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  1. Makky EA, Park GS, Choi IW, Cho SI, Kim H
    Chemosphere, 2011 May;83(9):1228-33.
    PMID: 21489600 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.03.030
    The protozoan parasites such as Cryptosporidiumparvum and Giardialamblia have been recognized as a frequent cause of recent waterborne disease outbreaks because of their strong resistance against chlorine disinfection. In this study, ozone and Fe(VI) (i.e., FeO(4)(2-)) were compared in terms of inactivation efficiency for Bacillus subtilis spores which are commonly utilized as an indicator of protozoan pathogens. Both oxidants highly depended on water pH and temperature in the spore inactivation. Since redox potential of Fe(VI) is almost the same as that of ozone, spore inactivation efficiency of Fe(VI) was expected to be similar with that of ozone. However, it was found that ozone was definitely superior over Fe(VI): at pH 7 and 20°C, ozone with the product of concentration×contact time (C¯T) of 10mgL(-1)min inactivate the spores more than 99.9% within 10min, while Fe(VI) with C¯T of 30mgL(-1) min could inactivate 90% spores. The large difference between ozone and Fe(VI) in spore inactivation was attributed mainly to Fe(III) produced from Fe(VI) decomposition at the spore coat layer which might coagulate spores and make it difficult for free Fe(VI) to attack live spores.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects*
  2. Habsah M, Amran M, Mackeen MM, Lajis NH, Kikuzaki H, Nakatani N, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2000 Oct;72(3):403-10.
    PMID: 10996279
    Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of 13 Zingiberaceae species from the Alpinia, Costus and Zingiber genera were screened for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The antimicrobial activity of most of the extracts was antibacterial with only the methanol extract of Costus discolor showing very potent antifungal activity against only Aspergillus ochraceous (MID, 15.6 microg per disc). All the extracts showed strong antioxidant activity comparable with or higher that of alpha-tocopherol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects
  3. Batool T, Rasool N, Gull Y, Noreen M, Nasim FU, Yaqoob A, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(12):e115457.
    PMID: 25545159 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115457
    A highly convenient method has been developed for the synthesis of (prop-2-ynyloxy) benzene and its derivatives. Differently substituted phenol and aniline derivatives were allowed to react with propargyl bromide in the presence of K2CO3 base and acetone as solvent. The compounds were synthesized in good yields (53-85%). Low cost, high yields and easy availability of compounds helped in the synthesis. Electron withdrawing groups favor the formation of stable phenoxide ion thus in turn favors the formation of product while electron donating groups do not favor the reaction. Phenol derivatives gave good yields as compared to that of aniline. As aprotic polar solvents favor SN2 type reactions so acetone provided best solvation for the reactions. K2CO3 was proved to be good for the synthesis. Antibacterial, Antiurease and NO scavenging activity of synthesized compounds were also examined. 4-bromo-2-chloro-1-(prop-2-ynyloxy)benzene 2a was found most active compound against urease enzyme with a percentage inhibition of 82.00±0.09 at 100 µg/mL with IC50 value of 60.2. 2-bromo-4-methyl-1-(prop-2-ynyloxy)benzene 2d was found potent antibacterial against Bacillus subtillus showing excellent inhibitory action with percentage inhibition of 55.67±0.26 at 100 µg/ml wih IC50 value of 79.9. Based on results, it can be concluded that some of the synthesized compounds may have potential antiurease and antibacterial effects against several harmful substances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects
  4. Fernando WJ, Othman R
    Math Biosci, 2006 Feb;199(2):175-87.
