Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1327 in total

  1. Soo KM, Khalid B, Ching SM, Tham CL, Basir R, Chee HY
    PeerJ, 2017;5:e3589.
    PMID: 28929009 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3589
    BACKGROUND: Dengue viral infection is an acute infection that has the potential to have severe complications as its major sequela. Currently, there is no routine laboratory biomarker with which to predict the severity of dengue infection or monitor the effectiveness of standard management. Hence, this meta-analysis compared biomarker levels between dengue fever (DF) and severe dengue infections (SDI) to identify potential biomarkers for SDI.

    METHODS: Data concerning levels of cytokines, chemokines, and other potential biomarkers of DF, dengue hemorrhagic fever, dengue shock syndrome, and severe dengue were obtained for patients of all ages and populations using the Scopus, PubMed, and Ovid search engines. The keywords "(IL1* or IL-1*) AND (dengue*)" were used and the same process was repeated for other potential biomarkers, according to Medical Subject Headings terms suggested by PubMed and Ovid. Meta-analysis of the mean difference in plasma or serum level of biomarkers between DF and SDI patients was performed, separated by different periods of time (days) since fever onset. Subgroup analyses comparing biomarker levels of healthy plasma and sera controls, biomarker levels of primary and secondary infection samples were also performed, as well as analyses of different levels of severity and biomarker levels upon infection by different dengue serotypes.

    RESULTS: Fifty-six studies of 53 biomarkers from 3,739 dengue cases (2,021 DF and 1,728 SDI) were included in this meta-analysis. Results showed that RANTES, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, TGF-b, and VEGFR2 levels were significantly different between DF and SDI. IL-8, IL-10, and IL-18 levels increased during SDI (95% CI, 18.1-253.2 pg/mL, 3-13 studies, n = 177-1,909, I(2) = 98.86%-99.75%). In contrast, RANTES, IL-7, TGF-b, and VEGFR2 showed a decrease in levels during SDI (95% CI, -3238.7 to -3.2 pg/mL, 1-3 studies, n = 95-418, I(2) = 97.59%-99.99%). Levels of these biomarkers were also found to correlate with the severity of the dengue infection, in comparison to healthy controls. Furthermore, the results showed that IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, TGF-b, and VEGFR2 display peak differences between DF and SDI during or before the critical phase (day 4-5) of SDI.

    DISCUSSION: This meta-analysis suggests that IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, TGF-b, and VEGFR2 may be used as potential early laboratory biomarkers in the diagnosis of SDI. This can be used to predict the severity of dengue infection and to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. Nevertheless, methodological and reporting limitations must be overcome in future research to minimize variables that affect the results and to confirm the findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers*
  2. Seow P, Narayanan V, Romelean RJ, Wong JHD, Win MT, Chandran H, et al.
    Acad Radiol, 2020 02;27(2):180-187.
    PMID: 31155487 DOI: 10.1016/j.acra.2019.04.015
    RATIONALE AND PURPOSE: Our study evaluated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging in- and opposed-phase (IOP) derived lipid fraction as a novel prognostic biomarker of survival outcome in glioma.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 46 histologically proven glioma (WHO grades II-IV) patients using standard 3T magnetic resonance imaging brain tumor protocol and IOP sequence. Lipid fraction was derived from the IOP sequence signal-loss ratio. The lipid fraction of solid nonenhancing region of glioma was analyzed, using a three-group analysis approach based on volume under surface of receiver-operating characteristics to stratify the prognostic factors into three groups of low, medium, and high lipid fraction. The survival outcome was evaluated, using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression model.

    RESULTS: Significant differences were seen between the three groups (low, medium, and high lipid fraction groups) stratified by the optimal cut-off point for overall survival (OS) (p ≤ 0.01) and time to progression (p ≤ 0.01) for solid nonenhancing region. The group with high lipid fraction had five times higher risk of poor survival and earlier time to progression compared to the low lipid fraction group. The OS plot stratified by lipid fraction also had a strong correlation with OS plot stratified by WHO grade (R = 0.61, p < 0.01), implying association to underlying histopathological changes.

    CONCLUSION: The lipid fraction of solid nonenhancing region showed potential for prognostication of glioma. This method will be a useful adjunct in imaging protocol for treatment stratification and as a prognostic tool in glioma patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis*; Biomarkers*
  3. Noor ‘Ain, M.N., Nordashima, A.S., Mazne, M., Azyani, Y., Mohd Rohaizat, H.
    Medicine & Health, 2020;15(1):187-197.
    Karsinoma tiroid biasanya didiagnoskan berdasarkan kriteria morfologi tertentu. Dalam sesetengah kes, diagnosis yang tepat mungkin sukar apabila ciri-ciri morfologi adalah tidak ketara. Kajian ini menilai kegunaan Hector Battifora Mesothelial-1 (HBME-1) sebagai penanda immunohistokimia untuk membezakan tisu tiroid barah dengan bukan barah dan untuk membandingkan ekspresi HBME-1 dalam pelbagai jenis tisu tiroid. Sensitiviti dan spesifisiti HBME-1 sebagai penanda khusus untuk karsinoma tiroid juga dikaji. Sejumlah 54 kes barah dan 54 kes bukan barah tiroid yang didiagnos di Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia untuk tempoh tujuh tahun telah dikumpul. Semua kes diwarnai dengan HBME-1 dan dinilai oleh tiga pemerhati bebas. Kes-kes tersebut diberi skor berdasarkan nisbah pewarnaan dan dinilai sebagai skor 0 (kurang daripada 10%), 1+ (10-25%), 2+ (26-50%) atau 3+ (lebih daripada 50%). Di samping itu, perkaitan antara skor bagi kes barah dengan peringkat patologi tumor juga dikaji. HBME-1 menunjukkan ungkapan pewarnaan yang lebih signifikan dalam kes barah berbanding bukan barah (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor
  4. Quan KY, Yap CG, Jahan NK, Pillai N
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2021 Dec;182:109122.
    PMID: 34742785 DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2021.109122
    BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the catastrophic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). 45% of DN patients progressed to End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) which robs casualties of the quality of live. The challenge in early diagnosis of DN is it is asymptomatic in the early phase. Current gold standard test for screening and diagnosis of DN are nonspecific and are not sensitive in detecting DN early enough and subsequently monitor renal function during management and intervention plans. Recent studies reported various biomolecules which are associated with the onset of DN in T2DM using cutting-edge technologies. These biomolecules could be potential early biomarkers for DN. This review selectively identified potential early serum biomolecules which are potential candidates for developing an Early Biomarker Array Test for DN.

    METHODS: An advanced literature search was conducted on 4 online databases. Search terms used were "Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2", "Diabetic nephropathy", "pathogenesis" and "early biomarker. Filters were applied to capture articles published from 2010 to 2020, written in English, human or animal models and focused on serum biomolecules associated with DN.

    RESULTS: Five serum biomolecules have been evidently described as contributing pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of DN. MiR-377, miR-99b, CYP2E1, TGF-β1 and periostin are potential candidates for designing an early biomarker array for screening and diagnosis of early stages of DN. The five shortlisted biomolecules originates from endogenous biochemical processes which are specific to the progressive pathophysiology of DN.

    CONCLUSION: miR-377, miR-99b, CYP2E1, TGF-β1 and periostin are potential candidate biomolecules for diagnosing DN at the early phases and can be developed into a panel of endogenous biomarkers for early detection of DN in patients with T2DM. The outcomes of this study will be a stepping stone towards planning and developing an early biomarker array test for diabetic nephropathy. The proposed panel of early biomarkers for DN has potential of stratifying the stages of DN because each biomolecule appears at distinct stages in the pathophysiology of DN.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers
  5. Rehiman SH, Lim SM, Neoh CF, Majeed ABA, Chin AV, Tan MP, et al.
    Ageing Res Rev, 2020 07;60:101066.
    PMID: 32294542 DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2020.101066
    In order to gauge the impact of proteomics in discovery of Alzheimer's disease (AD) blood-based biomarkers, this study had systematically reviewed articles published between 1984-2019. Articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were assessed for risk of bias. A meta-analysis was performed for replicable candidate biomarkers (CB). Of the 1651 articles that were identified, 17 case-control and two cohort studies, as well as three combined case-control and longitudinal designs were shortlisted. A total of 207 AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) CB were discovered, with 48 reported in >2 studies. This review highlights six CB, namely alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M)ps, pancreatic polypeptide (PP)ps, apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1)ps, afaminp, insulin growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2)ps and fibrinogen-γ-chainp, all of which exhibited consistent pattern of regulation in >three independent cohorts. They are involved in AD pathogenesis via amyloid-beta (Aβ), neurofibrillary tangles, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Meta-analysis indicated that ApoA-1ps was significantly downregulated in AD (SMD = -1.52, 95% CI: -1.89, -1.16, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  6. Mandal A, Mani AK, Lamech R, Anandajothi E, Venkatachalam SA, Dinakaran GK, et al.
    Biochem Genet, 2021 Aug;59(4):856-869.
    PMID: 33544298 DOI: 10.1007/s10528-021-10032-3
    Misleading identification and subsequent publications on biological, molecular, and aquaculture data of mangrove mud crab (genus Scylla de Hann 1833) is a major concern in many countries. In this study, multiple molecular markers were used for genetic identification of all four known mud crab species under genus Scylla collected from India, Philippines, Myanmar, Malaysia and Indonesia. Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS-1), Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and PCR-based species-specific markers were used to resolve taxonomic ambiguity. PCR-RFLP techniques using NlaIV and BsaJI restriction endonucleases were efficient to differentiate four different mud crab species under genus Scylla with specific fragment profile. The results also justified the use of ITS-1 and PCR-based species-specific markers to identify mud crab species available in many countries quite rapidly and effectively. Several new molecular markers generated during the study are reported here to resolve the taxonomic ambiguity of Scylla species and the results reconfirmed that India is only having two commonly available mud crab species which was reported by the authors earlier.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis
  7. Ainuddin Yushar Yusof, Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab, Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin
    Orthodontic tooth movement is a complex process involving tooth and periodontal
    tissue, which release enzymes and biomarkers. The aim of this study was to investigate enzymes
    activities of salivary fluid during orthodontic treatment, (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers
  8. Lee PY, Osman J, Low TY, Jamal R
    Bioanalysis, 2019 Oct;11(19):1799-1812.
    PMID: 31617391 DOI: 10.4155/bio-2019-0145
    Plasma and serum are widely used for proteomics-based biomarker discovery. However, analysis of these biofluids is highly challenging due to the complexity and wide dynamic range of their proteomes. Notably, highly abundant proteins tend to obscure the detection of potential biomarkers that are usually of lower concentrations. Among the strategies to resolve this problem are: depletion of high-abundance proteins, enrichment of low abundant proteins of interest and prefractionation. In this review, we focus on current and emerging depletion techniques used to enhance the detection and identification of the less abundant proteins in plasma and serum. We discuss the applications and contributions of these methods to proteomics analysis of plasma and serum alongside their limitations and future perspectives.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers
  9. Atif S, Wahab NA, Ghafoor S, Saeed MQ, Ahmad A
    J Pak Med Assoc, 2021 Mar;71(3):938-942.
    PMID: 34057953 DOI: 10.47391/JPMA.1115
    Biomarkers are anatomical characteristics or naturally occurring measurable molecules indicating physiological or pathological state of an individual. These biomarkers have the potential to detect or predict diseases at an early stage, which is particularly beneficial in timely management of common complications of radiation therapy done in head and neck cancer treatment regime. Xerostomia is one of the most common oral complaints of radiation therapy. Saliva has an abundance of protein biomarkers; however, those related to post-radiation therapy xerostomia need to be explored further. Textural and imaging-based biomarkers are helpful in predicting xerostomia in such patients. This narrative review provides an account of salivary protein and imaging-based biomarkers of radiation therapy-induced xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers
  10. Hermawan A, Amrillah T, Riapanitra A, Ong WJ, Yin S
    Adv Healthc Mater, 2021 10;10(20):e2100970.
    PMID: 34318999 DOI: 10.1002/adhm.202100970
