Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 307 in total

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  1. Karami A, Omar D, Lazorchak JM, Yap CK, Hashim Z, Courtenay SC
    Environ Res, 2016 Nov;151:313-320.
    PMID: 27522569 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.08.006
    Influence of waterborne butachlor (BUC), a commonly used pesticide, on morphometric, biochemical, and molecular biomarkers was evaluated in juvenile, full sibling, diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 21 days to one of three concentrations of BUC [mean measured µg/L: 22, 44 or 60]. Unexposed (control) triploids were heavier and longer and had higher visceral-somatic index (VSI) than diploids. Also, they had lighter liver weight (HSI) and showed lower transcript levels of brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), aromatase (cyp191b) and fushi tarazu-factor (ftz-f1), and plasma testosterone levels than diploids. Butachlor treatments had no effects, in either diploid or triploid fish, on VSI, HSI, weight or length changes, condition factor (CF), levels of plasma testosterone, 17-β estradiol (E2), cortisol, cholesterol, or mRNA levels of brain tryptophan hydroxylase (tph2), forkhead box L2 (foxl2), and 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-hsd2). Expressions of cyp191b and ftz-f1 in triploids were upregulated by the two highest concentrations of BUC. In diploid fish, however, exposures to all BUC concentrations decreased GnRH transcription and the medium BUC concentration decreased ftz-f1 transcription. Substantial differences between ploidies in basal biomarker responses are consistent with the reported impaired reproductive axis in triploid C. gariepinus. Furthermore, the present study showed the low impact of short term exposure to BUC on reproductive axis in C. gariepinus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  2. Taniselass S, Arshad MKM, Gopinath SCB
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2019 Apr 01;130:276-292.
    PMID: 30771717 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2019.01.047
    Graphene is a 2-dimensional nanomaterial with an atomic thickness has attracted a strong scientific interest owing to their remarkable optical, electronic, thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties. Graphene-based materials particularly graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide are widely utilized in various applications ranging from food industry, environmental monitoring and biomedical fields as well as in the development of various types of biosensing devices. The richness in oxygen functional groups in the materials serves as a catalysis for the development of biosensors/electrochemical biosensors which promotes for an attachment of biological recognition elements, surface functionalization and compatible with micro- and nano- bio-environment. In this review, the graphene-based materials application in electrochemical biosensors based on recent advancement (e.g; the surface modification and analytical performances) and the utilization of such biosensors to monitor the noncommunicable diseases are presented. The detection performances of the graphene-based electrochemical biosensors are in the range of ng/mL and have reached up to fg/mL in detecting the targets of NCDs with higher selectivity, sensitivity and stability with good reproducibility attributes. We have discussed the advances while addressing the very specific biomarkers for the NCDs detection. Challenges and possible future research directions for the NCDs detection based on graphene nanocomposite with other 2D nanomaterials are outlined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  3. Soe HJ, Yong YK, Al-Obaidi MMJ, Raju CS, Gudimella R, Manikam R, et al.
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2018 Feb;97(5):e9713.
    PMID: 29384851 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000009713
    Dengue virus is one of the most widespread flaviviruses that re-emerged throughout recent decades. The progression from mild dengue to severe dengue (SD) with the complications such as vascular leakage and hemorrhage increases the fatality rate of dengue. The pathophysiology of SD is not entirely clear. To investigate potential biomarkers that are suggestive of pathogenesis of SD, a small panel of serum samples selected from 1 healthy individual, 2 dengue patients without warning signs (DWS-), 2 dengue patients with warning signs (DWS+), and 5 patients with SD were subjected to a pilot analysis using Sengenics Immunome protein array. The overall fold changes of protein expressions and clustering heat map revealed that PFKFB4, TPM1, PDCL3, and PTPN20A were elevated among patients with SD. Differential expression analysis identified that 29 proteins were differentially elevated greater than 2-fold in SD groups than DWS- and DWS+. From the 29 candidate proteins, pathways enrichment analysis also identified insulin signaling and cytoskeleton pathways were involved in SD, suggesting that the insulin pathway may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of SD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  4. Ayadurai T, Ayob Y, Muniandy S, Omar SZ
    Thromb. Haemost., 2007 Nov;98(5):1152-4.
    PMID: 18000628
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  5. Nadaraja RND, Sthaneshwar P, Razali N
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Apr;40(1):33-39.
    PMID: 29704382 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Hyperandrogenism remains as one of the key features in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and can be assessed clinically or determined by biochemical assays. Hirsutism is the most common clinical manifestation of hyperandrogenism. The clinical assessment is subjected to wide variability due to poor interobserver agreement and multiple population factors such as ethnic variation, cosmetic procedures and genetic trait. The difficulty in resolving the androgen excess biochemically is due to a lack of consensus as to which serum androgen should be measured for the diagnosis of PCOS. The aim of the study was to compare and establish the diagnostic cut off value for different androgen biomarker for the diagnosis of PCOS.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 312 patients classified to PCOS (n = 164) and non PCOS (n = 148) cohorts were selected from the Laboratory Information System (LIS) based on serum total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) from the period of 1st April 2015 to 31st March 2016. PCOS was diagnosed based on Rotterdam criteria. Clinical hyperandrogenism and ultrasound polycystic ovarian morphology were obtained from the clinical records. The other relevant biochemical results such as serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and albumin were also obtained from LIS. Free androgen index (FAI), calculated free testosterone (cFT) and calculated bioavailable testosterone (cBT) were calculated for these patients. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed for serum TT, SHBG, FAI, cFT, cBT and LH: FSH ratio to determine the best marker to diagnose PCOS.

