Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 246 in total

  1. Karami A, Omar D, Lazorchak JM, Yap CK, Hashim Z, Courtenay SC
    Environ. Res., 2016 Nov;151:313-320.
    PMID: 27522569 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.08.006
    Influence of waterborne butachlor (BUC), a commonly used pesticide, on morphometric, biochemical, and molecular biomarkers was evaluated in juvenile, full sibling, diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 21 days to one of three concentrations of BUC [mean measured µg/L: 22, 44 or 60]. Unexposed (control) triploids were heavier and longer and had higher visceral-somatic index (VSI) than diploids. Also, they had lighter liver weight (HSI) and showed lower transcript levels of brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), aromatase (cyp191b) and fushi tarazu-factor (ftz-f1), and plasma testosterone levels than diploids. Butachlor treatments had no effects, in either diploid or triploid fish, on VSI, HSI, weight or length changes, condition factor (CF), levels of plasma testosterone, 17-β estradiol (E2), cortisol, cholesterol, or mRNA levels of brain tryptophan hydroxylase (tph2), forkhead box L2 (foxl2), and 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-hsd2). Expressions of cyp191b and ftz-f1 in triploids were upregulated by the two highest concentrations of BUC. In diploid fish, however, exposures to all BUC concentrations decreased GnRH transcription and the medium BUC concentration decreased ftz-f1 transcription. Substantial differences between ploidies in basal biomarker responses are consistent with the reported impaired reproductive axis in triploid C. gariepinus. Furthermore, the present study showed the low impact of short term exposure to BUC on reproductive axis in C. gariepinus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  2. Soe HJ, Yong YK, Al-Obaidi MMJ, Raju CS, Gudimella R, Manikam R, et al.
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2018 Feb;97(5):e9713.
    PMID: 29384851 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000009713
    Dengue virus is one of the most widespread flaviviruses that re-emerged throughout recent decades. The progression from mild dengue to severe dengue (SD) with the complications such as vascular leakage and hemorrhage increases the fatality rate of dengue. The pathophysiology of SD is not entirely clear. To investigate potential biomarkers that are suggestive of pathogenesis of SD, a small panel of serum samples selected from 1 healthy individual, 2 dengue patients without warning signs (DWS-), 2 dengue patients with warning signs (DWS+), and 5 patients with SD were subjected to a pilot analysis using Sengenics Immunome protein array. The overall fold changes of protein expressions and clustering heat map revealed that PFKFB4, TPM1, PDCL3, and PTPN20A were elevated among patients with SD. Differential expression analysis identified that 29 proteins were differentially elevated greater than 2-fold in SD groups than DWS- and DWS+. From the 29 candidate proteins, pathways enrichment analysis also identified insulin signaling and cytoskeleton pathways were involved in SD, suggesting that the insulin pathway may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of SD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  3. Ayadurai T, Ayob Y, Muniandy S, Omar SZ
    Thromb. Haemost., 2007 Nov;98(5):1152-4.
    PMID: 18000628
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  4. Tan TL, Goh YY
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(7):e0180554.
    PMID: 28671974 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180554
    INTRODUCTION: This paper investigates the role of Group II Secretory Phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) as a biomarker for the diagnosis of sepsis and bacterial infection in adults. Sepsis and bacterial infection are common problems encountered by patients in the hospital and often carry adverse outcomes if not managed early.

    METHODS: Two independent reviewers conducted a comprehensive search using Ovid MEDLINE published from years 1993 to 2016 and SCOPUS published from year 1985 to 2017 to screen for relevant studies. The main inclusion criteria included adult subjects, patients with suspected or confirmed signs of infection and relevant outcomes which looked into the role of sPLA2-IIA in detecting the presence of sepsis and bacterial infection in the subjects.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Four studies met the inclusion criteria. SPLA2-IIA was found to be effective in detecting the presence of sepsis and bacterial infection in adults. The levels of serum sPLA2-IIA also correlated well with the presence of sepsis and bacterial infection.