    A fully integrated, flexible, and functional sensing device for exhaled breath analysis drastically transforms conventional medical diagnosis to non-invasive, low-cost, real-time, and personalized health care. 2D materials based on MXenes offer multiple advantages for accurately detecting various breath biomarkers compared to conventional semiconducting oxides. High surface sensitivity, large surface-to-weight ratio, room temperature detection, and easy-to-assemble structures are vital parameters for such sensing devices in which MXenes have demonstrated all these properties both experimentally and theoretically. So far, MXenes-based flexible sensor is successfully fabricated at a lab-scale and is predicted to be translated into clinical practice within the next few years. This review presents a potential application of MXenes as emerging materials for flexible and wearable sensor devices. The biomarkers from exhaled breath are described first, with emphasis on metabolic processes and diseases indicated by abnormal biomarkers. Then, biomarkers sensing performances provided by MXenes families and the enhancement strategies are discussed. The method of fabrications toward MXenes integration into various flexible substrates is summarized. Finally, the fundamental challenges and prospects, including portable integration with Internet-of-Thing (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), are addressed to realize marketization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers
  11. Zainal Ariffin SH, Yamamoto Z, Zainol Abidin IZ, Megat Abdul Wahab R, Zainal Ariffin Z
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2011;11:1788-803.
    PMID: 22125437 DOI: 10.1100/2011/761768
    Tooth movement induced by orthodontic treatment can cause sequential reactions involving the periodontal tissue and alveolar bone, resulting in the release of numerous substances from the dental tissues and surrounding structures. To better understand the biological processes involved in orthodontic treatment, improve treatment, and reduce adverse side effects, several of these substances have been proposed as biomarkers. Potential biological markers can be collected from different tissue samples, and suitable sampling is important to accurately reflect biological processes. This paper covers the tissue changes that are involved during orthodontic tooth movement such as at compression region (involving osteoblasts), tension region (involving osteoclasts), dental root, and pulp tissues. Besides, the involvement of stem cells and their development towards osteoblasts and osteoclasts during orthodontic treatment have also been explained. Several possible biomarkers representing these biological changes during specific phenomenon, that is, bone remodelling (formation and resorption), inflammation, and root resorption have also been proposed. The knowledge of these biomarkers could be used in accelerating orthodontic treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism*
  12. Lim WY, Goh BT, Khor SM
    PMID: 28683395 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2017.06.040
    Clinicians, working in the health-care diagnostic systems of developing countries, currently face the challenges of rising costs, increased number of patient visits, and limited resources. A significant trend is using low-cost substrates to develop microfluidic devices for diagnostic purposes. Various fabrication techniques, materials, and detection methods have been explored to develop these devices. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) have gained attention for sensing multiplex analytes, confirming diagnostic test results, rapid sample analysis, and reducing the volume of samples and analytical reagents. μPADs, which can provide accurate and reliable direct measurement without sample pretreatment, can reduce patient medical burden and yield rapid test results, aiding physicians in choosing appropriate treatment. The objectives of this review are to provide an overview of the strategies used for developing paper-based sensors with enhanced analytical performances and to discuss the current challenges, limitations, advantages, disadvantages, and future prospects of paper-based microfluidic platforms in clinical diagnostics. μPADs, with validated and justified analytical performances, can potentially improve the quality of life by providing inexpensive, rapid, portable, biodegradable, and reliable diagnostics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
  13. Mohd Khair SZN, Abd Radzak SM, Mohamed Yusoff AA
    Dis Markers, 2021;2021:7675269.
    PMID: 34326906 DOI: 10.1155/2021/7675269
    Cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases, the progression of which demands an accumulation of genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations of the human nuclear genome or possibly in the mitochondrial genome as well. Despite modern diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to battle cancer, there are still serious concerns about the increase in death from cancer globally. Recently, a growing number of researchers have extensively focused on the burgeoning area of biomarkers development research, especially in noninvasive early cancer detection. Intergenomic cross talk has triggered researchers to expand their studies from nuclear genome-based cancer researches, shifting into the mitochondria-mediated associations with carcinogenesis. Thus, it leads to the discoveries of established and potential mitochondrial biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity. The research field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) biomarkers has the great potential to confer vast benefits for cancer therapeutics and patients in the future. This review seeks to summarize the comprehensive insights of nuclear genome cancer biomarkers and their usage in clinical practices, the intergenomic cross talk researches that linked mitochondrial dysfunction to carcinogenesis, and the current progress of mitochondrial cancer biomarker studies and development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism*
  14. Bidin MZ, Shah AM, Stanslas J, Seong CLT
    Clin. Chim. Acta, 2019 Aug;495:239-250.
    PMID: 31009602 DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2019.04.069
    INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a silent disease. Most CKD patients are unaware of their condition during the early stages of the disease which poses a challenge for healthcare professionals to institute treatment or start prevention. The trouble with the diagnosis of CKD is that in most parts of the world, it is still diagnosed based on measurements of serum creatinine and corresponding calculations of eGFR. There are controversies with the current staging system, especially in the methodology to diagnose and prognosticate CKD.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to examine studies that focused on the different types of samples which may serve as a good and promising biomarker for early diagnosis of CKD or to detect rapidly declining renal function among CKD patient.

