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  1. Laitman Y, Feng BJ, Zamir IM, Weitzel JN, Duncan P, Port D, et al.
    Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 2013 Feb;21(2):212-6.
    PMID: 22763381 DOI: 10.1038/ejhg.2012.124
    The 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation is encountered primarily in Jewish Ashkenazi and Iraqi individuals, and sporadically in non-Jews. Previous studies estimated that this is a founder mutation in Jewish mutation carriers that arose before the dispersion of Jews in the Diaspora ~2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to assess the haplotype in ethnically diverse 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation carriers, and to estimate the age at which the mutation arose. Ethnically diverse Jewish and non-Jewish 185delAG*BRCA1 mutation carriers and their relatives were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers and three SNPs spanning 12.5 MB, encompassing the BRCA1 gene locus. Estimation of mutation age was based on a subset of 11 markers spanning a region of ~5 MB, using a previously developed algorithm applying the maximum likelihood method. Overall, 188 participants (154 carriers and 34 noncarriers) from 115 families were included: Ashkenazi, Iraq, Kuchin-Indians, Syria, Turkey, Iran, Tunisia, Bulgaria, non-Jewish English, non-Jewish Malaysian, and Hispanics. Haplotype analysis indicated that the 185delAG mutation arose 750-1500 years ago. In Ashkenazim, it is a founder mutation that arose 61 generations ago, and with a small group of founder mutations was introduced into the Hispanic population (conversos) ~650 years ago, and into the Iraqi-Jewish community ~450 years ago. The 185delAG mutation in the non-Jewish populations in Malaysia and the UK arose at least twice independently. We conclude that the 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation resides on a common haplotype among Ashkenazi Jews, and arose about 61 generations ago and arose independently at least twice in non-Jews.
    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics*
  2. Rebbeck TR, Friebel TM, Friedman E, Hamann U, Huo D, Kwong A, et al.
    Hum. Mutat., 2018 05;39(5):593-620.
    PMID: 29446198 DOI: 10.1002/humu.23406
    The prevalence and spectrum of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been reported in single populations, with the majority of reports focused on White in Europe and North America. The Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) has assembled data on 18,435 families with BRCA1 mutations and 11,351 families with BRCA2 mutations ascertained from 69 centers in 49 countries on six continents. This study comprehensively describes the characteristics of the 1,650 unique BRCA1 and 1,731 unique BRCA2 deleterious (disease-associated) mutations identified in the CIMBA database. We observed substantial variation in mutation type and frequency by geographical region and race/ethnicity. In addition to known founder mutations, mutations of relatively high frequency were identified in specific racial/ethnic or geographic groups that may reflect founder mutations and which could be used in targeted (panel) first pass genotyping for specific populations. Knowledge of the population-specific mutational spectrum in BRCA1 and BRCA2 could inform efficient strategies for genetic testing and may justify a more broad-based oncogenetic testing in some populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics*
  3. Silvestri V, Barrowdale D, Mulligan AM, Neuhausen SL, Fox S, Karlan BY, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res., 2016 Feb 09;18(1):15.
    PMID: 26857456 DOI: 10.1186/s13058-016-0671-y
    BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and, more commonly, BRCA2 mutations are associated with increased risk of male breast cancer (MBC). However, only a paucity of data exists on the pathology of breast cancers (BCs) in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. Using the largest available dataset, we determined whether MBCs arising in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers display specific pathologic features and whether these features differ from those of BRCA1/2 female BCs (FBCs).

    METHODS: We characterised the pathologic features of 419 BRCA1/2 MBCs and, using logistic regression analysis, contrasted those with data from 9675 BRCA1/2 FBCs and with population-based data from 6351 MBCs in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database.

    RESULTS: Among BRCA2 MBCs, grade significantly decreased with increasing age at diagnosis (P = 0.005). Compared with BRCA2 FBCs, BRCA2 MBCs were of significantly higher stage (P for trend = 2 × 10(-5)) and higher grade (P for trend = 0.005) and were more likely to be oestrogen receptor-positive [odds ratio (OR) 10.59; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 5.15-21.80] and progesterone receptor-positive (OR 5.04; 95 % CI 3.17-8.04). With the exception of grade, similar patterns of associations emerged when we compared BRCA1 MBCs and FBCs. BRCA2 MBCs also presented with higher grade than MBCs from the SEER database (P for trend = 4 × 10(-12)).

    CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the largest series analysed to date, our results show that BRCA1/2 MBCs display distinct pathologic characteristics compared with BRCA1/2 FBCs, and we identified a specific BRCA2-associated MBC phenotype characterised by a variable suggesting greater biological aggressiveness (i.e., high histologic grade). These findings could lead to the development of gender-specific risk prediction models and guide clinical strategies appropriate for MBC management.

    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics*
  4. Toh GT, Kang P, Lee SS, Lee DS, Lee SY, Selamat S, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2008;3(4):e2024.
    PMID: 18431501 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002024
    BACKGROUND: In Asia, breast cancer is characterised by an early age of onset: In Malaysia, approximately 50% of cases occur in women under the age of 50 years. A proportion of these cases may be attributable, at least in part, to genetic components, but to date, the contribution of genetic components to breast cancer in many of Malaysia's ethnic groups has not been well-characterised.
    METHODOLOGY: Given that hereditary breast carcinoma is primarily due to germline mutations in one of two breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, we have characterised the spectrum of BRCA mutations in a cohort of 37 individuals with early-onset disease (BRCA1 and BRCA2 was conducted by full sequencing of all exons and intron-exon junctions.
    CONCLUSIONS: Here, we report a total of 14 BRCA1 and 17 BRCA2 sequence alterations, of which eight are novel (3 BRCA1 and 5 BRCA2). One deleterious BRCA1 mutation and 2 deleterious BRCA2 mutations, all of which are novel mutations, were identified in 3 of 37 individuals. This represents a prevalence of 2.7% and 5.4% respectively, which is consistent with other studies in other Asian ethnic groups (4-9%).
    Study site: University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics*
  5. Lai KN, Ho WK, Kang IN, Kang PC, Phuah SY, Mariapun S, et al.
    BMC Cancer, 2017 02 22;17(1):149.
    PMID: 28222693 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-017-3099-6
    BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 has led to the accurate identification of individuals at higher risk of cancer and the development of new therapies. Approximately 10-20% of the genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 leads to the identification of variants of uncertain significance (VUS), with higher proportions in Asians. We investigated the functional significance of 7 BRCA1 and 25 BRCA2 variants in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort using a case-control approach.

    METHODS: The MassARRAY genotyping was conducted in 1,394 Chinese, 406 Malay and 310 Indian breast cancer cases and 1,071 Chinese, 167 Malay and 255 Indian healthy controls. The association of individual variant with breast cancer risk was analyzed using logistic regression model adjusted for ethnicity, age and family history.

    RESULTS: Our study confirmed BRCA2 p.Ile3412Val is presented in >2% of unaffected women and is likely benign, and BRCA2 p.Ala1996Thr which is predicted to be likely pathogenic by in-silico models is presented in 2% of healthy Indian women suggesting that it may not be associated with breast cancer risk. Single-variant analysis suggests that BRCA1 p.Arg762Ser may be associated with breast cancer risk (OR = 7.4; 95% CI, 0.9-62.3; p = 0.06).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that BRCA2 p.Ile3412Val and p.Ala1996Thr are likely benign and highlights the need for population-specific studies to determine the likely functional significance of population-specific variants. Our study also suggests that BRCA1 p.Arg762Ser may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer but other methods or larger studies are required to determine a more precise estimate of breast cancer risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics*
  6. Wen WX, Allen J, Lai KN, Mariapun S, Hasan SN, Ng PS, et al.
    J. Med. Genet., 2018 02;55(2):97-103.
    PMID: 28993434 DOI: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2017-104947
    BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 is offered typically to selected women based on age of onset and family history of cancer. However, current internationally accepted genetic testing referral guidelines are built mostly on data from cancer genetics clinics in women of European descent. To evaluate the appropriateness of such guidelines in Asians, we have determined the prevalence of germ line variants in an unselected cohort of Asian patients with breast cancer and healthy controls.

    METHODS: Germ line DNA from a hospital-based study of 2575 unselected patients with breast cancer and 2809 healthy controls were subjected to amplicon-based targeted sequencing of exonic and proximal splice site junction regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 using the Fluidigm Access Array system, with sequencing conducted on a Illumina HiSeq2500 platform. Variant calling was performed with GATK UnifiedGenotyper and were validated by Sanger sequencing.

    RESULTS: Fifty-five (2.1%) BRCA1 and 66 (2.6%) BRCA2 deleterious mutations were identified among patients with breast cancer and five (0.18%) BRCA1 and six (0.21%) BRCA2 mutations among controls. One thousand one hundred and eighty-six (46%) patients and 97 (80%) carriers fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for genetic testing.

    CONCLUSION: Five per cent of unselected Asian patients with breast cancer carry deleterious variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2. While current referral guidelines identified the majority of carriers, one in two patients would be referred for genetic services. Given that such services are largely unavailable in majority of low-resource settings in Asia, our study highlights the need for more efficient guidelines to identify at-risk individuals in Asia.

    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics*
  7. Li J, Wen WX, Eklund M, Kvist A, Eriksson M, Christensen HN, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2019 03 01;144(5):1195-1204.
    PMID: 30175445 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.31841
    Breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2-driven tumors may benefit from targeted therapy. It is not clear whether current BRCA screening guidelines are effective at identifying these patients. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of inherited BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants in a large, clinically representative breast cancer cohort and to estimate the proportion of BRCA1/2 carriers not detected by selectively screening individuals with the highest probability of being carriers according to current clinical guidelines. The study included 5,122 unselected Swedish breast cancer patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2008. Target sequence enrichment (48.48 Fluidigm Access Arrays) and sequencing were performed (Illumina Hi-Seq 2,500 instrument, v4 chemistry). Differences in patient and tumor characteristics of BRCA1/2 carriers who were already identified as part of clinical BRCA1/2 testing routines and additional BRCA1/2 carriers found by sequencing the entire study population were compared using logistic regression models. Ninety-two of 5,099 patients with valid variant calls were identified as BRCA1/2 carriers by screening all study participants (1.8%). Only 416 study participants (8.2%) were screened as part of clinical practice, but this identified 35 out of 92 carriers (38.0%). Clinically identified carriers were younger, less likely postmenopausal and more likely to be associated with familiar ovarian cancer compared to the additional carriers identified by screening all patients. More BRCA2 (34/42, 81.0%) than BRCA1 carriers (23/50, 46%) were missed by clinical screening. In conclusion, BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence in unselected breast cancer patients was 1.8%. Six in ten BRCA carriers were not detected by selective clinical screening of individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics*
  8. Couch FJ, Kuchenbaecker KB, Michailidou K, Mendoza-Fandino GA, Nord S, Lilyquist J, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2016 04 27;7:11375.
    PMID: 27117709 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11375
    Common variants in 94 loci have been associated with breast cancer including 15 loci with genome-wide significant associations (P<5 × 10(-8)) with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and BRCA1-associated breast cancer risk. In this study, to identify new ER-negative susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) consisting of 4,939 ER-negative cases and 14,352 controls, combined with 7,333 ER-negative cases and 42,468 controls and 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers genotyped on the iCOGS array. We identify four previously unidentified loci including two loci at 13q22 near KLF5, a 2p23.2 locus near WDR43 and a 2q33 locus near PPIL3 that display genome-wide significant associations with ER-negative breast cancer. In addition, 19 known breast cancer risk loci have genome-wide significant associations and 40 had moderate associations (P<0.05) with ER-negative disease. Using functional and eQTL studies we implicate TRMT61B and WDR43 at 2p23.2 and PPIL3 at 2q33 in ER-negative breast cancer aetiology. All ER-negative loci combined account for ∼11% of familial relative risk for ER-negative disease and may contribute to improved ER-negative and BRCA1 breast cancer risk prediction.
    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics
  9. Sharifah NA, Nurismah MI, Lee HC, Aisyah AN, Clarence-Ko CH, Naqiyah I, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol, 2010 Aug;34(4):442-7.
