Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1231 in total

  1. Soo KM, Khalid B, Ching SM, Tham CL, Basir R, Chee HY
    PeerJ, 2017;5:e3589.
    PMID: 28929009 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3589
    BACKGROUND: Dengue viral infection is an acute infection that has the potential to have severe complications as its major sequela. Currently, there is no routine laboratory biomarker with which to predict the severity of dengue infection or monitor the effectiveness of standard management. Hence, this meta-analysis compared biomarker levels between dengue fever (DF) and severe dengue infections (SDI) to identify potential biomarkers for SDI.

    METHODS: Data concerning levels of cytokines, chemokines, and other potential biomarkers of DF, dengue hemorrhagic fever, dengue shock syndrome, and severe dengue were obtained for patients of all ages and populations using the Scopus, PubMed, and Ovid search engines. The keywords "(IL1* or IL-1*) AND (dengue*)" were used and the same process was repeated for other potential biomarkers, according to Medical Subject Headings terms suggested by PubMed and Ovid. Meta-analysis of the mean difference in plasma or serum level of biomarkers between DF and SDI patients was performed, separated by different periods of time (days) since fever onset. Subgroup analyses comparing biomarker levels of healthy plasma and sera controls, biomarker levels of primary and secondary infection samples were also performed, as well as analyses of different levels of severity and biomarker levels upon infection by different dengue serotypes.

    RESULTS: Fifty-six studies of 53 biomarkers from 3,739 dengue cases (2,021 DF and 1,728 SDI) were included in this meta-analysis. Results showed that RANTES, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, TGF-b, and VEGFR2 levels were significantly different between DF and SDI. IL-8, IL-10, and IL-18 levels increased during SDI (95% CI, 18.1-253.2 pg/mL, 3-13 studies, n = 177-1,909, I(2) = 98.86%-99.75%). In contrast, RANTES, IL-7, TGF-b, and VEGFR2 showed a decrease in levels during SDI (95% CI, -3238.7 to -3.2 pg/mL, 1-3 studies, n = 95-418, I(2) = 97.59%-99.99%). Levels of these biomarkers were also found to correlate with the severity of the dengue infection, in comparison to healthy controls. Furthermore, the results showed that IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, TGF-b, and VEGFR2 display peak differences between DF and SDI during or before the critical phase (day 4-5) of SDI.

    DISCUSSION: This meta-analysis suggests that IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, TGF-b, and VEGFR2 may be used as potential early laboratory biomarkers in the diagnosis of SDI. This can be used to predict the severity of dengue infection and to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. Nevertheless, methodological and reporting limitations must be overcome in future research to minimize variables that affect the results and to confirm the findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers*
  2. Seow P, Narayanan V, Romelean RJ, Wong JHD, Win MT, Chandran H, et al.
    Acad Radiol, 2020 02;27(2):180-187.
    PMID: 31155487 DOI: 10.1016/j.acra.2019.04.015
    RATIONALE AND PURPOSE: Our study evaluated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging in- and opposed-phase (IOP) derived lipid fraction as a novel prognostic biomarker of survival outcome in glioma.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 46 histologically proven glioma (WHO grades II-IV) patients using standard 3T magnetic resonance imaging brain tumor protocol and IOP sequence. Lipid fraction was derived from the IOP sequence signal-loss ratio. The lipid fraction of solid nonenhancing region of glioma was analyzed, using a three-group analysis approach based on volume under surface of receiver-operating characteristics to stratify the prognostic factors into three groups of low, medium, and high lipid fraction. The survival outcome was evaluated, using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression model.

    RESULTS: Significant differences were seen between the three groups (low, medium, and high lipid fraction groups) stratified by the optimal cut-off point for overall survival (OS) (p ≤ 0.01) and time to progression (p ≤ 0.01) for solid nonenhancing region. The group with high lipid fraction had five times higher risk of poor survival and earlier time to progression compared to the low lipid fraction group. The OS plot stratified by lipid fraction also had a strong correlation with OS plot stratified by WHO grade (R = 0.61, p < 0.01), implying association to underlying histopathological changes.

