Fast progress in nanoscience and nanotechnology has contributed to the way in which people diagnose, combat, and overcome various diseases differently from the conventional methods. Metal nanoparticles, mainly silver and gold nanoparticles (AgNPs and AuNPs, respectively), are currently developed for many applications in the medical and pharmaceutical area including as antibacterial, antibiofilm as well as anti-leshmanial agents, drug delivery systems, diagnostics tools, as well as being included in personal care products and cosmetics. In this review, the preparation of AgNPs and AuNPs using different methods is discussed, particularly the green or bio- synthesis method as well as common methods used for their physical and chemical characterization. In addition, the mechanisms of the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity of AgNPs and AuNPs are discussed, along with the toxicity of both nanoparticles. The review will provide insight into the potential of biosynthesized AgNPs and AuNPs as antimicrobial nanomaterial agents for future use.
Development of antimicrobial drugs against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a great focus in recent years. TG12, a short peptide molecule used in this study was screened from tachykinin (Tac) protein of an established teleost Channa striatus (Cs) transcriptome. Tachykinin cDNA has 345 coding sequence, that denotes a protein contained 115 amino acids; in which a short peptide (TG12) was identified at 83-94. Tachykinin mRNA upregulated in C. striatus treated with Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The mRNA up-regulation was studied using real-time PCR. The up-regulation tachykinin mRNA pattern confirmed the immune involvement of tachykinin in C. striatus during infection. Further, the identified peptide, TG12 was synthesized and its toxicity was demonstrated in hemolytic and cytotoxic assays using human erythrocytes and human dermal fibroblast cells, respectively. The toxicity study exhibited that the toxicity of TG12 was similar to negative control, phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Moreover, the antibiogram of TG12 was active against Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 27736, a major MDR bacterial pathogen. Further, the antimicrobial activity of TG12 against pathogenic bacteria was screened using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and anti-biofilm assays, altogether TG12 showed potential activity against K. pneumonia. Fluorescence assisted cell sorter flow cytometer analysis (FACS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was carried on TG12 with K. pneumonia; the results showed that TG12 significantly reduced K. pneumonia viability as well as TG12 disrupt its membrane. In conclusion, TG12 of CsTac is potentially involved in the antibacterial immune mechanisms, which has a prospectus efficiency in pharma industry against MDR strains, especially K. pneumonia.
Nanomedicine is now being introduced as a recent trend in the field of medicine. It has been documented that metal nanoparticles have antimicrobial effects for bacteria, fungi and viruses. Recent advances in technology has revived the use of silver nanoparticles in the medical field; treatment, diagnosis, monitoring and control of disease. It has been used since ancient times for treating wide range of illnesses. Bacterial cells adheres to surfaces and develop structures known as biofilms. These structures are natural survival strategy of the bacteria to invade the host. They are more tolerant to commonly used antimicrobial agents, thus being more difficult to be controlled. This leads to increase in severity of infection. In this study, we have investigated the effect of silver nanoparticles in the formation of biofilm in multidrug resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Observation showed that biofilm formation occurred at bacterial concentration of 10(6) cfu/ml for the sensitive strain of P. aeruginosa while in the resistant strain, the biofilm was evident at bacterial concentration of about 10(3) cfu/ml. The biofilm were then tested against various concentrations of silver nanoparticles to determine the inhibitory effect of the silver nanoparticles. In the sensitive strain, 20 μg/ml of silver nanoparticles inhibited the growth optimally at bacterial concentration of 10(4) cfu/ml with an inhibition rate of 67%. Similarly, silver nanoparticles inhibited the formation of biofilm in the resistant strain at an optimal bacterial concentration of 10(5) cfu/ml with an inhibition rate of 56%. Thus, silver nanoparticles could be used as a potential alternative therapy to reduce severity of disease due to P. aeruginosa infections.