    CONCLUSION: This systematic review highlights the role of sPLA2-IIA as a reliable tool to diagnose sepsis and bacterial infection in adult patients. Nonetheless, further studies should be done in the future to provide more compelling evidence on its application in the clinical setting.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  5. Nadaraja RND, Sthaneshwar P, Razali N
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Apr;40(1):33-39.
    PMID: 29704382 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Hyperandrogenism remains as one of the key features in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and can be assessed clinically or determined by biochemical assays. Hirsutism is the most common clinical manifestation of hyperandrogenism. The clinical assessment is subjected to wide variability due to poor interobserver agreement and multiple population factors such as ethnic variation, cosmetic procedures and genetic trait. The difficulty in resolving the androgen excess biochemically is due to a lack of consensus as to which serum androgen should be measured for the diagnosis of PCOS. The aim of the study was to compare and establish the diagnostic cut off value for different androgen biomarker for the diagnosis of PCOS.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 312 patients classified to PCOS (n = 164) and non PCOS (n = 148) cohorts were selected from the Laboratory Information System (LIS) based on serum total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) from the period of 1st April 2015 to 31st March 2016. PCOS was diagnosed based on Rotterdam criteria. Clinical hyperandrogenism and ultrasound polycystic ovarian morphology were obtained from the clinical records. The other relevant biochemical results such as serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and albumin were also obtained from LIS. Free androgen index (FAI), calculated free testosterone (cFT) and calculated bioavailable testosterone (cBT) were calculated for these patients. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed for serum TT, SHBG, FAI, cFT, cBT and LH: FSH ratio to determine the best marker to diagnose PCOS.

    RESULTS: All the androgen parameters (except SHBG) were significantly higher in PCOS patients than in control (p<0.0001). The highest area under curve (AUC) curve was found for cBT followed by cFT and FAI. TT and LH: FSH ratio recorded a lower AUC and the lowest AUC was seen for SHBG. cBT at a cut off value of 0.86 nmol/L had the highest specificity, 83% and positive likelihood ratio (LR) at 3.79. This is followed by FAI at a cut off value of 7.1% with specificity at 82% and cFT at a cut off value of 0.8 pmol/L with specificity at 80%. All three calculated androgen indices (FAI, cFT and cBT) showed good correlation with each other. Furthermore, cFT, FAI and calculated BT were shown to be more specific with higher positive likelihood ratio than measured androgen markers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on our study, the calculated testosterone indices such as FAI, cBT and cFT are useful markers to distinguish PCOS from non-PCOS. Owing to ease of calculation, FAI can be incorporated in LIS and can be reported with TT and SHBG. This will be helpful for clinician to diagnose hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  6. Rahimi R, Dahili ND, Anuar Zainun K, Mohd Kasim NA, Md Noor S
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Aug;40(2):143-148.
    PMID: 30173231 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Cardiac-related diseases contributed approximately 50-60% of sudden natural death cases. This study aimed to describe the cardiac troponin T (cTnT) findings in post mortem subjects irrespective of the cause and manner of death, and the possible use of post mortem serum cTnT as a modality in investigating sudden natural death.

    METHODS: The study samples comprised 140 subjects aged 18 to 50 years old, natural and unnatural causes of sudden death brought to the Department of Forensic Medicine, Hospital Sungai Buloh (HSgB) and Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru (HSAJB) for a period of 12 months. The subjects were categorised into 5 groups: cardiovascular disease (CVD), sudden unexplained death (SUD), thoracic trauma (TT), non-thoracic trauma (NTT) and other diseases (OD).

    RESULTS: Median troponin concentration in cases of CVD, SUD, TT, NTT, and OD were 0.51 μg/L, 0.17 μg/L, 0.62 μg/L, 0.90 μg/L and 0.51 μg/L respectively. We found no significant difference of troponin T level in different causes of death (p ≥ 0.05). NTT has the highest median troponin concentration with 0.90 μg/L, SUD possessed the lowest median concentration with 0.17 μg/L.

    CONCLUSION: Troponin T is neither specific nor useful as cardiac biomarker for post mortem sample. Therefore, it may not be a useful diagnostic tool at autopsy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  7. Nile CJ, Apatzidou DA, Awang RA, Riggio MP, Kinane DF, Lappin DF
    Clin Oral Investig, 2016 Dec;20(9):2529-2537.
    PMID: 26888221 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-016-1749-8
    OBJECTIVES: The serum IL-17A:IL-17E ratio has previously been demonstrated to be a clinical marker of periodontitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment on the serum IL-17A:IL-17E ratio.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty chronic periodontitis patients completed this study and received periodontal treatment comprising scaling and root planing plus ultrasonic debridement. Clinical data were recorded at baseline, 6 weeks (R1) after treatment completion (full-mouth or quadrant-scaling and root planing) and 25 weeks after baseline (R2). Serum samples were taken at each time point and cytokines concentrations determined by ELISA.

    RESULTS: Following treatment, statistically significant reductions were noted in clinical parameters. However, IL-17A and IL-17E concentrations were significantly greater than baseline values before- and after-adjusting for smoking. The IL-17A:IL-17E ratio was lower at R1 and R2. Serum IL-6 and TNF levels were significantly lower at R1 only. Also exclusively at R1, serum IL-17A and IL-17E correlated positively with clinical parameters, while the IL-17A:IL-17E ratio correlated negatively with probing pocket depth and clinical attachment.

    CONCLUSION: Increased serum IL-17E and a reduced IL-17A:IL-17E ratio may be indicative and/or a consequence of periodontal therapy. Therefore, the role of IL-17E in periodontal disease progression and the healing process is worthy of further investigation.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: IL-17E may be a valuable biomarker to monitor the healing process following periodontal treatment as increased IL-17E levels and a reduced IL-17A:IL-17E ratio could reflect clinical improvements post-therapy. Therefore, monitoring serum IL-17E might be useful to identify individuals who require additional periodontal treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  8. Kong SY, Tran HQ, Gewirtz AT, McKeown-Eyssen G, Fedirko V, Romieu I, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2016 Feb;25(2):291-301.
    PMID: 26823475 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0798
    BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are thought to be involved in colorectal cancer development. These processes may contribute to leakage of bacterial products, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin, across the gut barrier. The objective of this study, nested within a prospective cohort, was to examine associations between circulating LPS and flagellin serum antibody levels and colorectal cancer risk.

    METHODS: A total of 1,065 incident colorectal cancer cases (colon, n = 667; rectal, n = 398) were matched (1:1) to control subjects. Serum flagellin- and LPS-specific IgA and IgG levels were quantitated by ELISA. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for multiple relevant confouding factors.

    RESULTS: Overall, elevated anti-LPS and anti-flagellin biomarker levels were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. After testing potential interactions by various factors relevant for colorectal cancer risk and anti-LPS and anti-flagellin, sex was identified as a statistically significant interaction factor (Pinteraction < 0.05 for all the biomarkers). Analyses stratified by sex showed a statistically significant positive colorectal cancer risk association for men (fully-adjusted OR for highest vs. lowest quartile for total anti-LPS + flagellin, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10-2.51; Ptrend, 0.049), whereas a borderline statistically significant inverse association was observed for women (fully-adjusted OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.47-1.02; Ptrend, 0.18).

    CONCLUSION: In this prospective study on European populations, we found bacterial exposure levels to be positively associated to colorectal cancer risk among men, whereas in women, a possible inverse association may exist.

    IMPACT: Further studies are warranted to better clarify these preliminary observations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  9. John DV, Lin YS, Perng GC
    J. Biomed. Sci., 2015;22:83.
    PMID: 26462910 DOI: 10.1186/s12929-015-0191-6
    Dengue virus infection presents a wide spectrum of manifestations including asymptomatic condition, dengue fever (DF), or severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) in affected individuals. The early prediction of severe dengue in patients without any warning signs who may later develop severe DHF is very important to choose appropriate intensive supportive therapy since available vaccines for immunization are yet to be approved. Severe dengue responses include T and B cell activation and apoptosis, cytokine storm, hematologic disorders and complement activation. Cytokines, complement and other unidentified factors may transiently act on the endothelium and alter normal fluid barrier function of the endothelial cells and cause plasma leakage. In this review, the host factors such as activated immune and endothelial cells and their products which can be utilized as biomarkers for severe dengue disease are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  10. Fong SW, Few LL, See Too WC, Khoo BY, Nik Ibrahim NN, Yahaya SA, et al.
    BMC Res Notes, 2015;8:679.
    PMID: 26576922 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-015-1677-8
    Biomarkers play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and management of patients with acute coronary syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the differences in level of several biomarkers, i.e. C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, soluble CD40 ligand and placental growth factor, between acute coronary syndrome and chronic stable angina patients. The relationship between these biomarkers in the coronary circulation and systemic circulation was also investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  11. Immaculate Mbongo L, Yamunah Devi A, Zain S, Omar SZ, Mohamed Z
    Pharmacology, 2015;96(1-2):44-8.
    PMID: 26065725 DOI: 10.1159/000430857
    Preterm birth (PTB) is the largest cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the world. Ethnicity disparity in the occurrence of PTB has been associated with the cytokine function. In this study, we aimed at examining cytokine levels in women with spontaneous preterm and term births.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  12. Suhaimi NF, Jalaludin J
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:962853.
    PMID: 25984536 DOI: 10.1155/2015/962853
    Some of the environmental toxicants from air pollution include particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and ultrafine particles (UFP). Both short- and long-term exposure could result in various degrees of respiratory health outcomes among exposed persons, which rely on the individuals' health status.

    METHODS: In this paper, we highlight a review of the studies that have used biomarkers to understand the association between air particles exposure and the development of respiratory problems resulting from the damage in the respiratory system. Data from previous epidemiological studies relevant to the application of biomarkers in respiratory system damage reported from exposure to air particles are also summarized.

    RESULTS: Based on these analyses, the findings agree with the hypothesis that biomarkers are relevant in linking harmful air particles concentrations to increased respiratory health effects. Biomarkers are used in epidemiological studies to provide an understanding of the mechanisms that follow airborne particles exposure in the airway. However, application of biomarkers in epidemiological studies of health effects caused by air particles in both environmental and occupational health is inchoate.