    METHOD: The review of international literature was made on paper and electronic databases Nature, PubMed, Springer Link and Science Direct. The Scopus index was used to verify the scientific relevance of the papers. Publications were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria.

    RESULT: 63 publications were found to be compatible with the study objectives. Several biomarkers of interest with different sample types were taken for comparison.

    CONCLUSION: Biomarkers from urine samples yield more significant outcome as compare to biomarkers from blood samples. But, validation and confirmation with a different type of study designed on a larger population is needed. More comparison studies on different types of samples are needed to further illuminate which biomarker is the better tool for the diagnosis and prognosis of CKD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*; Biomarkers/urine*
  15. Lai LC, Cheong SK, Goh KL, Leong CF, Loh CS, Lopez JB, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2003 Dec;25(2):83-105.
    PMID: 16196365
    Tumour markers are substances related to the presence or progress of a tumour. An ideal tumour marker is (1) detectable only when malignancy is present, (2) specific for the type and site of malignancy, (3) correlates with the amount of malignant tissue present and (4) responds rapidly to a change in tumour size. At present, no tumour marker fulfills all of the above criteria. The first part of the review discusses the clinical usefulness of the commonly requested serum tumour markers, namely, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), CA 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 125, CA 15-3, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and alpha-foetoprotein (AFP). It is hoped that this review article will decrease the abuse and misuse of these commonly requested serum tumour markers. The second part of the review discusses the clinical usefulness of catecholamines and their metabolites, calcitonin, thyroglobulin, parathyroid hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, oestrogen and progesterone receptors, p53, HER-2/c-erbB2, BRCA1 and BRCA2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism*
  16. Poynard T
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:39-40.
    PMID: 16108172
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers*
  17. Karami A, Omar D, Lazorchak JM, Yap CK, Hashim Z, Courtenay SC
    Environ Res, 2016 Nov;151:313-320.
    PMID: 27522569 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.08.006
    Influence of waterborne butachlor (BUC), a commonly used pesticide, on morphometric, biochemical, and molecular biomarkers was evaluated in juvenile, full sibling, diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 21 days to one of three concentrations of BUC [mean measured µg/L: 22, 44 or 60]. Unexposed (control) triploids were heavier and longer and had higher visceral-somatic index (VSI) than diploids. Also, they had lighter liver weight (HSI) and showed lower transcript levels of brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), aromatase (cyp191b) and fushi tarazu-factor (ftz-f1), and plasma testosterone levels than diploids. Butachlor treatments had no effects, in either diploid or triploid fish, on VSI, HSI, weight or length changes, condition factor (CF), levels of plasma testosterone, 17-β estradiol (E2), cortisol, cholesterol, or mRNA levels of brain tryptophan hydroxylase (tph2), forkhead box L2 (foxl2), and 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-hsd2). Expressions of cyp191b and ftz-f1 in triploids were upregulated by the two highest concentrations of BUC. In diploid fish, however, exposures to all BUC concentrations decreased GnRH transcription and the medium BUC concentration decreased ftz-f1 transcription. Substantial differences between ploidies in basal biomarker responses are consistent with the reported impaired reproductive axis in triploid C. gariepinus. Furthermore, the present study showed the low impact of short term exposure to BUC on reproductive axis in C. gariepinus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  18. Ng WL, Mohd Mohidin TB, Shukla K
    RNA Biol, 2018;15(8):995-1005.
    PMID: 29954251 DOI: 10.1080/15476286.2018.1486659
    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a large class of endogenously expressed non-coding RNAs formed by covalently closed loops through back-splicing. High throughput sequencing technologies have identified thousands of circRNAs with high sequence conservation and cell type specific expression in eukaryotes. CircRNAs play multiple important roles in cellular physiology functioning as miRNA sponges, transcriptional regulators, RBP binding molecules, templates for protein translation, and immune regulators. In a clinical context, circRNAs expression is correlated with patient's clinicopathological features in cancers including breast, liver, gastric, colorectal, and lung cancer. Additionally, distinct properties of circRNAs, such as high stability, exonuclease resistance, and existence in body fluids, show promising role for circRNAs as molecular biomarkers for tumor diagnosis, non-invasive monitoring, prognosis, and therapeutic intervention. Therefore, it is critical to further understand the molecular mechanism underlying circRNAs interaction in tumors and the recent progress of this RNA species in cancer development. In this review, we provide a detailed description of biological functions, molecular role of circRNAs in different cancers, and its potential role as biomarkers in a clinical context.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/analysis*
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