The in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of chlorogenic acid against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was investigated through disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill and biofilm assays. A total of 9 clinical S. maltophilia isolates including one isolate resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) were tested. The inhibition zone sizes for the isolates ranged from 17 to 29 mm, while the MIC and MBC values ranged from 8 to 16 μg mL(-1) and 16 to 32 μg mL(-1). Chlorogenic acid appeared to be strongly bactericidal at 4x MIC, with a 2-log reduction in viable bacteria at 10 h. In vitro antibiofilm testing showed a 4-fold reduction in biofilm viability at 4x MIC compared to 1x MIC values (0.085 < 0.397 A 490 nm) of chlorogenic acid. The data from this study support the notion that the chlorogenic acid has promising in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against S. maltophilia.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. on Candida albicans biofilms at adherent, intermediate, and mature phase of growth. C. albicans biofilms were formed in flat-bottom 96-well microtiter plates. The biofilms of C. albicans at different phases of development were exposed to xanthorrhizol at different concentrations (0.5 µg/mL-256 µg/mL) for 24 h. The metabolic activity of cells within the biofilms was quantified using the XTT reduction assay. Sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations (SMICs) were determined at 50% and 80% reduction in the biofilm OD₄₉₀ compared to the control wells. The SMIC₅₀ and SMIC₈₀ of xanthorrhizol against 18 C. albicans biofilms were 4--16 µg/mL and 8--32 µg/mL, respectively. The results demonstrated that the activity of xanthorrhizol in reducing C. albicans biofilms OD₄₉₀ was dependent on the concentration and the phase of growth of biofilm. Xanthorrhizol at concentration of 8 µg/mL completely reduced in biofilm referring to XTT-colorimetric readings at adherent phase, whereas 32 µg/mL of xanthorrhizol reduced 87.95% and 67.48 % of biofilm referring to XTT-colorimetric readings at intermediate and mature phases, respectively. Xanthorrhizol displayed potent activity against C. albicans biofilms in vitro and therefore might have potential therapeutic implication for biofilm-associated candidal infections.
The inhibitory effect of Cassia spectabilis methanol leaf extract was evaluated against biofilm forming Candida albicans, which was sensitive to 6.25 mg/ml concentration of the extract. Transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations were used to study the anticandidal activity and prevention of biofilm formation by the C. spectabilis extract. SEM analysis further revealed reduction in C. albicans biofilm in response to the extract. The main abnormalities noted via TEM study was the alterations in morphology and complete collapse of the yeast cells after 36 h of exposure to the extract. The significant antifungal activity shown by this methanol extract of C. spectabilis suggests its potential against infections caused by C. albicans.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of six groups of antibiotics and calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in a membrane filter model. Two-day-old E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) biofilm was exposed to ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, erythr omycin, oxytetracycline, vancomycin, vancomycin followed by gentamicin, Ca(OH)(2), and phosphate-buffered saline (control). After 1 h of exposure, the antimicrobial activity was neutralized by washing each disc five times in PBS, and then the colony-forming units of the remaining viable bacteria on each disc were counted. The results revealed that only erythromycin, oxytetracycline and Ca(OH)2 showed 100% biofilm kill. An ANOVA with a Bonferroni post hoc test (P < 0.05) detected significant differences among the test agents, except in the ampicillin group versus the co-trimoxazole group. It is concluded that erythromycin, oxytetracycline and Ca(OH)2 are 100% effective in eliminating E. faecalis biofilm, whereas ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, vancomycin, and vancomycin followed by gentamicin are ineffective.
AIM: Qat chewing has been reported to induce subgingival microbial shifts suggestive of prebiotic-like properties. The objective here was to assess the effect of qat chewing on a panel of classical and new putative periopathogens in health and periodontitis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 qat chewers and 40 nonchewers, equally stratified by periodontal health status, were recruited. Taqman, real-time PCR was used to quantify total bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Synergistetes, and TM7s in pooled subgingival biofilm samples. Differences in microbial parameters between the study groups were analysed using ordinal regression.
RESULTS: In health, the qat chewers harboured significantly lower relative counts of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, Synergistetes, and TM7s after adjustment for multiple comparisons (P ≤ 0.007). At nominal significance level, they also carried lower counts of TM7s and P. micra (P ≤ 0.05). In periodontitis, the chewers had lower counts of all taxa; however, only T. denticola withstood correction for multiple comparisons (P ≤ 0.0063).
CONCLUSIONS: Qat chewing is associated with lower proportions of periopathogens, particularly in subjects with healthy periodontium, which supports previous reports of its prebiotic-like properties. This potentially beneficial biological effect can be exploited by attempting to isolate the active fraction.