    CONCLUSION: The lipid fraction of solid nonenhancing region showed potential for prognostication of glioma. This method will be a useful adjunct in imaging protocol for treatment stratification and as a prognostic tool in glioma patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis*; Biomarkers*
  3. Rehiman SH, Lim SM, Neoh CF, Majeed ABA, Chin AV, Tan MP, et al.
    Ageing Res Rev, 2020 07;60:101066.
    PMID: 32294542 DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2020.101066
    In order to gauge the impact of proteomics in discovery of Alzheimer's disease (AD) blood-based biomarkers, this study had systematically reviewed articles published between 1984-2019. Articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were assessed for risk of bias. A meta-analysis was performed for replicable candidate biomarkers (CB). Of the 1651 articles that were identified, 17 case-control and two cohort studies, as well as three combined case-control and longitudinal designs were shortlisted. A total of 207 AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) CB were discovered, with 48 reported in >2 studies. This review highlights six CB, namely alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M)ps, pancreatic polypeptide (PP)ps, apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1)ps, afaminp, insulin growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2)ps and fibrinogen-γ-chainp, all of which exhibited consistent pattern of regulation in >three independent cohorts. They are involved in AD pathogenesis via amyloid-beta (Aβ), neurofibrillary tangles, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Meta-analysis indicated that ApoA-1ps was significantly downregulated in AD (SMD = -1.52, 95% CI: -1.89, -1.16, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  4. Ainuddin Yushar Yusof, Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab, Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin
    Orthodontic tooth movement is a complex process involving tooth and periodontal
    tissue, which release enzymes and biomarkers. The aim of this study was to investigate enzymes
    activities of salivary fluid during orthodontic treatment, (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers
  5. Lee PY, Osman J, Low TY, Jamal R
    Bioanalysis, 2019 Oct;11(19):1799-1812.
    PMID: 31617391 DOI: 10.4155/bio-2019-0145
    Plasma and serum are widely used for proteomics-based biomarker discovery. However, analysis of these biofluids is highly challenging due to the complexity and wide dynamic range of their proteomes. Notably, highly abundant proteins tend to obscure the detection of potential biomarkers that are usually of lower concentrations. Among the strategies to resolve this problem are: depletion of high-abundance proteins, enrichment of low abundant proteins of interest and prefractionation. In this review, we focus on current and emerging depletion techniques used to enhance the detection and identification of the less abundant proteins in plasma and serum. We discuss the applications and contributions of these methods to proteomics analysis of plasma and serum alongside their limitations and future perspectives.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers
  6. Zainal Ariffin SH, Yamamoto Z, Zainol Abidin IZ, Megat Abdul Wahab R, Zainal Ariffin Z
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2011;11:1788-803.
    PMID: 22125437 DOI: 10.1100/2011/761768
    Tooth movement induced by orthodontic treatment can cause sequential reactions involving the periodontal tissue and alveolar bone, resulting in the release of numerous substances from the dental tissues and surrounding structures. To better understand the biological processes involved in orthodontic treatment, improve treatment, and reduce adverse side effects, several of these substances have been proposed as biomarkers. Potential biological markers can be collected from different tissue samples, and suitable sampling is important to accurately reflect biological processes. This paper covers the tissue changes that are involved during orthodontic tooth movement such as at compression region (involving osteoblasts), tension region (involving osteoclasts), dental root, and pulp tissues. Besides, the involvement of stem cells and their development towards osteoblasts and osteoclasts during orthodontic treatment have also been explained. Several possible biomarkers representing these biological changes during specific phenomenon, that is, bone remodelling (formation and resorption), inflammation, and root resorption have also been proposed. The knowledge of these biomarkers could be used in accelerating orthodontic treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism*
  7. Lim WY, Goh BT, Khor SM
    PMID: 28683395 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2017.06.040
    Clinicians, working in the health-care diagnostic systems of developing countries, currently face the challenges of rising costs, increased number of patient visits, and limited resources. A significant trend is using low-cost substrates to develop microfluidic devices for diagnostic purposes. Various fabrication techniques, materials, and detection methods have been explored to develop these devices. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) have gained attention for sensing multiplex analytes, confirming diagnostic test results, rapid sample analysis, and reducing the volume of samples and analytical reagents. μPADs, which can provide accurate and reliable direct measurement without sample pretreatment, can reduce patient medical burden and yield rapid test results, aiding physicians in choosing appropriate treatment. The objectives of this review are to provide an overview of the strategies used for developing paper-based sensors with enhanced analytical performances and to discuss the current challenges, limitations, advantages, disadvantages, and future prospects of paper-based microfluidic platforms in clinical diagnostics. μPADs, with validated and justified analytical performances, can potentially improve the quality of life by providing inexpensive, rapid, portable, biodegradable, and reliable diagnostics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
  8. Bidin MZ, Shah AM, Stanslas J, Seong CLT
    Clin. Chim. Acta, 2019 Aug;495:239-250.
    PMID: 31009602 DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2019.04.069
    INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a silent disease. Most CKD patients are unaware of their condition during the early stages of the disease which poses a challenge for healthcare professionals to institute treatment or start prevention. The trouble with the diagnosis of CKD is that in most parts of the world, it is still diagnosed based on measurements of serum creatinine and corresponding calculations of eGFR. There are controversies with the current staging system, especially in the methodology to diagnose and prognosticate CKD.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to examine studies that focused on the different types of samples which may serve as a good and promising biomarker for early diagnosis of CKD or to detect rapidly declining renal function among CKD patient.