    PMID: 16387333
    Disinfectants are generally used to inactivate microorganisms in solutions. The process of inactivation involves the disinfectant in the liquid diffusing towards the bacteria sites and thereafter reacting with bacteria at rates determined by the respective reaction rates. Such processes have demonstrated an initial lag phase followed by an active depletion phase of bacteria. This paper attempts to study the importance of the combined effects of diffusion of the disinfectant through the outer membrane of the bacteria and transport through the associated concentration boundary layers (CBLs) during the initial lag phase. Mathematical equations are developed correlating the initial concentration of the disinfectant with time required for reaching a critical concentration (C*) at the inner side of the membrane of the cell based on diffusion of disinfectant through the outer membranes of the bacteria and the formation of concentration boundary layers on both sides of the membranes. Experimental data of the lag phases of inactivation already available in the literature for inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores with ozone and monochloramine are tested with the equations. The results seem to be in good agreement with the theoretical equations indicating the importance of diffusion process across the outer cell membranes and the resulting CBL's during the lag phase of disinfection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects*
  5. Rehman A, Siddiqa A, Abbasi MA, Siddiqui SZ, Khan SG, Rasool S, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2018 Sep;31(5):1783-1790.
    PMID: 30150171
    A number of novel 5-substituted-2-((6-bromo-3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)thio)-1,3,4-Oxadiazole derivatives (6a-l) have been synthesized to evaluate their antibacterial activity. Using aryl/aralkyl carboxylic acids (1a-l) as precursors, 5-substituted-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2-thiols (4a-l) were yielded in good amounts. The derivatives, 4a-l, were subjected to electrophilic substitution reaction on stirring with 6-bromo-3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl chloride (5) in DMF to synthesize the required compounds. All the synthesized molecules were well characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EIMS spectral data and evaluated for antibacterial activity against some bacterial strains of Gram-bacteria. The molecule, 6d, demonstrated the best activity among all the synthesized molecules exhibiting weak to moderate inhibition potential.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects
  6. Abbasi MA, Zeb A, Rehman A, Siddiqui SZ, Shah SAA, Shahid M, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2020 Jan;33(1):41-47.
    PMID: 32122829
    The current research was commenced by reaction of 1,4-benzodioxane-6-amine (1) with 4-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride (2) in the presence of aqueous base under dynamic pH control at 9 to yield N-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl)-4-nitrobenzenesulfonamide (3) which was further reacted with a series of alkyl/aralkyl halides (4a-i) in polar aprotic solvent using catalytic amount of lithium hydride which acts as base to afford some new N-alkyl/aralkyl-N-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl)-4-nitrobenzenesulfonamides (5a-i). The projected structures of all the synthesized derivatives were characterized by contemporary techniques i.e., IR, 1H-NMR and EIMS. The biofilm Inhibitory action of all synthesized molecules was carried out against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. It was inferred from their results that 5f and 5e exhibited suitable inhibitory action against the biofilms of these bacterial strains. Moreover, their cytotoxicity was also checked and it was concluded that these synthesized molecules displayed docile cytotoxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects
  7. Rohilla P, Deep A, Kamra M, Narasimhan B, Ramasamy K, Mani V, et al.
    Drug Res (Stuttg), 2014 Oct;64(10):505-9.
    PMID: 24992500 DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1368720
    A series of N'-(substituted benzylidene)-2-(benzo[d]oxazol-3(2H)-yl)acetohydrazide derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for its in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Antimicrobial activity results revealed that compound 12 was found to be the most potent antimicrobial agent. Results of anticancer study indicated that the synthesized compounds exhibited average anticancer potential. Compound 7 (IC 50 =3.12 µM) and compound 16 (IC 50 =2.88 µM) were found to be most potent against breast cancer (MCF7) cell lines. In conclusion, compound 12 and 16 have the potential to be selected as lead compound for the developing of novel antimicrobial and anticancer agents respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects
  8. Zain NM, Stapley AG, Shama G
    Carbohydr Polym, 2014 Nov 4;112:195-202.
