Chitosan, an amino polysaccharide mostly derived from crustaceans, has been recently highlighted for its biological activities that depend on its molecular weight (MW), degree of deacetylation (DD), and acetylation pattern (AP). More importantly, for some advanced biomaterials, the homogeneity of the chitosan structure is an important factor in determining its biological activity. Here we review emerging enzymes and cell factories, respectively, for in vitro and in vivo preparation of chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs), focusing on advances in the analysis of the AP and structural modification of chitosan to tune its functions. By 'mapping' current knowledge on chitosan's in vitro and in vivo activity with its MW and AP, this work could pave the way for future studies in the field.
Chitin, as the main component of the exoskeleton of Arthropoda, is a highly available natural polymer that can be processed into various value-added products. Its most important derivative, i.e., chitosan, comprising β-1,4-linked 2-amino-2-deoxy-β-d-glucose (deacetylated d-glucosamine) and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine units, can be prepared via alkaline deacetylation process. Chitosan has been used as a biodegradable, biocompatible, non-antigenic, and nontoxic polymer in some in-vitro applications, but the recently found potentials of chitosan for in-vivo applications based on its biological activities, especially antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities, have upgraded the chitosan roles in biomaterials. Chitosan approval, generally recognized as a safe compound by the United States Food and Drug Administration, has attracted much attention toward its possible applications in diverse fields, especially biomedicine and agriculture. Despite some favorable characteristics, the chitosan's structure should be customized for advanced applications, especially due to its drawbacks, such as low drug-load capacity, low solubility, high viscosity, lack of elastic properties, and pH sensitivity. In this context, derivatization with relatively inexpensive and highly available mono- and di-saccharides to soluble branched chitosan has been considered a "game changer". This review critically scrutinizes the emerging technologies based on the synthesis and application of lactose- and galactose-modified chitosan as two important chitosan derivatives. Some characteristics of chitosan derivatives and biological activities have been detailed first to understand the value of these natural polymers. Second, the saccharide modification of chitosan has been discussed briefly. Finally, the applications of lactose- and galactose-modified chitosan have been scrutinized and compared to native chitosan to provide an insight into the current state-of-the research for stimulating new ideas with the potential of filling research gaps.
Calcium silicate (CaSiO3, CS) ceramic composites reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) were prepared using hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1150°C. Quantitative microstructural analysis suggests that GNP play a role in grain size and is responsible for the improved densification. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that GNP survived the harsh processing conditions of the selected HIP processing parameters. The uniform distribution of 1 wt.% GNP in the CS matrix, high densification and fine CS grain size help to improve the fracture toughness by ∼130%, hardness by ∼30% and brittleness index by ∼40% as compared to the CS matrix without GNP. The toughening mechanisms, such as crack bridging, pull-out, branching and deflection induced by GNP are observed and discussed. The GNP/CS composites exhibit good apatite-forming ability in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Our results indicate that the addition of GNP decreased pH value in SBF. Effect of addition of GNP on early adhesion and proliferation of human osteoblast cells (hFOB) was measured in vitro. The GNP/CS composites showed good biocompatibility and promoted cell viability and cell proliferation. The results indicated that the cell viability and proliferation are affected by time and concentration of GNP in the CS matrix.
Biocomposites are materials that are easy to manufacture and environmentally friendly. Sugar palm fibre (SPF) is considered to be an emerging reinforcement candidate that could provide improved mechanical stiffness and strength to the biocomposites. Numerous studies have been recently conducted on sugar palm biocomposites to evaluate their physical, mechanical and thermal properties in various conditions. Sugar palm biocomposites are currently limited to the applications of traditional household products despite their good thermal stability as a prospective substitute candidate for synthetic fibres. Thus, thermal analysis methods such as TGA and DTG are functioned to determine the thermal properties of single fibre sugar palm composites (SPCs) in thermoset and thermoplastic matrix as well as hybrid SPCs. The biocomposites showed a remarkable change considering thermal stability by varying the individual fibre compositions and surface treatments and adding fillers and coupling agents. However, literature that summarises the thermal properties of sugar palm biocomposites is unavailable. Particularly, this comprehensive review paper aims to guide all composite engineers, designers, manufacturers and users on the selection of suitable biopolymers for sugar palm biocomposites for thermal applications, such as heat shields and engine components.
Functionally graded material (FGM) is a heterogeneous composite material including a number of constituents that exhibit a compositional gradient from one surface of the material to the other subsequently, resulting in a material with continuously varying properties in the thickness direction. FGMs are gaining attention for biomedical applications, especially for implants, owing to their reported superior composition. Dental implants can be functionally graded to create an optimized mechanical behavior and achieve the intended biocompatibility and osseointegration improvement. This review presents a comprehensive summary of biomaterials and manufacturing techniques researchers employ throughout the world. Generally, FGM and FGM porous biomaterials are more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous biomaterials. Therefore, our discussion is intended to give the readers about successful and obstacles fabrication of FGM and porous FGM in dental implants that will bring state-of-the-art technology to the bedside and develop quality of life and present standards of care.