    CONCLUSION: Biomarkers unravel the complexity of the connection between exposure to air particles and respiratory health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  13. Almualm Y, Zaman Huri H
    Glob J Health Sci, 2015;7(4):96-109.
    PMID: 25946939 DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v7n4p96
    Chronic Kidney Disease has become a public health problem, imposing heath, social and human cost on societies worldwide. Chronic Kidney Disease remains asymptomatic till late stage when intervention cannot stop the progression of the disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need to detect the disease early. Despite the high prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia, screening is still lacking behind. This review discusses the strengths and limitations of current screening methods for Chronic Kidney Disease from a Malaysian point of view. Diabetic Kidney Disease was chosen as focal point as Diabetes is the leading cause of Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia includes a urine test for albuminuria and a blood test for serum creatinine. Recent literature indicates that albuminuria is not always present in Diabetic Kidney Disease patients and serum creatinine is only raised after substantial kidney damage has occurred.  Recently, cystatin C was proposed as a potential marker for kidney disease but this has not been studied thoroughly in Malaysia.  Glomerular Filtration Rate is the best method for measuring kidney function and is widely estimated using the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation. Another equation, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration Creatinine equation was introduced in 2009. The new equation retained the precision and accuracy of the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation at GFR < 60ml/min/1.73m2, showed less bias and improved precision at GFR>60ml/min/1.73m2. In Asian countries, adding an ethnic coefficient to the equation enhanced its performance. In Malaysia, a multi-ethnic Asian population, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation should be validated and the Glomerular Filtration Rate should be reported whenever serum creatinine is ordered. Reporting estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate will help diagnose patients who would have been otherwise missed if only albuminuria and serum creatinine are measured.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  14. Obón-Santacana M, Freisling H, Peeters PH, Lujan-Barroso L, Ferrari P, Boutron-Ruault MC, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2016 Mar 01;138(5):1129-38.
    PMID: 26376083 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.29853
    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by IARC as "probably carcinogenic to humans," was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. Four prospective studies have evaluated the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk with inconsistent results. The purpose of this nested case-control study, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, was to evaluate, for the first time, the association between hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and glycidamide (HbGA) and the risk of developing EC in non-smoking postmenopausal women. Hemoglobin adducts were measured in red blood cells by HPLC/MS/MS. Four exposure variables were evaluated: HbAA, HbGA, their sum (HbAA+HbGA), and their ratio (HbGA/HbAA). The association between hemoglobin adducts and EC was evaluated using unconditional multivariable logistic regression models, and included 383 EC cases (171 were type-I EC), and 385 controls. Exposure variables were analyzed in quintiles based on control distributions. None of the biomarker variables had an effect on overall EC (HRHbAA;Q5vsQ1 : 0.84, 95%CI: 0.49-1.48; HRHbGA;Q5vsQ1 : 0.94, 95%CI: 0.54-1.63) or type-I EC risk. Additionally, none of the subgroups investigated (BMI 
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  15. Porter JB, El-Alfy M, Viprakasit V, Giraudier S, Chan LL, Lai Y, et al.
    Eur. J. Haematol., 2016 Jan;96(1):19-26.
    PMID: 25691036 DOI: 10.1111/ejh.12540
    Plasma markers in addition to serum ferritin (SF) may be useful for the assessment of iron overload; however, predictive utility may differ depending on underlying, transfusion-dependent, anemias.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  16. Mohamad Zamberi Z, Zakaria Z, Abdul Aziz AT, Heng BS, Zaid M, Chong CL, et al.
    PMID: 25566870 DOI: 10.1186/s12952-014-0020-6
    Dengue is a major public health problem in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Vascular leakage and shock are identified as the major causes of deaths in patients with severe dengue. Studies have suggested the potential role of Fc gamma receptors I (FcγRI) in the pathogenesis of dengue. We hypothesized that the circulating level of Fcγ receptor I could potentially be used as an indicator in assisting early diagnosis of severe dengue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  17. Yap AC, Mahamad UA, Lim SY, Kim HJ, Choo YM
    Sensors (Basel), 2014 Nov 10;14(11):21140-50.
    PMID: 25390405 DOI: 10.3390/s141121140
    Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are important biomarkers for diseases associated with an impaired central nervous system (CNS). A new chemoassay utilizing coumarin-based fluorescent probe 1 to detect the levels of homocysteine is successfully implemented using Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' blood serum. In addition, a rapid identification of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels in blood serum of PD patients was also performed using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results obtained from both analyses were in agreement. The new chemoassay utilizing coumarin-based fluorescent probe 1 offers a cost- and time-effective method to identify the biomarkers in CNS patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  18. Affirul CA, Azim IM, Hanafiah H, Nor Azmi K, Rozman Z
    Clin Ter, 2013;164(6):e479-83.
    PMID: 24424226 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2013.1640
    INTRODUCTION: Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) has been shown to express significantly on organ tissue culture in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) patients. Prior studies have shown the correlation between MMP-9 concentration levels with AAA raising the probability of its usage as a biomarker in AAA disease. However, results of previous studies have been conflicting. The purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between MMP-9 concentration levels with AAA disease and further define the utility as a biomarker for our center population.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is prospective controlled trial. Peripheral venous blood sample is obtained from 20 patients with AAA and 36 normal control subjects. MMP-9 concentration levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared with subjects abdominal ultrasonography or computed tomography of abdomen.