Propolis obtained from bee hives is a natural substance with antimicrobial properties. It is limited by its insolubility in aqueous solutions; hence ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Malaysian propolis were prepared. Both the extracts displayed antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against Enterococcus faecalis, a common bacterium associated with hospital-acquired infections. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of propolis revealed the presence of flavonoids like kaempferol and pinocembrin. This study investigated the role of propolis developed into nanoparticles with chitosan for its antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against E. faecalis. Bacteria that grow in a slimy layer of biofilm are resistant to penetration by antibacterial agents. The use of nanoparticles in medicine has received attention recently due to better bioavailability, enhanced penetrative capacity and improved efficacy. A chitosan-propolis nanoformulation was chosen based on ideal physicochemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, encapsulation efficiency and the rate of release of the active ingredients. This formulation inhibited E. faecalis biofilm formation and reduced the number of bacteria in the biofilm by ~90% at 200 μg/ml concentration. When tested on pre-formed biofilms, the formulation reduced bacterial number in the biofilm by ~40% and ~75% at 200 and 300 μg/ml, respectively. The formulation not only reduced bacterial numbers, but also physically disrupted the biofilm structure as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Treatment of biofilms with chitosan-propolis nanoparticles altered the expression of biofilm-associated genes in E. faecalis. The results of this study revealed that chitosan-propolis nanoformulation can be deemed as a potential anti-biofilm agent in resisting infections involving biofilm formation like chronic wounds and surgical site infections.
Toxin antitoxin system is a regulatory system that antitoxin inhibits the toxin. We aimed to determine the role of TA loci in biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae clinical and environmental isolates; also inhibition of biofilm formation by Peganum harmala. So, 40 K. pneumoniae clinical and environmental isolates were subjected for PCR to determine the frequency of mazEF, relEB, and mqsRA TA loci. Biofilm formation assay subjected for all isolates. Then, P. harmala was tested against positive biofilm formation strains. Our results demonstrated that relBE TA loci were dominant TA loci; whereas mqsRA TA loci were negative in all isolates. The most environmental isolates showed weak and no biofilm formation while strong and moderate biofilm formation observed in clinical isolates. Biofilm formations by K. pneumoniae in 9 ug/ml concentration were inhibited by P. harmala. In vivo study suggested to be performed to introduce Peganum harmala as anti-biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae.
INTRODUCTION: Biofilm formation is a strategy for microorganisms to adapt and survive in hostile environments. Microorganisms that are able to produce biofilms are currently recognized as a threat to human health. Areas covered: Many strategies have been employed to eradicate biofilms, but several drawbacks from these methods had subsequently raised concerns on the need for alternative approaches to effectively prevent biofilm formation. One of the main mechanisms that drives a microorganism to transit from a planktonic to a biofilm-sessile state, is oxidative stress. Chemical agents that could target oxidative stress regulators, for instance antioxidants, could therefore be used to treat biofilm-associated infections. Expert commentary: The focus of this review is to summarize the function and limitation of the current anti-biofilm strategies and will propose the use of antioxidants as an alternative method to treat, prevent and eradicate biofilms. Studies have shown that water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidants can reduce and prevent biofilm formation, by influencing the expression of genes associated with oxidative stress. Further in vivo work should be conducted to ensure the efficacy of these antioxidants in a biological environment. Nevertheless, antioxidants are promising anti-biofilm agents, and thus is a potential solution for biofilm-associated infections in the future.
Bacterial resistance to commonly used drugs has become a global health problem, causing increased infection cases and mortality rate. One of the main virulence determinants in many bacterial infections is biofilm formation, which significantly increases bacterial resistance to antibiotics and innate host defence. In the search to address the chronic infections caused by biofilms, antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been considered as potential alternative agents to conventional antibiotics. Although AMPs are commonly considered as the primitive mechanism of immunity and has been extensively studied in insects and non-vertebrate organisms, there is now increasing evidence that AMPs also play a crucial role in human immunity. AMPs have exhibited broad-spectrum activity against many strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including drug-resistant strains, and fungi. In addition, AMPs also showed synergy with classical antibiotics, neutralize toxins and are active in animal models. In this review, the important mechanisms of action and potential of AMPs in the eradication of biofilm formation in multidrug-resistant pathogen, with the goal of designing novel antimicrobial therapeutics, are discussed.
Staphylococci are Gram-positive bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and able to form biofilms on a range of surfaces. They have been associated with a range of human health issues such as medical device-related infection, localized skin infection, or direct infection caused by toxin production. The extracellular material produced by these bacteria resists antibiotics and host defence mechanism which complicates the treatment process. The commonly reported Staphylococcus species are Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis as they inhabit human bodies. However, the emergence of other staphylococci, such as S. haemolyticus, S. lugdunensis, S. saprophyticus, S. capitis, S. saccharolyticus, S. warneri, S. cohnii, and S. hominis, is also of concern and they have been associated with biofilm formation. This review critically assesses recent cases on the biofilm formation by S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and other staphylococci reported in health-related environments. The control of biofilm formation by staphylococci using natural compounds is specifically discussed as they represent potential anti-biofilm agents which may reduce the burden of antibiotic resistance.
The present study comprises the synthesis of a new series of benzenesulfonamides derived from N-sulfonation of 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-ethanamine (1). The synthesis was initiated by the reaction of 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-ethanamine (1) with benzenesulfonyl chloride (2), to yield N-(4-methoxyphenethyl)benzenesulfonamide (3). This parent molecule 3 was subsequently treated with various alkyl/aralkyl halides (4a-j) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and in the presence of a weak base lithium hydride (LiH) to obtain various N-(alkyl/aralkyl)-N-(4-methoxyphenethyl) benzenesulfonamides (5a-j). The characterization of these derivatives was carried out by spectroscopic techniques like IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. Elemental analysis also supported this data. The biofilm inhibitory action of all the synthesized compounds was carried out on Escherichia coli and some of the compounds were identified to be very suitable inhibitors of this bacterial strain. Furthermore, the molecules were also tested for their cytotoxicity behavior to assess their utility as less cytotoxic therapeutic agents.
A biofilm is a community of microorganisms attached to a surface and embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilms confer resistance towards conventional antibiotic treatments; thus, there is an urgent need for newer and more effective antimicrobial agents that can act against these biofilms. Due to this situation, various studies have been done to investigate the anti-biofilm effects of natural products including bioactive compounds extracted from microorganisms such as Actinobacteria. This review provides an insight into the anti-biofilm potential of Actinobacteria against various pathogenic bacteria, which hopefully provides useful information, guidance, and improvements for future antimicrobial studies. Nevertheless, further research on the anti-biofilm mechanisms and compound modifications to produce more potent anti-biofilm effects are required.
Application of ozone is recommended for sterilisation in dental procedures. This study explored the antimicrobial effect of 0.1 ppm ozonated-water on selected common oral commensals. Based on deviation of their growth curves pattern upon ozone treatment, the inhibitory effect of ozone was determined. SEM examination of the ozone-treated microbes recorded its possible morphological effect. Findings suggested a bacteriostatic action of ozone when microbes were treated at the early phase, while, it was bactericidal when treated during the active phase of the growth cycle. Hence, suggesting rinsing the oral cavity with ozonated-water at 0.1 ppm immediately after tooth brushing may suppress microbial growth and slow biofilm formation. While, rinsing on already developed biofilm may result in microbial cell lysis that halted microbial growth and reduce microbial population in the biofilm. Both justify the great potential of ozone (0.1 ppm) for use as antimicrobial agent for the control of biofilm development in the oral cavity.
This study aimed to elucidate the targets and mechanisms of anti-staphylococcal effects from bioactive metabolites produced by lactic acid bacteria. We aimed to better understand the safety and efficacy of these bioactive metabolites in in vivo systems, typically at topical sites. The cell-free supernatant and protein-rich fraction from Lactobacillus plantarum USM8613 inhibited staphyloxanthin biosynthesis, reduced (p
The discovery of antibiotics ought to have ended the issue of bacterial infections, but this was not the case as it has led to the evolution of various mechanisms of bacterial resistance against various antibiotics. The efflux pump remains one of the mechanisms through which organisms develop resistance against antibiotics; this is because organisms can extrude most of the clinically relevant antibiotics from the interior cell environment to the exterior environment via the efflux pumps. Efflux pumps are thought to contribute significantly to biofilm formation as highlighted by various studies. Therefore, the inhibition of these efflux pumps can be a potential way of improving the activity of antibiotics, particularly now that the discovery of novel antibiotics is becoming tedious. Efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) are molecules that can inhibit efflux pumps; they have been considered potential therapeutic agents for rejuvenating the activity of antibiotics that have already lost their activity against bacteria. However, studies are yet to determine the specific substrates for such pumps; the effect of altered efflux activity of these pumps on biofilm formation is still being investigated. A clear knowledge of the involvement of efflux pumps in biofilm development could aid in developing new agents that can interfere with their function and help to prevent biofilms formation; thereby, improving the outcome of treatment strategies. This review focuses on the novel update of EPIs and discusses the evidence of the roles of efflux pumps in biofilm formation; the potential approaches towards overcoming the increasing problem of biofilm-based infections are also discussed.
The frequent occurrences of antibiotic-resistant biofilm forming pathogens have become global issue since various measures that had been taken to curb the situation led to failure. Euphorbia hirta, is a well-known ethnomedicinal plant of Malaysia with diverse biological activities. This plant has been used widely in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal, bronchial and respiratory ailments caused by infectious agents.