Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

  1. Vellasamy KM, Mariappan V, Hashim OH, Vadivelu J
    Electrophoresis, 2011 Jan;32(2):310-20.
    PMID: 21254130 DOI: 10.1002/elps.201000355
    Bacterial secreted proteins are known to be involved in virulence and may mediate important host-pathogen interactions. In this study, when the stationary phase culture supernatant of Burkholderia pseudomallei was subjected to 2-DE, 113 protein spots were detected. Fifty-four of the secreted proteins, which included metabolic enzymes, transcription/translation regulators, potential virulence factors, chaperones, transport regulators, and hypothetical proteins, were identified using MS and database search. Twelve of these proteins were apparently reactive to antisera of mice that were immunised with B. pseudomallei secreted proteins. These proteins might be excellent candidates to be used as diagnostic markers or putative candidate vaccines against B. pseudomallei infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology*
  2. Allwood EM, Logue CA, Hafner GJ, Ketheesan N, Norton RE, Peak IR, et al.
    FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 2008 Oct;54(1):144-53.
    PMID: 18657105 DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2008.00464.x
    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is endemic to Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Clinical manifestations of the disease are diverse, ranging from chronic localized infection to acute septicaemia, with death occurring within 24-48 h after the onset of symptoms. Definitive diagnosis of melioidosis involves bacterial culture and identification, with results obtained within 3-4 days. This delayed diagnosis is a major contributing factor to high mortality rates. Rapid diagnosis is vital for successful management of the disease. This study describes the purification and evaluation of three recombinant antigenic proteins, BPSL0972, BipD and OmpA from B. pseudomallei 08, for their potential in the serodiagnosis of melioidosis using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The recombinant proteins were evaluated using 74 serum samples from culture-confirmed melioidosis patients from Malaysia, Thailand and Australia. In addition, 62 nonmelioidosis controls consisting of serum samples from clinically suspected melioidosis patients (n=20) and from healthy blood donors from an endemic region (n=18) and a nonendemic region (n=24) were included. The indirect ELISAs using BipD and BPSL0972 as antigens demonstrated poor to moderate sensitivities (42% and 51%, respectively) but good specificity (both 100%). In contrast, the indirect ELISA using OmpA as an antigen achieved 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity. These results highlight the potential for OmpA to be used in the serodiagnosis of melioidosis in an endemic area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology
  3. Soong JX, Chan SK, Lim TS, Choong YS
    J Comput Aided Mol Des, 2019 03;33(3):375-385.
    PMID: 30689080 DOI: 10.1007/s10822-019-00186-z
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) 16.3 kDa heat shock protein 16.3 (HSP16.3) is a latency-associated antigen that can be targeted for latent tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic and therapeutic development. We have previously developed human VH domain antibodies (dAbs; clone E3 and F1) specific against HSP16.3. In this work, we applied computational methods to optimise and design the antibodies in order to improve the binding affinity with HSP16.3. The VH domain antibodies were first docked to the dimer form of HSP16.3 and further sampled using molecular dynamics simulation. The calculated binding free energy of the HSP16.3-dAb complexes showed non-polar interactions were responsible for the antigen-antibody association. Per-residue free energy decomposition and computational alanine scanning have identified one hotspot residue for E3 (Y391) and 4 hotspot residues for F1 (M394, Y396, R397 and M398). These hotspot residues were then mutated and evaluated by binding free energy calculations. Phage ELISA assay was carried out on the potential mutants (E3Y391W, F1M394E, F1R397N and F1M398Y). The experimental assay showed improved binding affinities of E3Y391W and F1M394E against HSP16.3 compared with the wild type E3 and F1. This case study has thus showed in silico methods are able to assist in optimisation or improvement of antibody-antigen binding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology
  4. Calero R, Mirabal M, Bouza J, Guzmán MV, Carrillo H, López Y, et al.
    BMC Immunol, 2013;14 Suppl 1:S9.
    PMID: 23458073 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2172-14-S1-S9
    TB, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is one of the major global infectious diseases. For the pandemic control, early diagnosis with sensitive and specific methods is fundamental. With the advent of bioinformatics' tools, the identification of several proteins involved in the pathogenesis of TB (TB) has been possible. In the present work, the MTB genome was explored to look for molecules with possible antigenic properties for their evaluation as part of new generation diagnostic kits based on the release of cytokines. Seven proteins from the MTB proteome and some of their combinations suited the computational test and the results suggested their potential use for the diagnosis of infection in the following population groups: Cuba, Mexico, Malaysia and sub-Saharan Africa. Our predictions were performed using public bioinformatics tools plus three computer programs, developed by our group, to facilitate information retrieval and processing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology*
  5. Mohd Amiruddin MN, Ang GY, Yu CY, Falero-Diaz G, Otero O, Reyes F, et al.
    J Microbiol Methods, 2020 09;176:106003.
    PMID: 32702386 DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2020.106003
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a pathogenic bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB). This contagious disease remains a severe health problem in the world. The disease is transmitted via inhalation of airborne droplets carrying Mtb from TB patients. Early detection of the disease is vital to prevent transmission of the infection to people in close contact with the patients. To date, there is a need of a simple, rapid, sensitive and specific diagnostic test for TB. Previous studies showed the potential of Mtb 16 kDa antigen (Ag16) in TB diagnosis. In this study, lateral flow immunoassay, also called simple strip immunoassay or immunochromatographic test (ICT) for detection of Ag16 was developed (Mtb-strip) and assessed as a potential rapid TB diagnosis method. A monoclonal antibody against Ag16 was optimized as the capturing and detection antibody on the Mtb-strip. Parameters affecting the performance of the Mtb-strip were also optimized before a complete prototype was developed. Analytical sensitivity showed that Mtb-strip was capable to detect as low as 125 ng of purified Ag16. The analytical sensitivity of Mtb-strip suggests its potential usefulness in different clinical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology*
  6. Puah SM, Puthucheary SD, Chua KH
    Int J Med Sci, 2013;10(5):539-47.
    PMID: 23532805 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.5516
    The search for novel immunogenic polypeptides to improve the accuracy and reliability of serologic diagnostic methods for Burkholderia pseudomallei infection is ongoing. We employed a rapid and efficient approach to identify such polypeptides with sera from melioidosis patients using a small insert genomic expression library created from clinically confirmed local virulent isolates of B. pseudomallei. After 2 rounds of immunoscreening, 6 sero-positive clones expressing immunogenic peptides were sequenced and their identities were: benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit, a putative 200 kDa antigen p200, phosphotransferase enzyme family protein, short chain dehydrogenase and 2 hypothetical proteins. These immunogens were then transferred to an ELISA platform for further large scale screening. By combining shotgun expression library and ELISA assays, we identified 2 polypeptides BPSS1904 (benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit) and BPSL3130 (hypothetical protein), which had sensitivities of 78.9% and 79.4% and specificities of 88.1% and 94.8%, respectively in ELISA test, thus suggesting that both are potential candidate antigens for the serodiagnosis of infections caused by B. pseudomallei.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology*
  7. Butt J, Jenab M, Willhauck-Fleckenstein M, Michel A, Pawlita M, Kyrø C, et al.
    Int J Cancer, 2018 07 15;143(2):245-252.
    PMID: 29377173 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.31283
    The gut microbiome is increasingly implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. A subgroup of patients diagnosed with CRC show high antibody responses to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (SGG). However, it is unclear whether the association is also present pre-diagnostically. We assessed the association of antibody responses to SGG proteins in pre-diagnostic serum samples with CRC risk in a case-control study nested within a prospective cohort. Pre-diagnostic serum samples from 485 first incident CRC cases (mean time between blood draw and diagnosis 3.4 years) and 485 matched controls in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) study were analyzed for antibody responses to 11 SGG proteins using multiplex serology. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable conditional logistic regression models. Antibody positivity for any of the 11 SGG proteins was significantly associated with CRC risk with 56% positive controls compared to 63% positive cases (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.77). Positivity for two or more proteins of a previously identified SGG 6-marker panel with greater CRC-specificity was also observed among 9% of controls compared to 17% of CRC cases, corresponding to a significantly increased CRC risk (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.44-3.27). In this prospective nested case-control study, we observed a positive association between antibody responses to SGG and CRC development in serum samples taken before evident disease onset. Further work is required to establish the possibly etiological significance of these observations and whether SGG serology may be applicable for CRC risk stratification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology
  8. Lachumanan R, Devi S, Cheong YM, Rodda SJ, Pang T
    Infect Immun, 1993 Oct;61(10):4527-31.