    METHOD: The review of international literature was made on paper and electronic databases Nature, PubMed, Springer Link and Science Direct. The Scopus index was used to verify the scientific relevance of the papers. Publications were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria.

    RESULT: 63 publications were found to be compatible with the study objectives. Several biomarkers of interest with different sample types were taken for comparison.

    CONCLUSION: Biomarkers from urine samples yield more significant outcome as compare to biomarkers from blood samples. But, validation and confirmation with a different type of study designed on a larger population is needed. More comparison studies on different types of samples are needed to further illuminate which biomarker is the better tool for the diagnosis and prognosis of CKD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*; Biomarkers/urine*
  9. Lee LK, Foo KY
    Clin. Biochem., 2014 Jul;47(10-11):973-82.
    PMID: 24875852 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2014.05.053
    Infertility is a worldwide reproductive health problem which affects approximately 15% of couples, with male factor infertility dominating nearly 50% of the affected population. The nature of the phenomenon is underscored by a complex array of transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic differences which interact in unknown ways. Many causes of male factor infertility are still defined as idiopathic, and most diagnosis tends to be more descriptive rather than specific. As such, the emergence of novel transcriptomic and metabolomic studies may hold the key to more accurately diagnose and treat male factor infertility. This paper provides the most recent evidence underlying the role of transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis in the management of male infertility. A summary of the current knowledge and new discovery of noninvasive, highly sensitive and specific biomarkers which allow the expansion of this area is outlined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
  10. Lai LC, Cheong SK, Goh KL, Leong CF, Loh CS, Lopez JB, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2003 Dec;25(2):83-105.
    PMID: 16196365
    Tumour markers are substances related to the presence or progress of a tumour. An ideal tumour marker is (1) detectable only when malignancy is present, (2) specific for the type and site of malignancy, (3) correlates with the amount of malignant tissue present and (4) responds rapidly to a change in tumour size. At present, no tumour marker fulfills all of the above criteria. The first part of the review discusses the clinical usefulness of the commonly requested serum tumour markers, namely, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), CA 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 125, CA 15-3, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and alpha-foetoprotein (AFP). It is hoped that this review article will decrease the abuse and misuse of these commonly requested serum tumour markers. The second part of the review discusses the clinical usefulness of catecholamines and their metabolites, calcitonin, thyroglobulin, parathyroid hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, oestrogen and progesterone receptors, p53, HER-2/c-erbB2, BRCA1 and BRCA2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism*
  11. Poynard T
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:39-40.
    PMID: 16108172
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers*
  12. Karami A, Omar D, Lazorchak JM, Yap CK, Hashim Z, Courtenay SC
    Environ Res, 2016 Nov;151:313-320.
    PMID: 27522569 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.08.006
    Influence of waterborne butachlor (BUC), a commonly used pesticide, on morphometric, biochemical, and molecular biomarkers was evaluated in juvenile, full sibling, diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 21 days to one of three concentrations of BUC [mean measured µg/L: 22, 44 or 60]. Unexposed (control) triploids were heavier and longer and had higher visceral-somatic index (VSI) than diploids. Also, they had lighter liver weight (HSI) and showed lower transcript levels of brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), aromatase (cyp191b) and fushi tarazu-factor (ftz-f1), and plasma testosterone levels than diploids. Butachlor treatments had no effects, in either diploid or triploid fish, on VSI, HSI, weight or length changes, condition factor (CF), levels of plasma testosterone, 17-β estradiol (E2), cortisol, cholesterol, or mRNA levels of brain tryptophan hydroxylase (tph2), forkhead box L2 (foxl2), and 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-hsd2). Expressions of cyp191b and ftz-f1 in triploids were upregulated by the two highest concentrations of BUC. In diploid fish, however, exposures to all BUC concentrations decreased GnRH transcription and the medium BUC concentration decreased ftz-f1 transcription. Substantial differences between ploidies in basal biomarker responses are consistent with the reported impaired reproductive axis in triploid C. gariepinus. Furthermore, the present study showed the low impact of short term exposure to BUC on reproductive axis in C. gariepinus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  13. Ng WL, Mohd Mohidin TB, Shukla K
    RNA Biol, 2018;15(8):995-1005.
    PMID: 29954251 DOI: 10.1080/15476286.2018.1486659
    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a large class of endogenously expressed non-coding RNAs formed by covalently closed loops through back-splicing. High throughput sequencing technologies have identified thousands of circRNAs with high sequence conservation and cell type specific expression in eukaryotes. CircRNAs play multiple important roles in cellular physiology functioning as miRNA sponges, transcriptional regulators, RBP binding molecules, templates for protein translation, and immune regulators. In a clinical context, circRNAs expression is correlated with patient's clinicopathological features in cancers including breast, liver, gastric, colorectal, and lung cancer. Additionally, distinct properties of circRNAs, such as high stability, exonuclease resistance, and existence in body fluids, show promising role for circRNAs as molecular biomarkers for tumor diagnosis, non-invasive monitoring, prognosis, and therapeutic intervention. Therefore, it is critical to further understand the molecular mechanism underlying circRNAs interaction in tumors and the recent progress of this RNA species in cancer development. In this review, we provide a detailed description of biological functions, molecular role of circRNAs in different cancers, and its potential role as biomarkers in a clinical context.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
  14. Taniselass S, Arshad MKM, Gopinath SCB
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2019 Apr 01;130:276-292.
    PMID: 30771717 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2019.01.047
    Graphene is a 2-dimensional nanomaterial with an atomic thickness has attracted a strong scientific interest owing to their remarkable optical, electronic, thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties. Graphene-based materials particularly graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide are widely utilized in various applications ranging from food industry, environmental monitoring and biomedical fields as well as in the development of various types of biosensing devices. The richness in oxygen functional groups in the materials serves as a catalysis for the development of biosensors/electrochemical biosensors which promotes for an attachment of biological recognition elements, surface functionalization and compatible with micro- and nano- bio-environment. In this review, the graphene-based materials application in electrochemical biosensors based on recent advancement (e.g; the surface modification and analytical performances) and the utilization of such biosensors to monitor the noncommunicable diseases are presented. The detection performances of the graphene-based electrochemical biosensors are in the range of ng/mL and have reached up to fg/mL in detecting the targets of NCDs with higher selectivity, sensitivity and stability with good reproducibility attributes. We have discussed the advances while addressing the very specific biomarkers for the NCDs detection. Challenges and possible future research directions for the NCDs detection based on graphene nanocomposite with other 2D nanomaterials are outlined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  15. Tegginamani AS, Kallarakkal TG, Vanishree HS, Muttalib KBA
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2019 Jul;29(7):688.
    PMID: 31253228 DOI: 10.29271/jcpsp.2019.07.688
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
  16. Abdul-Hamid NA, Abas F, Maulidiani M, Ismail IS, Tham CL, Swarup S, et al.
    Anal Biochem, 2019 07 01;576:20-32.
    PMID: 30970239 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2019.04.001
    The variation in the extracellular metabolites of RAW 264.7 cells obtained from different passage numbers (passage 9, 12 and 14) was examined. The impact of different harvesting protocols (trypsinization and scraping) on recovery of intracellular metabolites was then assessed. The similarity and variation in the cell metabolome was investigated using 1H NMR metabolic profiling modeled using multivariate data analysis. The characterization and quantification of metabolites was performed to determine the passage-related and harvesting-dependent effects on impacted metabolic networks. The trypsinized RAW cells from lower passages gave higher intensities of most identified metabolites, including asparagine, serine and tryptophan. Principal component analysis revealed variation between cells from different passages and harvesting methods, as indicated by the formation of clusters in score plot. Analysis of S-plots revealed metabolites that acted as biomarkers in discriminating cells from different passages including acetate, serine, lactate and choline. Meanwhile lactate, glutamine and pyruvate served as biomarkers for differentiating trypsinized and scraped cells. In passage-dependent effects, glycolysis and TCA cycle were influential, whereas glycerophospholipid metabolism was affected by the harvesting method. Overall, it is proposed that typsinized RAW cells from lower passage numbers are more appropriate when conducting experiments related to NMR metabolomics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
  17. Soe HJ, Yong YK, Al-Obaidi MMJ, Raju CS, Gudimella R, Manikam R, et al.
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2018 Feb;97(5):e9713.
    PMID: 29384851 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000009713
    Dengue virus is one of the most widespread flaviviruses that re-emerged throughout recent decades. The progression from mild dengue to severe dengue (SD) with the complications such as vascular leakage and hemorrhage increases the fatality rate of dengue. The pathophysiology of SD is not entirely clear. To investigate potential biomarkers that are suggestive of pathogenesis of SD, a small panel of serum samples selected from 1 healthy individual, 2 dengue patients without warning signs (DWS-), 2 dengue patients with warning signs (DWS+), and 5 patients with SD were subjected to a pilot analysis using Sengenics Immunome protein array. The overall fold changes of protein expressions and clustering heat map revealed that PFKFB4, TPM1, PDCL3, and PTPN20A were elevated among patients with SD. Differential expression analysis identified that 29 proteins were differentially elevated greater than 2-fold in SD groups than DWS- and DWS+. From the 29 candidate proteins, pathways enrichment analysis also identified insulin signaling and cytoskeleton pathways were involved in SD, suggesting that the insulin pathway may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of SD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  18. Mohd Nasri FA, Zainal Ariffin SH, Karsani SA, Megat Abdul Wahab R
    BMC Oral Health, 2020 09 11;20(1):256.
    PMID: 32917196 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-020-01246-9
    BACKGROUND: Orthodontically-induced root resorption is an iatrogenic effect and it cannot be examined regularly due to the harmful effects of sequential doses of radiation with more frequent radiography. This study aims to compare protein abundance (PA) of pre-treatment and during orthodontic treatment for root resorption and to determine potential early markers for root resorption.