    RESULTS: All the androgen parameters (except SHBG) were significantly higher in PCOS patients than in control (p<0.0001). The highest area under curve (AUC) curve was found for cBT followed by cFT and FAI. TT and LH: FSH ratio recorded a lower AUC and the lowest AUC was seen for SHBG. cBT at a cut off value of 0.86 nmol/L had the highest specificity, 83% and positive likelihood ratio (LR) at 3.79. This is followed by FAI at a cut off value of 7.1% with specificity at 82% and cFT at a cut off value of 0.8 pmol/L with specificity at 80%. All three calculated androgen indices (FAI, cFT and cBT) showed good correlation with each other. Furthermore, cFT, FAI and calculated BT were shown to be more specific with higher positive likelihood ratio than measured androgen markers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on our study, the calculated testosterone indices such as FAI, cBT and cFT are useful markers to distinguish PCOS from non-PCOS. Owing to ease of calculation, FAI can be incorporated in LIS and can be reported with TT and SHBG. This will be helpful for clinician to diagnose hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  6. Rahimi R, Dahili ND, Anuar Zainun K, Mohd Kasim NA, Md Noor S
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Aug;40(2):143-148.
    PMID: 30173231 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Cardiac-related diseases contributed approximately 50-60% of sudden natural death cases. This study aimed to describe the cardiac troponin T (cTnT) findings in post mortem subjects irrespective of the cause and manner of death, and the possible use of post mortem serum cTnT as a modality in investigating sudden natural death.

    METHODS: The study samples comprised 140 subjects aged 18 to 50 years old, natural and unnatural causes of sudden death brought to the Department of Forensic Medicine, Hospital Sungai Buloh (HSgB) and Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru (HSAJB) for a period of 12 months. The subjects were categorised into 5 groups: cardiovascular disease (CVD), sudden unexplained death (SUD), thoracic trauma (TT), non-thoracic trauma (NTT) and other diseases (OD).

    RESULTS: Median troponin concentration in cases of CVD, SUD, TT, NTT, and OD were 0.51 μg/L, 0.17 μg/L, 0.62 μg/L, 0.90 μg/L and 0.51 μg/L respectively. We found no significant difference of troponin T level in different causes of death (p ≥ 0.05). NTT has the highest median troponin concentration with 0.90 μg/L, SUD possessed the lowest median concentration with 0.17 μg/L.

    CONCLUSION: Troponin T is neither specific nor useful as cardiac biomarker for post mortem sample. Therefore, it may not be a useful diagnostic tool at autopsy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  7. Manousopoulou A, Hamdan M, Fotopoulos M, Garay-Baquero DJ, Teng J, Garbis SD, et al.
    Proteomics Clin Appl, 2019 05;13(3):e1800153.
    PMID: 30488576 DOI: 10.1002/prca.201800153
    BACKGROUND: Endometriosis affects about 4% of women in the reproductive age and is associated with subfertility. The aim of the present study is to examine the integrated quantitative proteomic profile of eutopic endometrium and serum from women with endometriosis compared to controls in order to identify candidate disease-specific serological markers.

    METHODS: Eutopic endometrium and serum from patients with endometriosis (n = 8 for tissue and n = 4 for serum) are, respectively, compared to endometrium and serum from females without endometriosis (n = 8 for tissue and n = 4 for serum) using a shotgun quantitative proteomics method. All study participants are at the proliferative phase of their menstrual cycle.

    RESULTS: At the tissue and serum level, 1214 and 404 proteins are differentially expressed (DEPs) in eutopic endometrium and serum, respectively, of women with endometriosis versus controls. Gene ontology analysis shows that terms related to immune response/inflammation, cell adhesion/migration, and blood coagulation are significantly enriched in the DEPs of eutopic endometrium, as well as serum. Twenty-one DEPs have the same trend of differential expression in both matrices and can be further examined as potential disease- and tissue-specific serological markers of endometriosis.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present integrated proteomic profiling of eutopic endometrium and serum from women with endometriosis identify promising serological markers that can be further validated in larger cohorts for the minimally invasive diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  8. Hayakawa K, Kato TA, Watabe M, Teo AR, Horikawa H, Kuwano N, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 02 13;8(1):2884.
    PMID: 29440704 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-21260-w
    Hikikomori, a severe form of social withdrawal syndrome, is a growing social issue in Japan and internationally. The pathophysiology of hikikomori has not yet been elucidated and an effective treatment remains to be established. Recently, we revealed that avoidant personality disorder is the most common comorbidity of hikikomori. Thus, we have postulated that avoidant personality is the personality underpinning hikikomori. First, we herein show relationships between avoidant personality traits, blood biomarkers, hikikomori-related psychological features, and behavioural characteristics assessed by a trust game in non-hikikomori volunteers. Avoidant personality traits were negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and uric acid (UA) in men, and positively associated with fibrin degeneration products (FDP) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in women. Next, we recruited actual individuals with hikikomori, and compared avoidant personality traits, blood biomarkers, and psychological features between individuals with hikikomori and age-matched healthy controls. Individuals with hikikomori had higher avoidant personality scores in both sexes, and showed lower serum UA levels in men and lower HDL-C levels in women compared with healthy controls. This is the first report showing possible blood biomarkers for hikikomori, and opens the door to clarify the underlying biological pathophysiology of hikikomori.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  9. Tan TL, Goh YY
    PLoS One, 2017;12(7):e0180554.
    PMID: 28671974 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180554
    INTRODUCTION: This paper investigates the role of Group II Secretory Phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) as a biomarker for the diagnosis of sepsis and bacterial infection in adults. Sepsis and bacterial infection are common problems encountered by patients in the hospital and often carry adverse outcomes if not managed early.

    METHODS: Two independent reviewers conducted a comprehensive search using Ovid MEDLINE published from years 1993 to 2016 and SCOPUS published from year 1985 to 2017 to screen for relevant studies. The main inclusion criteria included adult subjects, patients with suspected or confirmed signs of infection and relevant outcomes which looked into the role of sPLA2-IIA in detecting the presence of sepsis and bacterial infection in the subjects.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Four studies met the inclusion criteria. SPLA2-IIA was found to be effective in detecting the presence of sepsis and bacterial infection in adults. The levels of serum sPLA2-IIA also correlated well with the presence of sepsis and bacterial infection.

    CONCLUSION: This systematic review highlights the role of sPLA2-IIA as a reliable tool to diagnose sepsis and bacterial infection in adult patients. Nonetheless, further studies should be done in the future to provide more compelling evidence on its application in the clinical setting.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  10. Angelopoulou E, Paudel YN, Piperi C
    Pharmacol Res, 2019 12;150:104515.
    PMID: 31707035 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2019.104515
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial disorder, attributed to a complex interplay between genetic and epigenetic factors. Although the exact etiology of the disease remains elusive, dysregulation of signaling pathways implicated in cell survival, apoptosis, protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy, oxidative damage and neuroinflammation, contributes to its pathogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRs) are endogenous short non-coding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. MiR-124 is one of the most abundantly expressed miRs in the brain that participates in neurogenesis, synapse morphology, neurotransmission, inflammation, autophagy and mitochondrial function. Accumulating pre-clinical evidence shows that miR-124 may act through calpain 1/p25/cyclin-dependent kinases 5 (CDK5), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim), 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-mediated pathways to regulate cell survival, apoptosis, autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage and neuroinflammation in PD. Moreover, clinical evidence indicates that reduced plasma miR-124 levels may serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker in PD. This review provides an update of the pathogenic implication of miR-124 activity in PD and discusses its targeting potential for the development of future therapeutic strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  11. See CK, Turnbull D, Ritson F, Martin S, Tully P, Wittert G
    JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep, 2019 09;17(9):1894-1900.
    PMID: 30925504 DOI: 10.11124/JBISRIR-2017-004035
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to examine the association between serum testosterone concentration and the presence and severity of depression in men.

    INTRODUCTION: Cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort studies examining the relationship between serum testosterone concentration and depression in men have produced mixed results. There has not, however, been any prior attempt to systematically interrogate the data. Clarification of the relationship has clinical importance because depression may be under-diagnosed in men.

    INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review will consider studies involving community-dwelling men who are not receiving testosterone replacement therapy. The exposure of interest reviewed will include endogenous testosterone concentration measured through validated assays. Studies measuring total and testosterone fraction concentration will be included. This review will include studies with depression or incident depression outcomes as defined by either clinical diagnosis of depression or validated self-administered questionnaire assessing depression symptomatology.

    METHODS: This review will follow the JBI approach for systematic reviews of etiology and risk. The following sources will be searched: PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry and the ISRCTN Registry. Analytical observational studies including prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case control studies and analytical cross-sectional studies published in English or other languages with English translation will be considered. Retrieval of full-text studies, assessment of methodological quality and data extraction will be performed independently by two reviewers. Data will be pooled in statistical meta-analysis, where possible.

    SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42018108273.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  12. Bidin MZ, Shah AM, Stanslas J, Seong CLT
    Clin. Chim. Acta, 2019 Aug;495:239-250.
    PMID: 31009602 DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2019.04.069
    INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a silent disease. Most CKD patients are unaware of their condition during the early stages of the disease which poses a challenge for healthcare professionals to institute treatment or start prevention. The trouble with the diagnosis of CKD is that in most parts of the world, it is still diagnosed based on measurements of serum creatinine and corresponding calculations of eGFR. There are controversies with the current staging system, especially in the methodology to diagnose and prognosticate CKD.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to examine studies that focused on the different types of samples which may serve as a good and promising biomarker for early diagnosis of CKD or to detect rapidly declining renal function among CKD patient.

    METHOD: The review of international literature was made on paper and electronic databases Nature, PubMed, Springer Link and Science Direct. The Scopus index was used to verify the scientific relevance of the papers. Publications were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria.

    RESULT: 63 publications were found to be compatible with the study objectives. Several biomarkers of interest with different sample types were taken for comparison.

    CONCLUSION: Biomarkers from urine samples yield more significant outcome as compare to biomarkers from blood samples. But, validation and confirmation with a different type of study designed on a larger population is needed. More comparison studies on different types of samples are needed to further illuminate which biomarker is the better tool for the diagnosis and prognosis of CKD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  13. Asbaghi O, Sadeghian M, Sadeghi O, Rigi S, Tan SC, Shokri A, et al.
    Phytother Res, 2021 Jan;35(1):20-32.
    PMID: 32525606 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6748
    The effect of saffron supplementation on subclinical inflammation remains inconclusive. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize available findings on the effect of saffron supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein [CRP], tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) in adults. We searched PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases up to November 2019 using relevant keywords to identify eligible trials. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effect of oral saffron supplementation on plasma concentrations of CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 were included. For each outcome, mean differences and SDs were pooled using a random-effects model. Overall, eight RCTs were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that saffron supplementation did not result in significant changes in serum CRP (weighted mean difference [WMD]: -0.43 mg/L; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.04 to 0.17; p = .16), serum TNF-α (WMD: -1.29 pg/mL; 95% CI: -4.13 to 1.55; p = .37), and IL-6 concentrations (WMD: 0.11 pg/mL; 95% CI: -0.79 to 1.00; p = .81). Subgroup analysis indicated a significant reduction in serum CRP levels in studies with baseline CRP of ≥3 mg/L, saffron dosage of ≤30 mg/day, and intervention duration of <12 weeks, as well as trials that used crocin. Similarly, saffron was found to decrease TNF-α in studies that recruited non-diabetic subjects, subjects with baseline levels of ≥15 pg/mL, and participants with <50 years old, as well as trials that administered saffron at the dosage of ≤30 mg/day. We also found a significant non-linear effect of saffron dosage on serum CRP concentrations (pnon-linearity = .03). The overall results indicated that saffron supplementation did not affect inflammatory cytokines. Further high-quality studies are needed to firmly establish the clinical efficacy of supplemental saffron on inflammatory biomarkers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  14. Porter JB, El-Alfy M, Viprakasit V, Giraudier S, Chan LL, Lai Y, et al.
    Eur. J. Haematol., 2016 Jan;96(1):19-26.
    PMID: 25691036 DOI: 10.1111/ejh.12540
    Plasma markers in addition to serum ferritin (SF) may be useful for the assessment of iron overload; however, predictive utility may differ depending on underlying, transfusion-dependent, anemias.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  15. Yap AC, Mahamad UA, Lim SY, Kim HJ, Choo YM
    Sensors (Basel), 2014 Nov 10;14(11):21140-50.
    PMID: 25390405 DOI: 10.3390/s141121140
    Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are important biomarkers for diseases associated with an impaired central nervous system (CNS). A new chemoassay utilizing coumarin-based fluorescent probe 1 to detect the levels of homocysteine is successfully implemented using Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' blood serum. In addition, a rapid identification of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels in blood serum of PD patients was also performed using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results obtained from both analyses were in agreement. The new chemoassay utilizing coumarin-based fluorescent probe 1 offers a cost- and time-effective method to identify the biomarkers in CNS patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  16. Mohamad Zamberi Z, Zakaria Z, Abdul Aziz AT, Heng BS, Zaid M, Chong CL, et al.
    PMID: 25566870 DOI: 10.1186/s12952-014-0020-6
    Dengue is a major public health problem in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Vascular leakage and shock are identified as the major causes of deaths in patients with severe dengue. Studies have suggested the potential role of Fc gamma receptors I (FcγRI) in the pathogenesis of dengue. We hypothesized that the circulating level of Fcγ receptor I could potentially be used as an indicator in assisting early diagnosis of severe dengue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  17. Rahma MS, Mustafa BE, Razali A, Shamsuddin N, Althunibat OY
    Noise Health, 2013 Nov-Dec;15(67):375-8.
    PMID: 24231415 DOI: 10.4103/1463-1741.121223
    Several epidemiologic studies have reported that exposure to noise is associated with cardiovascular disease. The increased body weight is often associated with metabolic as well as increased blood pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the elevation of blood pressure and serum leptin hormones due to the effects of noise in the work place. A total of 80 volunteer males where included in this study with an age range between of 20 and 45 years, they were divided in two groups equally, the 1 st group were exposed to noise in the workplace while the 2 nd group were not. The individual noise exposure was determined by using a sound level meter. The range of noise was 80-100 dBA. Body Mass Index was also taken for each individual by a standard measure, blood pressure was measured by OMRON sphygmomanometer and serum leptin was measured through venous blood sample analysis enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Spearman rank order correlation was used to examine the correlations between Blood pressure value (Systolic, Diastolic) and Leptin. All the relationships between parameters showed a positive correlation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values had a significant correlation to leptin hormone level in comparison to the control. There was a significant relation between leptin and blood pressure. leptin effects on the sympathetic nervous system may provide a partial explanation. Therefore, Leptin might have diverse cardiovascular actions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  18. Affirul CA, Azim IM, Hanafiah H, Nor Azmi K, Rozman Z
    Clin Ter, 2013;164(6):e479-83.
    PMID: 24424226 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2013.1640
    INTRODUCTION: Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) has been shown to express significantly on organ tissue culture in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) patients. Prior studies have shown the correlation between MMP-9 concentration levels with AAA raising the probability of its usage as a biomarker in AAA disease. However, results of previous studies have been conflicting. The purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between MMP-9 concentration levels with AAA disease and further define the utility as a biomarker for our center population.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is prospective controlled trial. Peripheral venous blood sample is obtained from 20 patients with AAA and 36 normal control subjects. MMP-9 concentration levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared with subjects abdominal ultrasonography or computed tomography of abdomen.

