2697-y
    This study aimed to predict monthly columnar ozone (O3) in Peninsular Malaysia by using data on the concentration of environmental pollutants. Data (2003-2008) on five atmospheric pollutant gases (CO2, O3, CH4, NO2, and H2O vapor) retrieved from the satellite Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) were employed to develop a model that predicts columnar ozone through multiple linear regression. In the entire period, the pollutants were highly correlated (R = 0.811 for the southwest monsoon, R = 0.803 for the northeast monsoon) with predicted columnar ozone. The results of the validation of columnar ozone with column ozone from SCIAMACHY showed a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.752-0.802), indicating the model's accuracy and efficiency. Statistical analysis was utilized to determine the effects of each atmospheric pollutant on columnar ozone. A model that can retrieve columnar ozone in Peninsular Malaysia was developed to provide air quality information. These results are encouraging and accurate and can be used in early warning of the population to comply with air quality standards.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry*
  8. Latif MT, Wanfi L, Hanif NM, Roslan RN, Ali MM, Mushrifah I
    Environ Monit Assess, 2012 Mar;184(3):1325-34.
    PMID: 21472384 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-011-2043-5
    This study aims to determine the composition of surfactants in the lake surface microlayer, rainwater, and atmospheric aerosols in the area surrounding Lake Chini, Pahang. Surfactants in the lake surface microlayer were taken from seven different stations around the lake, while samples of rainwater were taken from five different sampling stations. The samples of atmospheric aerosols were collected from the Lake Chini Research Centre which is in close proximity to the lake. The colorimetric analysis method was used to determine the composition and concentration of anionic surfactants as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and cationic surfactants as disulphine blue active substances (DBAS). The concentration of anionic surfactants, as MBAS, in the surface microlayer ranged between 0.08 to 0.23 μmol L(-1), while the range of concentration of cationic surfactants as DBAS ranged from 0.09 to 0.11 μmol L(-1). The concentration of MBAS was higher in rainwater when compared to surfactants in the lake surface microlayer. The high concentration of surfactants in the fine mode of atmospheric aerosols suggests that natural and anthropogenic sources of surfactants contribute to the atmospheric surfactants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry
  9. Sansuddin N, Ramli NA, Yahaya AS, Yusof NF, Ghazali NA, Madhoun WA
    Environ Monit Assess, 2011 Sep;180(1-4):573-88.
    PMID: 21136287 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-010-1806-8
    Malaysia has experienced several haze events since the 1980s as a consequence of the transboundary movement of air pollutants emitted from forest fires and open burning activities. Hazy episodes can result from local activities and be categorized as "localized haze". General probability distributions (i.e., gamma and log-normal) were chosen to analyze the PM(10) concentrations data at two different types of locations in Malaysia: industrial (Johor Bahru and Nilai) and residential (Kota Kinabalu and Kuantan). These areas were chosen based on their frequently high PM(10) concentration readings. The best models representing the areas were chosen based on their performance indicator values. The best distributions provided the probability of exceedances and the return period between the actual and predicted concentrations based on the threshold limit given by the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (24-h average of 150 μg/m(3)) for PM(10) concentrations. The short-term prediction for PM(10) exceedances in 14 days was obtained using the autoregressive model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry
  10. Praveena SM, Cheema MS, Guo HR
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2019 Apr 15;170:699-707.