    PMID: 25129735 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.05.081
    Silver and copper nanoparticles were produced by chemical reduction of their respective nitrates by ascorbic acid in the presence of chitosan using microwave heating. Particle size was shown to increase by increasing the concentration of nitrate and reducing the chitosan concentration. Surface zeta potentials were positive for all nanoparticles produced and these varied from 27.8 to 33.8 mV. Antibacterial activities of Ag, Cu, mixtures of Ag and Cu, and Ag/Cu bimetallic nanoparticles were tested using Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Of the two, B. subtilis proved more susceptible under all conditions investigated. Silver nanoparticles displayed higher activity than copper nanoparticles and mixtures of nanoparticles of the same mean particle size. However when compared on an equal concentration basis Cu nanoparticles proved more lethal to the bacteria due to a higher surface area. The highest antibacterial activity was obtained with bimetallic Ag/Cu nanoparticles with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 0.054 and 0.076 mg/L against B. subtilis and E. coli, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects
  9. Tan YN, Ayob MK, Osman MA, Matthews KR
    Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 2011 Nov;53(5):509-17.
    PMID: 21848644 DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2011.03137.x
    The goal of this study was to determine inhibitory effect of palm kernel expeller (PKE) peptides of different degree of hydrolysis (DH %) against spore-forming bacteria Bacillus cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus stearothermophillus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Clostridium perfringens; and non-spore-forming bacteria Escherichia coli, Lisinibacillus sphaericus, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects
  10. Rajasekaran A, Murugesan S, AnandaRajagopal K
    Arch. Pharm. Res., 2006 Jul;29(7):535-40.
    PMID: 16903071
    Several novel 1-[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) ethyl]-1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazoles (3a-h) have been synthesized by the condensation of 1-[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-ethyl]-1H-benzotriazole (2) and appropriate acid chlorides. 1-[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-ethyl]-1H-benzotriazole (2) was synthesized by reacting 3-(1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-yl)propanenitrile with sodium azide and ammonium chloride in the presence of dimethylformamide. The synthesized compounds were characterized by IR and PMR analysis. The titled compounds were evaluated for their in-vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity by the cup plate method and anticonvulsant activity evaluated by the maximal electroshock induced convulsion method in mice. All synthesized compounds exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and moderate antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Compounds 5-(2-(1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazo-1-yl)ethyl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl)(4-aminophenyl)methanone 3d and 5-(2-(1 H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazo-1-yl)ethyl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl)(2-aminophenyl)methanone 3e elicited excellent anticonvulsant activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects
  11. van der Sar SA, Blunt JW, Cole AL, Din LB, Munro MH
    J Nat Prod, 2005 Dec;68(12):1799-801.
    PMID: 16378381
    A new dichlorinated pulvinic acid derivative, methyl-3',5'-dichloro-4,4'-di-O-methylatromentate, was isolated from the fruiting body of a Scleroderma sp. The structure was determined using spectroscopic methods, and an X-ray analysis was carried out for confirmation of the structure. Compound was found to display moderate antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects*
  12. Ghanbari R, Ebrahimpour A, Abdul-Hamid A, Ismail A, Saari N
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(12):16796-811.
    PMID: 23222684 DOI: 10.3390/ijms131216796
    Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp.) were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%), followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%). Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects
  13. Sarwar A, Katas H, Samsudin SN, Zin NM
    PLoS One, 2015;10(4):e0123084.