    PMID: 20451485 DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2010.04.010
    The incidence of breast cancer has been on the rise in Malaysia. It is suggested that a subset of breast cancer cases were associated with germline mutation in breast cancer susceptibility (BRCA) genes. Most of the BRCA mutations reported in Malaysia were point mutations, small deletions and insertions. Here we report the first study of BRCA large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) in Malaysia. We aimed to detect the presence of LGRs in the BRCA genes of Malaysian patients with breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics*
  10. Khoo AS, Balraj P, Volpi L, Nair S
    Hum. Mutat., 2000 May;15(5):485.
    PMID: 10790221
    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics*
  11. Liu J, Lončar I, Collée JM, Bolla MK, Dennis J, Michailidou K, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 11 15;6:36874.
    PMID: 27845421 DOI: 10.1038/srep36874
    NBS1, also known as NBN, plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability. Interestingly, rs2735383 G > C, located in a microRNA binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of NBS1, was shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to lung and colorectal cancer. However, the relation between rs2735383 and susceptibility to breast cancer is not yet clear. Therefore, we genotyped rs2735383 in 1,170 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 1,077 controls using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) analysis, but found no association between rs2735383CC and breast cancer risk (OR = 1.214, 95% CI = 0.936-1.574, P = 0.144). Because we could not exclude a small effect size due to a limited sample size, we further analyzed imputed rs2735383 genotypes (r2 > 0.999) of 47,640 breast cancer cases and 46,656 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). However, rs2735383CC was not associated with overall breast cancer risk in European (OR = 1.014, 95% CI = 0.969-1.060, P = 0.556) nor in Asian women (OR = 0.998, 95% CI = 0.905-1.100, P = 0.961). Subgroup analyses by age, age at menarche, age at menopause, menopausal status, number of pregnancies, breast feeding, family history and receptor status also did not reveal a significant association. This study therefore does not support the involvement of the genotype at NBS1 rs2735383 in breast cancer susceptibility.
    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics
  12. Ng PS, Wen WX, Fadlullah MZ, Yoon SY, Lee SY, Thong MK, et al.
    Clin. Genet., 2016 10;90(4):315-23.
    PMID: 26757417 DOI: 10.1111/cge.12735
    Although an association between protein-truncating variants and breast cancer risk has been established for 11 genes, only alterations in BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and PALB2 have been reported in Asian populations. Given that the age of onset of breast cancer is lower in Asians, it is estimated that inherited predisposition to breast cancer may be more significant. To determine the potential utility of panel testing, we investigated the prevalence of germline alterations in 11 established and 4 likely breast cancer genes in a cross-sectional hospital-based cohort of 108 moderate to high-risk breast cancer patients using targeted next generation sequencing. Twenty patients (19%) were identified to carry deleterious mutations, of whom 13 (12%) were in the BRCA1 or BRCA2, 6 (6%) were in five other known breast cancer predisposition genes and 1 patient had a mutation in both BRCA2 and BARD1. Our study shows that BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for the majority of genetic predisposition to breast cancer in our cohort of Asian women. Although mutations in other known breast cancer genes are found, the functional significance and breast cancer risk have not yet been determined, thus limiting the clinical utility of panel testing in Asian populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics
  13. Hasmad HN, Lai KN, Wen WX, Park DJ, Nguyen-Dumont T, Kang PCE, et al.
    Gynecol. Oncol., 2016 05;141(2):318-322.
    PMID: 26541979 DOI: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2015.11.001
    OBJECTIVE: Despite the discovery of breast and ovarian cancer predisposition genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 more than two decades ago, almost all the available data relate to women of European ancestry, with only a handful of studies in Asian populations. In this study, we determined the frequency of germline alterations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in ovarian cancer patients from a multi-ethnic cross-sectional cohort of Asian ovarian cancer patients from Malaysia.