    PMID: 30580164 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.12.048
    Generally, non-nutritive artificial sweeteners are widely utilized as sugar substitute in various applications. With various applications, non-nutritive artificial sweeteners are now being recognized as emerging contaminants with high water persistence and are chemically stable in environment. Although non-nutritive artificial sweeteners were documented on their occurrence in environment, yet their potential impacts to environment and human health remain ambiguous. Therefore, this review was prepared to provide a more comprehensive insight of non-nutritive artificial sweeteners in environment matrixes by highlighting special concerns on human health and environmental risks. Precisely, this review monitors the exploration of non-nutritive artificial sweeteners occurrences as an emerging contaminants in environment worldwide and their associated risks to human as well as environment. At present, there are a total of 24 non-nutritive artificial sweeteners' studies with regards to their occurrence in the environment from 38 locations globally, spanning across Europe including United Kingdoms, Canada, United States and Asia. Overall, the quantitative findings suggested that the occurrence of non-nutritive artificial sweeteners is present in surface water, tap water, groundwater, seawater, lakes and atmosphere. Among these environmental matrixes, surface water was found as the most studied matrix involving non-nutritive artificial sweeteners. However, findings on non-nutritive artificial sweeteners impacts on human health and environment are limited to understanding its overall potential impacts and risks. Additionally, this review also serves as a framework for future monitoring plans and environmental legislative to better control these emerging contaminants in environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry
  11. Zhou F, Cui J, Zhou J, Yang J, Li Y, Leng Q, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2018 Aug 15;633:776-784.
    PMID: 29602116 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.217
    Atmospheric deposition nitrogen (ADN) increases the N content in soil and subsequently impacts microbial activity of soil. However, the effects of ADN on paddy soil microbial activity have not been well characterized. In this study, we studied how red paddy soil microbial activity responses to different contents of ADN through a 10-months ADN simulation on well managed pot experiments. Results showed that all tested contents of ADN fluxes (27, 55, and 82kgNha-1 when its ratio of NH4+/NO3--N (RN) was 2:1) enhanced the soil enzyme activity and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and 27kgNha-1 ADN had maximum effects while comparing with the fertilizer treatment. Generally, increasing of both ADN flux and RN (1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 with the ADN flux of 55kgNha-1) had similar reduced effects on microbial activity. Furthermore, both ADN flux and RN significantly reduced soil bacterial alpha diversity (p<0.05) and altered bacterial community structure (e.g., the relative abundances of genera Dyella and Rhodoblastus affiliated to Proteobacteria increased). Redundancy analysis demonstrated that ADN flux and RN were the main drivers in shaping paddy soil bacteria community. Overall, the results have indicated that increasing ADN flux and ammonium reduced soil microbial activity and changed the soil bacterial community. The finding highlights how paddy soil microbial community response to ADN and provides information for N management in paddy soil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry
  12. Pyle JA, Warwick NJ, Harris NR, Abas MR, Archibald AT, Ashfold MJ, et al.
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 2011 Nov 27;366(1582):3210-24.
    PMID: 22006963 DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0060
    We present results from the OP3 campaign in Sabah during 2008 that allow us to study the impact of local emission changes over Borneo on atmospheric composition at the regional and wider scale. OP3 constituent data provide an important constraint on model performance. Treatment of boundary layer processes is highlighted as an important area of model uncertainty. Model studies of land-use change confirm earlier work, indicating that further changes to intensive oil palm agriculture in South East Asia, and the tropics in general, could have important impacts on air quality, with the biggest factor being the concomitant changes in NO(x) emissions. With the model scenarios used here, local increases in ozone of around 50 per cent could occur. We also report measurements of short-lived brominated compounds around Sabah suggesting that oceanic (and, especially, coastal) emission sources dominate locally. The concentration of bromine in short-lived halocarbons measured at the surface during OP3 amounted to about 7 ppt, setting an upper limit on the amount of these species that can reach the lower stratosphere.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry*
  13. Fowler D, Nemitz E, Misztal P, Di Marco C, Skiba U, Ryder J, et al.
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 2011 Nov 27;366(1582):3196-209.