    PMID: 7691753
    Binding studies of 160 overlapping, synthetic octapeptides from the hydrophilic regions of the Sta58 major outer membrane protein of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi with sera from patients with scrub typhus revealed 15 immunodominant peptides which are recognized by all the sera tested. Further analysis of the specificity of peptide binding with five of these peptides indicated that the peptides showed significantly stronger binding to scrub typhus patients' sera than they did to sera from patients with other febrile illnesses common in the region, i.e., malaria, dengue fever, typhoid fever, and leptospirosis. The main antibody class binding to these peptides appears to be immunoglobulin M, and there appears to be little correlation between reactivity with peptides and antibody titers measured by the indirect immunoperoxidase test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology*
  9. Tang SW, Abubakar S, Devi S, Puthucheary S, Pang T
    Infect Immun, 1997 Jul;65(7):2983-6.
    PMID: 9199477
    The heat shock protein (HSP) response of Salmonella typhi following exposure to elevated growth temperatures was studied. Three major proteins with molecular sizes of 58, 68, and 88 kDa were abundantly expressed when S. typhi cells were shifted from 37 to 45 degrees C and to 55 degrees C. These proteins were also constitutively expressed at 37 degrees C. Western blotting and immunoprecipitation studies with anti-HSP monoclonal antibodies revealed that the 58- and 68-kDa proteins were analogous to the GroEL and DnaK proteins, respectively, of Escherichia coli. These HSPs are also abundantly present in the outer membrane fraction of disrupted cells and, to a lesser extent, in the cytosol. Immunoblotting experiments with sera from patients with a culture-positive diagnosis of typhoid fever showed the presence of antibodies to these HSPs. Nine of twelve sera reacted with the 58-, 68-, and 88-kDa proteins, while three sera reacted only with the 68- and 88-kDa proteins. All 10 sera from healthy individuals showed no binding to these HSPs. In light of the well-documented roles of HSPs in the pathogenesis of microbial infections and as immunodominant antigens, these findings may be relevant for a better understanding of disease processes and for the future development of diagnostic and preventive strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology
  10. Mohd Bakhori N, Yusof NA, Abdullah J, Wasoh H, Md Noor SS, Ahmad Raston NH, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2018 Jun 14;18(6).
    PMID: 29899214 DOI: 10.3390/s18061932
    In the present study, a beneficial approach for the ultrasensitive and affordable naked eye detection and diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) by utilizing plasmonic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) via antibody-antigen interaction was studied. Here, the biocatalytic cycle of the intracellular enzymes links to the formation and successive growth of the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for ultrasensitive detection. The formation of different colored solutions by the plasmonic nanoparticles in the presence of enzyme labels links directly to the existence or non-existence of the TB analytes in the sample solutions. For disease detection, the adapted protocol is based mainly on the conventional ELISA procedure that involves catalase-labeled antibodies, i.e., the enzymes consume hydrogen peroxide and further produce GNPs with the addition of gold (III) chloride. The amount of hydrogen peroxide remaining in the solution determines whether the GNPs solution is to be formed in the color blue or the color red, as it serves as a confirmation for the naked eye detection of TB analytes. However, the conventional ELISA method only shows tonal colors that need a high concentration of analyte to achieve high confidence levels for naked eye detection. Also, in this research, we proposed the incorporation of protein biomarker, Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT-6-like protein esxB (CFP-10), as a means of TB detection using plasmonic ELISA. With the use of this technique, the CFP-10 detection limit can be lowered to 0.01 µg/mL by the naked eye. Further, our developed technique was successfully tested and confirmed with sputum samples from patients diagnosed with positive TB, thereby providing enough evidence for the utilization of our technique in the early diagnosis of TB disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology
  11. AlMatar M, Makky EA, AlMandeal H, Eker E, Kayar B, Var I, et al.
    Curr Mol Pharmacol, 2019;12(2):83-104.
    PMID: 30474542 DOI: 10.2174/1874467212666181126151948
    BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is considered as one of the most efficacious human pathogens. The global mortality rate of TB stands at approximately 2 million, while about 8 to 10 million active new cases are documented yearly. It is, therefore, a priority to develop vaccines that will prevent active TB. The vaccines currently used for the management of TB can only proffer a certain level of protection against meningitis, TB, and other forms of disseminated TB in children; however, their effectiveness against pulmonary TB varies and cannot provide life-long protective immunity. Based on these reasons, more efforts are channeled towards the development of new TB vaccines. During the development of TB vaccines, a major challenge has always been the lack of diversity in both the antigens contained in TB vaccines and the immune responses of the TB sufferers. Current efforts are channeled on widening both the range of antigens selection and the range of immune response elicited by the vaccines. The past two decades witnessed a significant progress in the development of TB vaccines; some of the discovered TB vaccines have recently even completed the third phase (phase III) of a clinical trial.