    RESULTS: Mean (± SE) MMP-9 was 23.94 ± 0.60 ng/mL in normal control subjects and 21.39 ± 1.03 ng/mL in patients with AAAs (p ← 0.05 versus normal control subjects). MMP-9 correlate significantly with AAA (p=0.004). There was no correlation of MMP-9 levels with age, gender, or other risk factors. The cutoff point is 12.54 for aorta size <3.0 cm. The sensitivity and specificity of MMP-9 were 60% and 64% respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: MMP-9 levels correlate significantly with AAA with a cutoff point of 12.54. However, the utility of MMP-9 as a diagnostic test is limited due to low sensitivity and specificity. An elevated MMP-9 has limited use to predict the presence of AAA (positive predictive value: 60%) and a normal MMP-9 level was insufficient to determine the absence of AAA (negative predictive value: 36.1%).

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  19. Mohd Redzwan S, Rosita J, Mohd Sokhini AM, Nurul 'Aqilah AR, Wang JS, Kang MS, et al.
    Int J Hyg Environ Health, 2014 Apr-May;217(4-5):443-51.
    PMID: 24095591 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2013.08.007
    Aflatoxin is ubiquitously found in many foodstuffs and produced by Aspergillus species of fungi. Of many aflatoxin metabolites, AFB1 is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as group one carcinogen and linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study on molecular biomarker of aflatoxin provides a better assessment on the extent of human exposure to aflatoxin. In Malaysia, the occurrences of aflatoxin-contaminated foods have been documented, but there is a lack of data on human exposure to aflatoxin. Hence, this study investigated the occurrence of AFB1-lysine adduct in serum samples and its association with liver and kidney functions. 5ml fasting blood samples were collected from seventy-one subjects (n=71) for the measurement of AFB1-lysine adduct, albumin, total bilirubin, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine transaminase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase), GGT (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase), creatinine and BUN (blood urea nitrogen). The AFB1-lysine adduct was detected in all serum samples (100% detection rate) with a mean of 6.85±3.20pg/mg albumin (range: 1.13-18.85pg/mg albumin). Male subjects (mean: 8.03±3.41pg/mg albumin) had significantly higher adduct levels than female subjects (mean: 5.64±2.46pg/mg albumin) (p<0.01). It was noteworthy that subjects with adduct levels greater than average (>6.85pg/mg albumin) had significantly elevated level of total bilirubin (p<0.01), GGT (p<0.05) and creatinine (p<0.01). Nevertheless, only the level of total bilirubin, (r=0.347, p-value=0.003) and creatinine (r=0.318, p-value=0.007) showed significant and positive correlation with the level of AFB1-lysine adduct. This study provides a valuable insight on human exposure to aflatoxin in Malaysia. Given that aflatoxin can pose serious problem to the health, intervention strategies should be implemented to limit/reduce human exposure to aflatoxin. Besides, a study with a big sample size should be warranted in order to assess aflatoxin exposure in the general population of Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  20. Othman N, Zainudin NS, Mohamed Z, Yahya MM, Leow VM, Noordin R
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Jun;30(2):257-66.
    PMID: 23959491 MyJurnal
    The protein profile of serum samples from patients with amoebic liver abscess (ALA) was compared to those of normal individuals to determine their expression levels and to identify potential surrogate disease markers. Serum samples were resolved by two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by image analysis. The up and down-regulated protein spots were excised from the gels and analysed by MS/MS. The concentration of three clusters of proteins i.e. haptoglobin (HP), α1-antitrypsin (AAT) and transferrin in serum samples of ALA patients and healthy controls were compared using competitive ELISA. In addition, serum concentrations of HP and transferrin in samples of patients with ALA and pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) were also compared. The results of the protein 2-DE expression analysis showed that HP cluster, AAT cluster, one spot each from unknown spots no. 1 and 2 were significantly up-regulated and transferrin cluster was significantly down-regulated in ALA patients' sera (p<0.05). The MS/MS analysis identified the unknown protein spot no.1 as human transcript and haptoglobin and spot no. 2 as albumin. Competitive ELISA which compared concentrations of selected proteins in sera of ALA and healthy controls verified the up-regulated expression (p<0.05) of HP and the down-regulated expression (p<0.01) of transferrin in the former, while there was no significant difference in AAT expression (p> 0.05). However, when ALA and PLA samples were compared, competitive ELISA showed significant increased concentration of HP (p<0.05) while transferrin levels were not different. In conclusion, this study showed that HP is a potential surrogate disease marker for ALA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
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