This study was conducted based on the hypothesis that mineral and physicochemical properties of cockle shells similarly resemble the properties of corals (Porites sp.). Hence, the mineral and physicochemical evaluations of cockle shells were conducted to support the aforementioned hypothesis. The results indicated that cockle shells and coral exoskeleton shared similar mineral and physicochemical properties.
This article aims to review the literature concerning the choice of selectivity for hydrogels based on classification, application and processing. Super porous hydrogels (SPHs) and superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) represent an innovative category of recent generation highlighted as an ideal mould system for the study of solution-dependent phenomena. Hydrogels, also termed as smart and/or hungry networks, are currently subject of considerable scientific research due to their potential in hi-tech applications in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, bioseparation, biosensor, agriculture, oil recovery and cosmetics fields. Smart hydrogels display a significant physiochemical change in response to small changes in the surroundings. However, such changes are reversible; therefore, the hydrogels are capable of returning to its initial state after a reaction as soon as the trigger is removed.
Calcium sulfate-bioactive glass (CSBG) composites doped with 5, 10 and 20 mol% Fe were synthesized using quick alkali sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of samples heated at 700 °C revealed the presence of anhydrite, while field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) characterization confirmed the formation of nano-sized CSBGs. The UV-vis studies confirmed that the main iron species in 5% Fe and 10% Fe doped CSBGs were tetrahedral Fe(III) whereas that in 20% Fe doped CSBG were extra-framework FeOx oligomers or iron oxide phases. Measurement of magnetic properties of the samples by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed very narrow hysteresis loop with zero coercivity and remanence for 10% Fe and 20% Fe doped CSBG, indicating that they are superparamagnetic in nature. All samples induced the formation of apatite layer with Ca/P ratio close to the stoichiometric HA in simulated body fluid (SBF) assessment.
Tissue engineering focuses on developing biological substitutes to restore, maintain or improve tissue functions. The three main components of its application are scaffold, cell and growthstimulating signals. Scaffolds composed of biomaterials mainly function as the structural support for ex vivo cells to attach and proliferate. They also provide physical, mechanical and biochemical cues for the differentiation of cells before transferring to the in vivo site. Collagen has been long used in various clinical applications, including drug delivery. The wide usage of collagen in the clinical field can be attributed to its abundance in nature, biocompatibility, low antigenicity and biodegradability. In addition, the high tensile strength and fibril-forming ability of collagen enable its fabrication into various forms, such as sheet/membrane, sponge, hydrogel, beads, nanofibre and nanoparticle, and as a coating material. The wide option of fabrication technology together with the excellent biological and physicochemical characteristics of collagen has stimulated the use of collagen scaffolds in various tissue engineering applications. This review describes the fabrication methods used to produce various forms of scaffolds used in tissue engineering applications.
Casein nanomicelles, a major fraction of milk protein, are emerging as a novel drug delivery system owing to their various structural and functional properties. Casein is further divided into α-, β- and κ-casein, and to date various models have been proposed to describe casein structure, but still no definite structure presenting a detailed assembly of the casein micelle has been found. Thus far, the submicellar model and Horne and Holt model are the most accepted models. This article presents a detailed review of casein micelles and their fractions, and the physicochemical properties that account for their numerous applications in nutraceutics, pharmaceutics and cosmetics. Due to their nanosize and self-assembling nature, casein nanomicelles are considered as excellent delivery carriers to provide better bioavailability and stability of various compounds such as vitamins, oils, polyphenols, fattyacids and minerals. Their amphiphilic nature also provides a great opportunity to deliver hydrophobic bioactives in various drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, nanomicelles, nanogels and nanoemulsions to improve drug binding and targeting.
Three-dimensionally printed constructs are static and do not recapitulate the dynamic nature of tissues. Four-dimensional (4D) bioprinting has emerged to include conformational changes in printed structures in a predetermined fashion using stimuli-responsive biomaterials and/or cells. The ability to make such dynamic constructs would enable an individual to fabricate tissue structures that can undergo morphological changes. Furthermore, other fields (bioactuation, biorobotics, and biosensing) will benefit from developments in 4D bioprinting. Here, the authors discuss stimuli-responsive biomaterials as potential bioinks for 4D bioprinting. Natural cell forces can also be incorporated into 4D bioprinted structures. The authors introduce mathematical modeling to predict the transition and final state of 4D printed constructs. Different potential applications of 4D bioprinting are also described. Finally, the authors highlight future perspectives for this emerging technology in biomedicine.
Polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposites reinforced with hybrid montmorillonite/cellulose nanowhiskers [MMT/CNW(SO4)] were prepared by solution casting. The CNW(SO4) nanofiller was first isolated from microcrystalline cellulose using acid hydrolysis treatment. PLA/MMT/CNW(SO4) hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by the addition of various amounts of CNW(SO4) [1-9 parts per hundred parts of polymer (phr)] into PLA/MMT nanocomposite at 5 phr MMT content, based on highest tensile strength values as reported previously. The biodegradability, thermal, tensile, morphological, water absorption and transparency properties of PLA/MMT/CNW(SO4) hybrid nanocomposites were investigated. The Biodegradability, thermal stability and crystallinity of hybrid nanocomposites increased compared to PLA/MMT nanocomposite and neat PLA. The highest tensile strength of hybrid nanocomposites was obtained by incorporating 1 phr CNW(SO4) [∼ 36 MPa]. Interestingly, the ductility of hybrid nanocomposites increased significantly by 87% at this formulation. The Young's modulus increased linearly with increasing CNW(SO4) content. This is due to the relatively good dispersion of nanofillers in the hybrid nanocomposites, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the formation of some polar interactions. In addition, water resistance of the hybrid nanocomposites improved and the visual transparency of neat PLA film did not affect by addition of CNW(SO4).
In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of the composite. The study was extended by blending the composites with commercially available masterbatch colorant.
The complex architecture of the cortical part of the bovine-femur was examined to develop potential tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds. Weight-change and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that significant phase transformation and morphology conversion of the bone occur at 500-750°C and 750-900°C, respectively. Another breakthrough finding was achieved by determining a sintering condition for the nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystal from bovine bone via XRD technique. Scanning electron microscopy results of morphological growth suggests that the concentration of polymer fibrils increases (or decreases, in case of apatite crystals) from the distal to proximal end of the femur. Energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray, Fourier transform infrared, micro-computer tomography, and mechanical studies of the actual composition also strongly support our microscopic results and firmly indicate the functionally graded material properties of bovine-femur. Bones sintered at 900 and 1000°C show potential properties for soft and hard TE applications, respectively.
This paper studies parameters which affect the pore size diameter of a silicon membrane. Electrochemical etching is performed in characterise the parameter involved in this process. The parameter has been studied is volume ratio of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and ethanol as an electrolyte aqueous for electrochemical etch. This electrolyte aqueous solution has been mixed between HF and ethanol with volume ratio 3:7, 5:5, 7:3 and 9:1. As a result, the higher volume of HF in this electrolyte gives the smallest pore size diameter compared to the lower volume of HF. These samples have been dipped into HF and ethanol electrolyte aqueous with supplied 25 mA/cm2 current density for 20, 30, 40, and 50 minutes. The samples will inspect under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to execute the pore formations on silicon membrane surface.
Bionanocomposite films based on regenerated cellulose (RC) and incorporated with zeolite at different concentrations were fabricated by dissolving cellulose in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMIMCl) ionic liquid using a simple green method. The interactions between the zeolite and the cellulose matrix were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra. Mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films significantly improved as compared with the pure regenerated cellulose film, without the loss of extensibility. Zeolite incorporation enhanced the thermal stability and char yield of the nanocomposites. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that zeolite was uniformly dispersed in the regenerated cellulose matrix. In vitro cytotoxicity test demonstrated that both RC and RC/zeolite nanocomposite films are cytocompatible. These results indicate that the prepared nanocomposites have potential applications in biodegradable packaging, membranes and biomedical areas.
Bleaching treatment of kenaf fiber was performed in alkaline medium containing hydrogen peroxide solution maintained at pH 11 and 80 °C for 60 min. The bleached kenaf fiber was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. The bleached kenaf fiber was then compounded with poly-(lactic acid) (PLA) via a melt blending method. The mechanical (tensile, flexural and impact) performance of the product was tested. The fiber treatment improved the mechanical properties of PLA/bleached kenaf fiber composites. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) morphological analysis showed improvement of the interfacial adhesion between the fiber surface and polymer matrix.
The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of Al2O3 on α-calcium silicate (α-CaSiO3) ceramic. α-CaSiO3 was synthesized from CaO and SiO2 using mechanochemical method followed by calcinations at 1000°C. α-CaSiO3 and alumina were grinded using ball mill to create mixtures, containing 0-50w% of Al2O3 loadings. The powders were uniaxially pressed and followed by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) in order to achieve greater uniformity of compaction and to increase the shape capability. Afterward, the compaction was sintered in a resistive element furnace at both 1150°C and 1250°C with a 5h holding time. It was found that alumina reacted with α-CaSiO3 and formed alumina-rich calcium aluminates after sintering. An addition of 15wt% of Al2O3 powder at 1250°C were found to improve the hardness and fracture toughness of the calcium silicate. It was also observed that the average grain sizes of α-CaSiO3 /Al2O3 composite were maintained 500-700nm after sintering process.
Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%), longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm), and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm). The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm) and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared with duoderm (0.45 ± 0.11 cm). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression on days 7, 14, and 21 revealed the presence of human hair follicle stem cells and fibroblasts that were incorporated into and surviving in the irradiated wound. We have proven that a chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation.