MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 46 histologically proven glioma (WHO grades II-IV) patients using standard 3T magnetic resonance imaging brain tumor protocol and IOP sequence. Lipid fraction was derived from the IOP sequence signal-loss ratio. The lipid fraction of solid nonenhancing region of glioma was analyzed, using a three-group analysis approach based on volume under surface of receiver-operating characteristics to stratify the prognostic factors into three groups of low, medium, and high lipid fraction. The survival outcome was evaluated, using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression model.
RESULTS: Significant differences were seen between the three groups (low, medium, and high lipid fraction groups) stratified by the optimal cut-off point for overall survival (OS) (p ≤ 0.01) and time to progression (p ≤ 0.01) for solid nonenhancing region. The group with high lipid fraction had five times higher risk of poor survival and earlier time to progression compared to the low lipid fraction group. The OS plot stratified by lipid fraction also had a strong correlation with OS plot stratified by WHO grade (R = 0.61, p < 0.01), implying association to underlying histopathological changes.
CONCLUSION: The lipid fraction of solid nonenhancing region showed potential for prognostication of glioma. This method will be a useful adjunct in imaging protocol for treatment stratification and as a prognostic tool in glioma patients.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to examine studies that focused on the different types of samples which may serve as a good and promising biomarker for early diagnosis of CKD or to detect rapidly declining renal function among CKD patient.
METHOD: The review of international literature was made on paper and electronic databases Nature, PubMed, Springer Link and Science Direct. The Scopus index was used to verify the scientific relevance of the papers. Publications were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria.
RESULT: 63 publications were found to be compatible with the study objectives. Several biomarkers of interest with different sample types were taken for comparison.
CONCLUSION: Biomarkers from urine samples yield more significant outcome as compare to biomarkers from blood samples. But, validation and confirmation with a different type of study designed on a larger population is needed. More comparison studies on different types of samples are needed to further illuminate which biomarker is the better tool for the diagnosis and prognosis of CKD.
METHODS: Ten subjects (n = 10) who had upper and lower fixed appliances (MBT, 3 M Unitek, 0.022″ × 0.028″) were recruited for this study. Human gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was obtained using periopaper strips at pre-treatment (T0), 1 month (T1), 3 months (T3), and 6 months (T6) of orthodontic treatment. Periapical radiographs of the upper permanent central incisors were taken at T0 and T6 to measure the amount of root resorption. Identification of changes in PA was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Student's t-test was then performed to determine the significance of the differences in protein abundance before and after orthodontic treatment.
RESULTS: Our findings showed that all ten subjects had mild root resorption, with an average resorption length of 0.56 ± 0.30 mm. A total of 186 proteins were found to be commonly present at T0, T1, T3, and T6. There were significant changes in the abundance of 16 proteins (student's t-test, p ≤ 0.05). The increased PA of S100A9, immunoglobulin J chain, heat shock protein 1A, immunoglobulin heavy variable 4-34 and vitronectin at T1 suggested a response to stress that involved inflammation during the early phase of orthodontic treatment. On the other hand, the increased PA of thymidine phosphorylase at T3 suggested growth promotion and, angiogenic and chemotactic activities.
CONCLUSIONS: The identified proteins can be potential early markers for root resorption based on the increase in their respective PA and predicted roles during the early phase of orthodontic treatment. Non-invasive detection of root resorption using protein markers as early as possible is extremely important as it can aid orthodontists in successful orthodontic treatment.