    METHODS: From October 2008 to February 2015, we established a hospital-based cohort of ovarian cancer patients and the germline status of all 218 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer was tested using targeted amplification and sequencing of the intron-exon junctions and exonic sequences of BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2 and TP53.

    RESULTS: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were found in 8% (17 cases) and 3% (7 cases) of the ovarian cancer patients, respectively. Mutation carriers were diagnosed at a similar age to non-carriers, but were more likely to be Indian, have serous ovarian cancer, and have more relatives with breast or ovarian cancer. Nonetheless, 42% (10/24) of mutation carriers did not have any family history of breast or ovarian cancer and offering genetic counselling and genetic testing only to women with family history would mean that 35% (6/17) of BRCA1 mutation carriers and 57% (4/7) of BRCA2 mutation carriers would not be offered genetic testing.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that, similar to Caucasians, a significant proportion of Asian ovarian cancer was attributed to germline mutations in BRCA1 and to a lesser extent in BRCA2.

    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics
  14. Kuchenbaecker KB, Ramus SJ, Tyrer J, Lee A, Shen HC, Beesley J, et al.
    Nat. Genet., 2015 Feb;47(2):164-71.
    PMID: 25581431 DOI: 10.1038/ng.3185
    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 12 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility alleles. The pattern of association at these loci is consistent in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers who are at high risk of EOC. After imputation to 1000 Genomes Project data, we assessed associations of 11 million genetic variants with EOC risk from 15,437 cases unselected for family history and 30,845 controls and from 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers (3,096 with ovarian cancer), and we combined the results in a meta-analysis. This new study design yielded increased statistical power, leading to the discovery of six new EOC susceptibility loci. Variants at 1p36 (nearest gene, WNT4), 4q26 (SYNPO2), 9q34.2 (ABO) and 17q11.2 (ATAD5) were associated with EOC risk, and at 1p34.3 (RSPO1) and 6p22.1 (GPX6) variants were specifically associated with the serous EOC subtype, all with P < 5 × 10(-8). Incorporating these variants into risk assessment tools will improve clinical risk predictions for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics*
  15. Kang P, Mariapun S, Phuah SY, Lim LS, Liu J, Yoon SY, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res. Treat., 2010 Nov;124(2):579-84.
    PMID: 20617377 DOI: 10.1007/s10549-010-1018-5
    Early studies of genetic predisposition due to the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have focused largely on sequence alterations, but it has now emerged that 4-28% of inherited mutations in the BRCA genes may be due to large genomic rearrangements of these genes. However, to date, there have been relatively few studies of large genomic rearrangements in Asian populations. We have conducted a full sequencing and large genomic rearrangement analysis (using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification, MLPA) of 324 breast cancer patients who were selected from a multi-ethnic hospital-based cohort on the basis of age of onset of breast cancer and/or family history. Three unrelated individuals were found to have large genomic rearrangements: 2 in BRCA1 and 1 in BRCA2, which accounts for 2/24 (8%) of the total mutations detected in BRCA1 and 1/23 (4%) of the mutations in BRCA2 detected in this cohort. Notably, the family history of the individuals with these mutations is largely unremarkable suggesting that family history alone is a poor predictor of mutation status in Asian families. In conclusion, this study in a multi-ethnic (Malay, Chinese, Indian) cohort suggests that large genomic rearrangements are present at a low frequency but should nonetheless be included in the routine testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2.
    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics*
  16. Phelan CM, Kuchenbaecker KB, Tyrer JP, Kar SP, Lawrenson K, Winham SJ, et al.
    Nat. Genet., 2017 May;49(5):680-691.
    PMID: 28346442 DOI: 10.1038/ng.3826
    To identify common alleles associated with different histotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we pooled data from multiple genome-wide genotyping projects totaling 25,509 EOC cases and 40,941 controls. We identified nine new susceptibility loci for different EOC histotypes: six for serous EOC histotypes (3q28, 4q32.3, 8q21.11, 10q24.33, 18q11.2 and 22q12.1), two for mucinous EOC (3q22.3 and 9q31.1) and one for endometrioid EOC (5q12.3). We then performed meta-analysis on the results for high-grade serous ovarian cancer with the results from analysis of 31,448 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 3,887 mutation carriers with EOC. This identified three additional susceptibility loci at 2q13, 8q24.1 and 12q24.31. Integrated analyses of genes and regulatory biofeatures at each locus predicted candidate susceptibility genes, including OBFC1, a new candidate susceptibility gene for low-grade and borderline serous EOC.
    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics
  17. Lee DS, Yoon SY, Looi LM, Kang P, Kang IN, Sivanandan K, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res., 2012;14(2):R66.
    PMID: 22507745
    Germline TP53 mutations cause an increased risk to early-onset breast cancer in Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) families and the majority of carriers identified through breast cancer cohorts have LFS or Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) features. However, in Asia and in many low resource settings, it is challenging to obtain accurate family history and we, therefore, sought to determine whether the presence of early-onset breast cancer is an appropriate selection criteria for germline TP53 testing.
    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics*
  18. Milne RL, Kuchenbaecker KB, Michailidou K, Beesley J, Kar S, Lindström S, et al.
    Nat. Genet., 2017 Dec;49(12):1767-1778.
    PMID: 29058716 DOI: 10.1038/ng.3785
    Most common breast cancer susceptibility variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of predominantly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We conducted a GWAS using 21,468 ER-negative cases and 100,594 controls combined with 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer), all of European origin. We identified independent associations at P < 5 × 10-8 with ten variants at nine new loci. At P < 0.05, we replicated associations with 10 of 11 variants previously reported in ER-negative disease or BRCA1 mutation carrier GWAS and observed consistent associations with ER-negative disease for 105 susceptibility variants identified by other studies. These 125 variants explain approximately 16% of the familial risk of this breast cancer subtype. There was high genetic correlation (0.72) between risk of ER-negative breast cancer and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. These findings may lead to improved risk prediction and inform further fine-mapping and functional work to better understand the biological basis of ER-negative breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics*
  19. Mikropoulos C, Selkirk CGH, Saya S, Bancroft E, Vertosick E, Dadaev T, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2018 01;118(2):266-276.
    PMID: 29301143 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2017.429
    BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA-velocity (PSAV) have been used to identify men at risk of prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating PSA screening in men with a known genetic predisposition to PrCa due to BRCA1/2 mutations. This analysis evaluates the utility of PSA and PSAV for identifying PrCa and high-grade disease in this cohort.