    METHODS: Ten subjects (n = 10) who had upper and lower fixed appliances (MBT, 3 M Unitek, 0.022″ × 0.028″) were recruited for this study. Human gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was obtained using periopaper strips at pre-treatment (T0), 1 month (T1), 3 months (T3), and 6 months (T6) of orthodontic treatment. Periapical radiographs of the upper permanent central incisors were taken at T0 and T6 to measure the amount of root resorption. Identification of changes in PA was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Student's t-test was then performed to determine the significance of the differences in protein abundance before and after orthodontic treatment.

    RESULTS: Our findings showed that all ten subjects had mild root resorption, with an average resorption length of 0.56 ± 0.30 mm. A total of 186 proteins were found to be commonly present at T0, T1, T3, and T6. There were significant changes in the abundance of 16 proteins (student's t-test, p ≤ 0.05). The increased PA of S100A9, immunoglobulin J chain, heat shock protein 1A, immunoglobulin heavy variable 4-34 and vitronectin at T1 suggested a response to stress that involved inflammation during the early phase of orthodontic treatment. On the other hand, the increased PA of thymidine phosphorylase at T3 suggested growth promotion and, angiogenic and chemotactic activities.

    CONCLUSIONS: The identified proteins can be potential early markers for root resorption based on the increase in their respective PA and predicted roles during the early phase of orthodontic treatment. Non-invasive detection of root resorption using protein markers as early as possible is extremely important as it can aid orthodontists in successful orthodontic treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  19. Abu N, Jamal R
    Front Physiol, 2016;7:355.
    PMID: 27588005 DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2016.00355
    The interest in circular RNAs has resurfaced in the past few years. What was considered as "junk" for nearly two decades is now one of the most interesting molecules. Circular RNAs are non-coding RNAs that are formed by back-splicing events and have covalently closed loops with no poly-adenylated tails. The regulation of circular RNAs is distinctive and they are selectively abundant in different types of tissues. Based on the current knowledge of circular RNAs, these molecules have the potential to be the "next big thing" especially as biomarkers for different diseases. This mini-review attempts to concisely look at the biology of circular RNAs, the putative functional activities, the prevalence of circular RNAs, and the possible role of circular RNA as biomarkers for diagnosis or measuring drug response.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers
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