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this article are to discuss the recent progress in the development of new vaccines against TB; to provide an insight on the mechanism of vaccine-mediated specific immune response stimulation, and to debate on the interaction between vaccines and global interventions to end TB.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology
  12. Nguyen Thi le T, Sarmiento ME, Calero R, Camacho F, Reyes F, Hossain MM, et al.
    Tuberculosis (Edinb), 2014 Sep;94(5):475-81.
    PMID: 25034135 DOI: 10.1016/j.tube.2014.06.004
    The most important targets for vaccine development are the proteins that are highly expressed by the microorganisms during infection in-vivo. A number of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins are also reported to be expressed in-vivo at different phases of infection. In the present study, we analyzed multiple published databases of gene expression profiles of Mtb in-vivo at different phases of infection in animals and humans and selected 38 proteins that are highly expressed in the active, latent and reactivation phases. We predicted T- and B-cell epitopes from the selected proteins using HLAPred for T-cell epitope prediction and BCEPred combined with ABCPred for B-cell epitope prediction. For each selected proteins, regions containing both T- and B-cell epitopes were identified which might be considered as important candidates for vaccine design against tuberculosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology
  13. Chin CY, Tan SC, Nathan S
    PMID: 22919676 DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00085
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is resistant to a diverse group of antimicrobials including third generation cephalosporins whilst quinolones and aminoglycosides have no reliable effect. As therapeutic options are limited, development of more effective forms of immunotherapy is vital to avoid a fatal outcome. In an earlier study, we reported on the B. pseudomallei serine MprA protease, which is relatively stable over a wide pH and temperature range and digests physiological proteins. The present study was carried out to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the MprA as a potential vaccine candidate. In BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant MprA protease (smBpF4), a significantly high IgG titer was detectable. Isotyping studies revealed that the smBpF4-specific antibodies produced were predominantly IgG(1), proposing that immunization with smBpF4 triggered a Th2 immune response. Mice were immunized with smBpF4 and subsequently challenged with B. pseudomallei via the intraperitoneal route. Whilst control mice succumbed to the infection by day 9, smBpF4-immunized mice were protected against the lethal challenge and survived beyond 25 days post-infection. In conclusion, MprA is immunogenic in melioidosis patients whilst also eliciting a strong immune response upon bacterial challenge in mice and presents itself as a potential vaccine candidate for the treatment of melioidosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology*
  14. Sung YY, Dhaene T, Defoirdt T, Boon N, MacRae TH, Sorgeloos P, et al.
    Cell Stress Chaperones, 2009 Nov;14(6):603-9.
    PMID: 19373565 DOI: 10.1007/s12192-009-0112-2
    Feeding of bacterially encapsulated heat shock proteins (Hsps) to invertebrates is a novel way to limit Vibrio infection. As an example, ingestion of Escherichia coli overproducing prokaryotic Hsps significantly improves survival of gnotobiotically cultured Artemia larvae upon challenge with pathogenic Vibrio campbellii. The relationship between Hsp accumulation and enhanced resistance to infection may involve DnaK, the prokaryotic equivalent to Hsp70, a major molecular chaperone in eukaryotic cells. In support of this proposal, heat-stressed bacterial strains LVS 2 (Bacillus sp.), LVS 3 (Aeromonas hydrophila), LVS 8 (Vibrio sp.), GR 8 (Cytophaga sp.), and GR 10 (Roseobacter sp.) were shown in this work to be more effective than nonheated bacteria in protecting gnotobiotic Artemia larvae against V. campbellii challenge. Immunoprobing of Western blots and quantification by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that the amount of DnaK in bacteria and their ability to enhance larval resistance to infection by V. campbellii are correlated. Although the function of DnaK is uncertain, it may improve tolerance to V. campbellii via immune stimulation, a possibility of significance from a fundamental perspective and also because it could be applied in aquaculture, a major method of food production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology
  15. Mariappan V, Vellasamy KM, Thimma JS, Hashim OH, Vadivelu J
    Vaccine, 2010 Feb 3;28(5):1318-24.
    PMID: 19944788 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.11.027
    Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic human pathogen associated with lung infections. Secretory proteins of B. cepacia are known to be involved in virulence and may mediate important host-pathogen interactions. In the present study, secretory proteins isolated from B. cepacia culture supernatant were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, followed by Western blot analysis to identify the immunogenic proteins. Mice antibodies raised to B. cepacia inactivated whole bacteria, outer membrane protein and culture filtrate antigen detected 74, 104 and 32 immunogenic proteins, respectively. Eighteen of these immunogenic proteins which reacted with all three antibodies were identified and might be potential molecules as a diagnostic marker or a putative candidate vaccine against B. cepacia infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology*
  16. Su YC, Wan KL, Mohamed R, Nathan S
    Microbes Infect., 2008 Oct;10(12-13):1335-45.
    PMID: 18761419 DOI: 10.1016/j.micinf.2008.07.034
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis, a severe infectious disease of humans and animals. The role of the bacterium's proteins expressed in vivo during human melioidosis continues to remain an enigma. This study's aim was to identify B. pseudomallei target proteins that elicit the humoral immune response in infected humans. A small insert genomic expression library was constructed and immunoscreened to identify peptides that reacted exclusively with melioidosis patients' sera. Sero-positive clones expressing immunogenic peptides were sequenced and annotated, and shown to represent 109 proteins involved in bacterial cell envelope biogenesis, cell motility and secretion, transcription, amino acid, ion and protein metabolism, energy production, DNA repair and unknown hypothetical proteins. Western blot analysis of three randomly selected full-length immunogenic polypeptides with patients' sera verified the findings of the immunome screening. The patients' humoral immune response to the 109 proteins suggests the induction or significant upregulation of these proteins in vivo during human infection and thus may play a role in the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei. Identification of B. pseudomallei immunogens has shed new light on the elucidation of the bacterium's pathogenesis mechanism and disease severity. These immunogens can be further evaluated as prophylactic and serodiagnostic candidates as well as drug targets.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology*
  17. Palasubramaniam S, Karunakaran R, Gin GG, Muniandy S, Parasakthi N
    Int J Infect Dis, 2007 Sep;11(5):472-4.
    PMID: 17337225
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology
  18. Anuar AS, Tay ST
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Dec;31(4):802-12.
    PMID: 25776607 MyJurnal
    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a healthcare-associated bacterial pathogen which causes severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals. Concanavalin A (conA), a lectin which recognizes proteins with mannose or glucose residues, has been reported to agglutinate K. pneumoniae and hence, is postulated to have therapeutical potential for K. pneumoniae-induced liver infection. This study investigated the conA binding properties of a large collection of clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae. ConA agglutination reaction was demonstrated by 94 (51.4%) of 183 K. pneumoniae isolates using a microtiter plate assay. The conA agglutination reactions were inhibited in the presence of 2.5 mg/ml D-mannose and 2.5 mg/ml glucose, and following pretreatment of the bacterial suspension with protease and heating at 80ºC. Majority of the positive isolates originated from respiratory specimens. Isolation of conA-binding proteins from K. pneumoniae ATCC 700603 strain was performed using conA affinity column and the conA binding property of the eluted proteins was confirmed by western blotting analysis using conA-HRP conjugates. Proteins with molecular weights ranging from 35 to 60 kDa were eluted from the conA affinity column, of which four were identified as outer membrane protein precursor A (37 kDa), outer membrane protein precursor C (40 kDa), enolase (45 kDa) and chaperonin (60 kDa) using mass spectrometry analysis. Several conA binding proteins (including 45 and 60 kDa) were found to be immunogenic when reacted with rabbit anti-Klebsiella antibody. The function and interplay of the conA binding proteins in bacterium-host cell relationship merits further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology
  19. Johnson RB, Dawkins HJ, Spencer TL, Saharee AA, Bahaman AR, Ramdani, et al.
    Res Vet Sci, 1989 Sep;47(2):277-9.
    PMID: 2508206
    ELISA and immunoblotting techniques were used to examine the humoral immune response to Pasteurella multocida, in bovine sera from Indonesia and Malaysia. Elevated levels of antibody to a crude lipopolysaccharide preparation were found in vaccinated animals. In addition to the response to lipopolysaccharide, antibodies from the vaccinated cattle strongly labelled five to six of the 40 protein bands in this organism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology
  20. Khalilpour A, Osman S, Yunus MH, Santhanam A, Vellasamy N, Noordin R
    BMC Res Notes, 2014;7:809.
    PMID: 25406411 DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-809
    Helicobacter pylori is a human pathogen and during the process of infection, antigens from the bacterium elicit strong host humoral immune responses. In our previous report, native H. pylori UreG protein showed good reactivity with sera from H. pylori patients. This study was aimed at producing the recombinant form of the protein (rUreG) and determining its seroreactivities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/immunology*
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