    METHODS: PSAV was calculated using logistic regression to determine if PSA or PSAV predicted the result of prostate biopsy (PB) in men with elevated PSA values. Cox regression was used to determine whether PSA or PSAV predicted PSA elevation in men with low PSAs. Interaction terms were included in the models to determine whether BRCA status influenced the predictiveness of PSA or PSAV.

    RESULTS: 1634 participants had ⩾3 PSA readings of whom 174 underwent PB and 45 PrCas diagnosed. In men with PSA >3.0 ng ml-l, PSAV was not significantly associated with presence of cancer or high-grade disease. PSAV did not add to PSA for predicting time to an elevated PSA. When comparing BRCA1/2 carriers to non-carriers, we found a significant interaction between BRCA status and last PSA before biopsy (P=0.031) and BRCA2 status and PSAV (P=0.024). However, PSAV was not predictive of biopsy outcome in BRCA2 carriers.

    CONCLUSIONS: PSA is more strongly predictive of PrCa in BRCA carriers than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that PSAV aids decision-making for BRCA carriers over absolute PSA value alone.

    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics
  20. Li J, Ugalde-Morales E, Wen WX, Decker B, Eriksson M, Torstensson A, et al.
    Cancer Res., 2018 11 01;78(21):6329-6338.
    PMID: 30385609 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-1018
    Genetic variants that increase breast cancer risk can be rare or common. This study tests whether the genetic risk stratification of breast cancer by rare and common variants in established loci can discriminate tumors with different biology, patient survival, and mode of detection. Multinomial logistic regression tested associations between genetic risk load [protein-truncating variant (PTV) carriership in 31 breast cancer predisposition genes-or polygenic risk score (PRS) using 162 single-nucleotide polymorphisms], tumor characteristics, and mode of detection (OR). Ten-year breast cancer-specific survival (HR) was estimated using Cox regression models. In this unselected cohort of 5,099 patients with breast cancer diagnosed in Sweden between 2001 and 2008, PTV carriers (n = 597) were younger and associated with more aggressive tumor phenotypes (ER-negative, large size, high grade, high proliferation, luminal B, and basal-like subtype) and worse outcome (HR, 1.65; 1.16-2.36) than noncarriers. After excluding 92 BRCA1/2 carriers, PTV carriership remained associated with high grade and worse survival (HR, 1.76; 1.21-2.56). In 5,007 BRCA1/2 noncarriers, higher PRS was associated with less aggressive tumor characteristics (ER-positive, PR-positive, small size, low grade, low proliferation, and luminal A subtype). Among patients with low mammographic density (<25%), non-BRCA1/2 PTV carriers were more often interval than screen-detected breast cancer (OR, 1.89; 1.12-3.21) than noncarriers. In contrast, higher PRS was associated with lower risk of interval compared with screen-detected cancer (OR, 0.77; 0.64-0.93) in women with low mammographic density. These findings suggest that rare and common breast cancer susceptibility loci are differentially associated with tumor characteristics, survival, and mode of detection.Significance: These findings offer the potential to improve screening practices for breast cancer by providing a deeper understanding of how risk variants affect disease progression and mode of detection. Cancer Res; 78(21); 6329-38. ©2018 AACR.
    Matched MeSH terms: BRCA1 Protein/genetics
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