    RESULTS: Mean (± SE) MMP-9 was 23.94 ± 0.60 ng/mL in normal control subjects and 21.39 ± 1.03 ng/mL in patients with AAAs (p ← 0.05 versus normal control subjects). MMP-9 correlate significantly with AAA (p=0.004). There was no correlation of MMP-9 levels with age, gender, or other risk factors. The cutoff point is 12.54 for aorta size <3.0 cm. The sensitivity and specificity of MMP-9 were 60% and 64% respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: MMP-9 levels correlate significantly with AAA with a cutoff point of 12.54. However, the utility of MMP-9 as a diagnostic test is limited due to low sensitivity and specificity. An elevated MMP-9 has limited use to predict the presence of AAA (positive predictive value: 60%) and a normal MMP-9 level was insufficient to determine the absence of AAA (negative predictive value: 36.1%).

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood*
  19. Rahma MS, Mustafa BE, Razali A, Shamsuddin N, Althunibat OY
    Noise Health, 2013 Nov-Dec;15(67):375-8.
    PMID: 24231415 DOI: 10.4103/1463-1741.121223
    Several epidemiologic studies have reported that exposure to noise is associated with cardiovascular disease. The increased body weight is often associated with metabolic as well as increased blood pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the elevation of blood pressure and serum leptin hormones due to the effects of noise in the work place. A total of 80 volunteer males where included in this study with an age range between of 20 and 45 years, they were divided in two groups equally, the 1 st group were exposed to noise in the workplace while the 2 nd group were not. The individual noise exposure was determined by using a sound level meter. The range of noise was 80-100 dBA. Body Mass Index was also taken for each individual by a standard measure, blood pressure was measured by OMRON sphygmomanometer and serum leptin was measured through venous blood sample analysis enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Spearman rank order correlation was used to examine the correlations between Blood pressure value (Systolic, Diastolic) and Leptin. All the relationships between parameters showed a positive correlation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values had a significant correlation to leptin hormone level in comparison to the control. There was a significant relation between leptin and blood pressure. leptin effects on the sympathetic nervous system may provide a partial explanation. Therefore, Leptin might have diverse cardiovascular actions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
  20. Mohd Redzwan S, Rosita J, Mohd Sokhini AM, Nurul 'Aqilah AR, Wang JS, Kang MS, et al.
    Int J Hyg Environ Health, 2014 Apr-May;217(4-5):443-51.
    PMID: 24095591 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2013.08.007
    Aflatoxin is ubiquitously found in many foodstuffs and produced by Aspergillus species of fungi. Of many aflatoxin metabolites, AFB1 is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as group one carcinogen and linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study on molecular biomarker of aflatoxin provides a better assessment on the extent of human exposure to aflatoxin. In Malaysia, the occurrences of aflatoxin-contaminated foods have been documented, but there is a lack of data on human exposure to aflatoxin. Hence, this study investigated the occurrence of AFB1-lysine adduct in serum samples and its association with liver and kidney functions. 5ml fasting blood samples were collected from seventy-one subjects (n=71) for the measurement of AFB1-lysine adduct, albumin, total bilirubin, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine transaminase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase), GGT (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase), creatinine and BUN (blood urea nitrogen). The AFB1-lysine adduct was detected in all serum samples (100% detection rate) with a mean of 6.85±3.20pg/mg albumin (range: 1.13-18.85pg/mg albumin). Male subjects (mean: 8.03±3.41pg/mg albumin) had significantly higher adduct levels than female subjects (mean: 5.64±2.46pg/mg albumin) (p<0.01). It was noteworthy that subjects with adduct levels greater than average (>6.85pg/mg albumin) had significantly elevated level of total bilirubin (p<0.01), GGT (p<0.05) and creatinine (p<0.01). Nevertheless, only the level of total bilirubin, (r=0.347, p-value=0.003) and creatinine (r=0.318, p-value=0.007) showed significant and positive correlation with the level of AFB1-lysine adduct. This study provides a valuable insight on human exposure to aflatoxin in Malaysia. Given that aflatoxin can pose serious problem to the health, intervention strategies should be implemented to limit/reduce human exposure to aflatoxin. Besides, a study with a big sample size should be warranted in order to assess aflatoxin exposure in the general population of Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/blood
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