    PMID: 25928293 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123084
    Recently, the attention of researchers has been drawn toward the synthesis of chitosan derivatives and their nanoparticles with enhanced antimicrobial activities. In this study, chitosan derivatives with different azides and alkyne groups were synthesized using click chemistry, and these were further transformed into nanoparticles by using the ionotropic gelation method. A series of chitosan derivatives was successfully synthesized by regioselective modification of chitosan via an azide-alkyne click reaction. The amino moieties of chitosan were protected during derivatization by pthaloylation and subsequently unblocked at the end to restore their functionality. Nanoparticles of synthesized derivatives were fabricated by ionic gelation to form complexes of polyanionic penta-sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and cationic chitosan derivatives. Particle size analysis showed that nanoparticle size ranged from 181.03 ± 12.73 nm to 236.50 ± 14.32 nm and had narrow polydispersity index and positive surface charge. The derivatives and corresponding nanoparticles were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial and antifungal activities against three gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and three fungal strains, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all derivatives ranged from 31.3 to 250 µg/mL for bacteria and 188 to1500 µg/mL for fungi and was lower than that of native chitosan. The nanoparticles with MIC ranging from 1.56 to 25 µg/mLfor bacteria and 94 to 750 µg/mL for fungi exhibited higher activity than the chitosan derivatives. Chitosan O-(1-methylbenzene) triazolyl carbamate and chitosan O-(1-methyl phenyl sulfide) triazolyl carbamate were the most active against the tested bacterial and fungal strains. The hemolytic assay on erythrocytes and cell viability test on two different cell lines (Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells V79 and Human hepatic cell line WRL68) demonstrated the safety; suggesting that these derivatives could be used in future medical applications. Chitosan derivatives with triazole functionality, synthesized by Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, and their nanoparticles showed significant enhancement in antibacterial and antifungal activities in comparison to those associated with native, non-altered chitosan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects
  14. Al-Hada NM, Mohamed Kamari H, Abdullah CAC, Saion E, Shaari AH, Talib ZA, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2017;12:8309-8323.
    PMID: 29200844 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S150405
    In the present study, binary oxide (cadmium oxide [CdO])x (zinc oxide [ZnO])1-x nanoparticles (NPs) at different concentrations of precursor in calcination temperature were prepared using thermal treatment technique. Cadmium and zinc nitrates (source of cadmium and zinc) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (capping agent) have been used to prepare (CdO)x (ZnO)1-x NPs samples. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. XRD patterns analysis revealed that NPs were formed after calcination, which showed a cubic and hexagonal crystalline structure of (CdO)x (ZnO)1-x NPs. The phase analysis using EDX spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of Cd and Zn as the original compounds of prepared (CdO)x (ZnO)1-x NP samples. The average particle size of the samples increased from 14 to 33 nm as the concentration of precursor increased from x=0.20 to x=0.80, as observed by TEM results. The surface composition and valance state of the prepared product NPs were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. Diffuse UV-visible reflectance spectra were used to determine the optical band gap through the Kubelka-Munk equation; the energy band gap was found to decrease for CdO from 2.92 to 2.82 eV and for ZnO from 3.22 to 3.11 eV with increasing x value. Additionally, photoluminescence (PL) spectra revealed that the intensity in PL increased with an increase in particle size. In addition, the antibacterial activity of binary oxide NP was carried out in vitro against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 Gram (-ve), Salmonella choleraesuis ATCC 10708, and Bacillus subtilis UPMC 1175 Gram (+ve). This study indicated that the zone of inhibition of 21 mm has good antibacterial activity toward the Gram-positive B. subtilis UPMC 1175.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects
  15. Ramanathan S, Gopinath SCB, Md Arshad MK, Poopalan P, Anbu P, Lakshmipriya T
    Sci Rep, 2020 02 25;10(1):3351.
    PMID: 32099019 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-60208-x
    An incredible amount of joss fly ash is produced from the burning of Chinese holy joss paper; thus, an excellent method of recycling joss fly ash waste to extract aluminosilicate nanocomposites is explored. The present research aims to introduce a novel method to recycle joss fly ash through a simple and straightforward experimental procedure involving acidic and alkaline treatments. The synthesized aluminosilicate nanocomposite was characterized to justify its structural and physiochemical characteristics. A morphological analysis was performed with field-emission transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy revealed the size of the aluminosilicate nanocomposite to be ~25 nm, while also confirming a uniformly spherical-shaped nanostructure. The elemental composition was measured by energy dispersive spectroscopy and revealed the Si to Al ratio to be 13.24 to 7.96, showing the high purity of the extracted nanocomposite. The roughness and particle distribution were analyzed using atomic force microscopy and a zeta analysis. X-ray diffraction patterns showed a synthesis of faceted and cubic aluminosilicate crystals in the nanocomposites. The presence of silica and aluminum was further proven by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the functional groups were recognized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal capacity of the nanocomposite was examined by a thermogravimetric analysis. In addition, the research suggested the promising application of aluminosilicate nanocomposites as drug carriers. The above was justified by an enzyme-linked apta-sorbent assay, which claimed that the limit of the aptasensing aluminosilicate-conjugated ampicillin was two-fold higher than that in the absence of the nanocomposite. The drug delivery property was further justified through an antibacterial analysis against Escherichia coli (gram-negative) and Bacillus subtilis (gram-positive).