    PMID: 22006962 DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0055
    This paper reports measurements of land-atmosphere fluxes of sensible and latent heat, momentum, CO(2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NO, NO(2), N(2)O and O(3) over a 30 m high rainforest canopy and a 12 m high oil palm plantation in the same region of Sabah in Borneo between April and July 2008. The daytime maximum CO(2) flux to the two canopies differs by approximately a factor of 2, 1200 mg C m(-2) h(-1) for the oil palm and 700 mg C m(-2) h(-1) for the rainforest, with the oil palm plantation showing a substantially greater quantum efficiency. Total VOC emissions are also larger over the oil palm than over the rainforest by a factor of 3. Emissions of isoprene from the oil palm canopy represented 80 per cent of the VOC emissions and exceeded those over the rainforest in similar light and temperature conditions by on average a factor of 5. Substantial emissions of estragole (1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene) from the oil palm plantation were detected and no trace of this VOC was detected in or above the rainforest. Deposition velocities for O(3) to the rainforest were a factor of 2 larger than over oil palm. Emissions of nitrous oxide were larger from the soils of the oil palm plantation than from the soils of the rainforest by approximately 25 per cent. It is clear from the measurements that the large change in the species composition generated by replacing rainforest with oil palm leads to profound changes in the net exchange of most of the trace gases measured, and thus on the chemical composition of the boundary layer over these surfaces.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry*
  14. MacKenzie AR, Langford B, Pugh TA, Robinson N, Misztal PK, Heard DE, et al.
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 2011 Nov 27;366(1582):3177-95.
    PMID: 22006961 DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0053
    We report measurements of atmospheric composition over a tropical rainforest and over a nearby oil palm plantation in Sabah, Borneo. The primary vegetation in each of the two landscapes emits very different amounts and kinds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), resulting in distinctive VOC fingerprints in the atmospheric boundary layer for both landscapes. VOCs over the Borneo rainforest are dominated by isoprene and its oxidation products, with a significant additional contribution from monoterpenes. Rather than consuming the main atmospheric oxidant, OH, these high concentrations of VOCs appear to maintain OH, as has been observed previously over Amazonia. The boundary-layer characteristics and mixing ratios of VOCs observed over the Borneo rainforest are different to those measured previously over Amazonia. Compared with the Bornean rainforest, air over the oil palm plantation contains much more isoprene, monoterpenes are relatively less important, and the flower scent, estragole, is prominent. Concentrations of nitrogen oxides are greater above the agro-industrial oil palm landscape than over the rainforest, and this leads to changes in some secondary pollutant mixing ratios (but not, currently, differences in ozone). Secondary organic aerosol over both landscapes shows a significant contribution from isoprene. Primary biological aerosol dominates the super-micrometre aerosol over the rainforest and is likely to be sensitive to land-use change, since the fungal source of the bioaerosol is closely linked to above-ground biodiversity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry*
  15. Loader NJ, Walsh RP, Robertson I, Bidin K, Ong RC, Reynolds G, et al.
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 2011 Nov 27;366(1582):3330-9.
    PMID: 22006972 DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0037
    Stable carbon isotope (δ(13)C) series were developed from analysis of sequential radial wood increments from AD 1850 to AD 2009 for four mature primary rainforest trees from the Danum and Imbak areas of Sabah, Malaysia. The aseasonal equatorial climate meant that conventional dendrochronology was not possible as the tree species investigated do not exhibit clear annual rings or dateable growth bands. Chronology was established using radiocarbon dating to model age-growth relationships and date the carbon isotopic series from which the intrinsic water-use efficiency (IWUE) was calculated. The two Eusideroxylon zwageri trees from Imbak yielded ages of their pith/central wood (±1 sigma) of 670 ± 40 and 759 ± 40 years old; the less dense Shorea johorensis and Shorea superba trees at Danum yielded ages of 240 ± 40 and 330 ± 40 years, respectively. All trees studied exhibit an increase in the IWUE since AD 1960. This reflects, in part, a response of the forest to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Unlike studies of some northern European trees, no clear plateau in this response was observed. A change in the IWUE implies an associated modification of the local carbon and/or hydrological cycles. To resolve these uncertainties, a shift in emphasis away from high-resolution studies towards long, well-replicated time series is proposed to develop the environmental data essential for model evaluation. Identification of old (greater than 700 years) ringless trees demonstrates their potential in assessing the impacts of climatic and atmospheric change. It also shows the scientific and applied value of a conservation policy that ensures the survival of primary forest containing particularly old trees (as in Imbak Canyon and Danum).
    Matched MeSH terms: Atmosphere/chemistry
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