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects
  16. Nazir M, Abbasi MA, Aziz-Ur-Rehman -, Siddiqui SZ, Ali Shah SA, Shahid M, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2019 Nov;32(6):2585-2597.
    PMID: 31969290
    In the study presented here, the nucleophilic substitution reaction of 5-[3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylhydrosulfide was carried out with different alkyl/aralkyl halides (5a-r) to form its different S-substituted derivatives (6a-r), as depicted in scheme 1. The structural confirmation of all the synthesized compounds was done by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and CHN analysis data. Bacterial biofilm inhibitory activity of all the synthesized compounds was carried out against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. The anticancer activity of these molecules was ascertained using anti-proliferation (SRB) assay on HCT 116 Colon Cancer Cell lines while the cytotoxicity of these molecules was profiled for their haemolytic potential. From this investigation it was rational that most of the compounds exhibited suitable antibacterial and anticancer potential along with a temperate cytotoxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects
  17. Haque RA, Choo SY, Budagumpi S, Iqbal MA, Al-Ashraf Abdullah A
    Eur J Med Chem, 2015 Jan 27;90:82-92.
    PMID: 25461313 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.11.005
    A series of benzimidazole-based N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) proligands {1-benzyl-3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium bromide/hexafluorophosphate (1/4), 1,3-bis(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium bromide/hexafluorophosphate (2/5) and 1,3-bis(3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium-1-ylmethylbenzene dibromide/dihexafluorophosphate (3/6)} has been synthesized by the successive N-alkylation method. Ag complexes {1-benzyl-3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidenesilver(I) hexafluorophosphate (7), 1,3-bis(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidenesilver(I) hexafluorophosphate (8) and 1,3-bis(3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidene)-1-ylmethylbenzene disilver(I) dihexafluorophosphate (9)} of NHC ligands have been synthesized by the treatment of benzimidazolium salts with Ag2O at mild reaction conditions. Both, NHC proligands and Ag-NHC complexes have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C{(1)H} NMR and FTIR spectroscopy and elemental analysis technique. Additionally, the structure of the NHC proligand 5 and the mononuclear Ag complexes 7 and 8 has been elucidated by the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Both the complexes exhibit the same general structural motif with linear coordination geometry around the Ag centre having two NHC ligands. Preliminary in vitro antibacterial potentials of reported compounds against a Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis) bacteria evidenced the higher activity of mononuclear silver(I) complexes. The anticancer studies against the human derived colorectal cancer (HCT 116) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29) cell lines using the MTT assay method, revealed the higher activity of Ag-NHC complexes. The benzimidazolium salts 4-6 and Ag-NHC complexes 7-9 displayed the following IC50 values against the HCT 116 and HT29 cell lines, respectively, 31.8 ± 1.9, 15.2 ± 1.5, 4.8 ± 0.6, 10.5 ± 1.0, 18.7 ± 1.6, 1.20 ± 0.3 and 245.0 ± 4.6, 8.7 ± 0.8, 146.1 ± 3.1, 7.6 ± 0.7, 5.5 ± 0.8, 103.0 ± 2.3 μM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects*
  18. Nisar M, Khan SA, Qayum M, Khan A, Farooq U, Jaafar HZ, et al.
    Molecules, 2016 Mar 25;21(4):411.
    PMID: 27023506 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21040411
    The fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin (cip) has been used to cap metallic (silver and gold) nanoparticles by a robust one pot synthetic method under optimized conditions, using NaBH₄ as a mild reducing agent. Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) showed constancy against variations in pH, table salt (NaCl) solution, and heat. Capping with metal ions (Ag/Au-cip) has significant implications for the solubility, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fluoroquinolone molecules. The metallic nanoparticles were characterized by several techniques such as ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) methods. The nanoparticles synthesized using silver and gold were subjected to energy dispersive X-ray tests in order to show their metallic composition. The NH moiety of the piperazine group capped the Ag/Au surfaces, as revealed by spectroscopic studies. The synthesized nanoparticles were also assessed for urease inhibition potential. Fascinatingly, both Ag-cip and Au-cip NPs exhibited significant urease enzyme inhibitory potential, with IC50 = 1.181 ± 0.02 µg/mL and 52.55 ± 2.3 µg/mL, compared to ciprofloxacin (IC50 = 82.95 ± 1.62 µg/mL). MNPs also exhibited significant antibacterial activity against selected bacterial strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects
  19. Hussain MA, Shah A, Jantan I, Shah MR, Tahir MN, Ahmad R, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:2079-88.
    PMID: 25844038 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S75874
    Polysaccharides are attracting the vigil eye of researchers in order to design the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of diverse size, shape, and application. We report an environmentally friendly method to synthesize Ag NPs where no physical reaction conditions were employed. Hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) was used as a template nanoreactor, stabilizer, and capping agent to obtain Ag NPs. Different concentrations of AgNO3 solutions (50 mmol, 75 mmol, and 100 mmol) were mixed with a concentrated aqueous solution of HPC and the progress of the reaction was monitored by noting color changes of the reaction mixture at different reaction times for up to 24 hours. Characteristic ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV/Vis) absorption bands of Ag NPs were observed in the range of 388-452 nm. The morphology of the Ag NPs was studied by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy. The TEM images confirmed that the size of the Ag NPs was in the range of 25-55 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction studies showed that the crystal phase of the Ag NPs was face-centered cubic. The as-prepared Ag NPs were found to be stable, and no changes in size and morphology were observed after storage in HPC thin films over 1 year, as indicated by UV/Vis spectra. So, the present work furnishes a green and economical strategy for the synthesis and storage of stable Ag NPs. As-synthesized Ag NPs showed significant antimicrobial activity against different bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungal strains (Actinomycetes and Aspergillus niger).
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects
  20. Alqadeeri F, Rukayadi Y, Abbas F, Shaari K
    Molecules, 2019 Aug 26;24(17).
    PMID: 31454974 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24173095
    Piper cubeba L. is the berry of a shrub that is indigenous to Java, Southern Borneo, Sumatra, and other islands in the Indian Ocean. The plant is usually used in folk traditional medicine and is an important ingredient in cooking. The purpose of this study was to isolate and purify the bioactive compounds from P. cubeba L. fractions. In addition, the isolated compounds were tested for their antibacterial and antispore activities against vegetative cells and spores of Bacilluscereus ATCC33019, B. subtilis ATCC6633, B.pumilus ATCC14884, and B.megaterium ATCC14581. The phytochemical investigation of the DCM fraction yielded two known compounds: β-asarone (1), and asaronaldehyde (2) were successfully isolated and identified from the methanol extract and its fractions of P. cubeba L. Results showed that exposing the vegetative cells of Bacillus sp. to isolated compounds resulted in an inhibition zone with a large diameter ranging between 7.21 to 9.61 mm. The range of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was between 63.0 to 125.0 µg/mL and had minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at 250.0 to 500.0 µg/mL against Bacillus sp. Isolated compounds at a concentration of 0.05% inactivated more than 3-Log10 (90.99%) of the spores of Bacillus sp. after an incubation period of four hours, and all the spores were killed at a concentration of 0.1%. The structures were recognizably elucidated based on 1D and 2D-NMR analyses (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and mass spectrometry data. Compounds 1, and 2 were isolated for the first time from this plant. In conclusion, the two compounds show a promising potential of antibacterial and sporicidal activities against Bacillus sp. and thus can be developed as an anti-Bacillus agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects
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