Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020, USMAA2-4, and USMAHM13 are capable of producing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). This biopolymer is an alternative solution to synthetic plastics, whereby polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase is the key enzyme involved in PHA biosynthesis. Here, we report the complete genomes of three Cupriavidus sp. strains: USMAA1020, USMAA2-4, and USMAHM13.
In recent years, controlled drug delivery has become an important area of research. Nano-biocomposites can fulfil the necessary requirements of a targeted drug delivery device. This review describes use of polymeric nano-biocomposites in controlled drug delivery devices. Selection of suitable biopolymer and methods of preparation are discussed.
Recovery of cellulose fibres from paper mill effluent has been studied using common polysaccharides or biopolymers such as Guar gum, Xanthan gum and Locust bean gum as flocculent. Guar gum is commonly used in sizing paper and routinely used in paper making. The results have been compared with the performance of alum, which is a common coagulant and a key ingredient of the paper industry. Guar gum recovered about 3.86mg/L of fibre and was most effective among the biopolymers. Settling velocity distribution curves demonstrated that Guar gum was able to settle the fibres faster than the other biopolymers; however, alum displayed the highest particle removal rate than all the biopolymers at any of the settling velocities. Alum, Guar gum, Xanthan gum and Locust bean gum removed 97.46%, 94.68%, 92.39% and 92.46% turbidity of raw effluent at a settling velocity of 0.5cm/min, respectively. The conditions for obtaining the lowest sludge volume index such as pH, dose and mixing speed were optimised for guar gum which was the most effective among the biopolymers. Response surface methodology was used to design all experiments, and an optimum operational setting was proposed. The test results indicate similar performance of alum and Guar gum in terms of floc settling velocities and sludge volume index. Since Guar gum is a plant derived natural substance, it is environmentally benign and offers a green treatment option to the paper mills for pulp recycling.
Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) is a process where microbes have to first excrete extracellular enzymes to break polymeric substrates such as starch or cellulose into edible nutrients, followed by in situ conversion of those nutrients into more valuable metabolites via fermentation. As such, SSF is very attractive as a one-pot synthesis method of biological products. However, due to the co-existence of multiple biochemical steps, modeling SSF faces two major challenges. The first is to capture the successive chain-end and/or random scission of the polymeric substrates over time, which determines the rate of generation of various fermentable substrates. The second is to incorporate the response of microbes, including their preferential substrate utilization, to such a complex broth. Each of the above-mentioned challenges has manifested itself in many related areas, and has been competently but separately attacked with two diametrically different tools, i.e., the Population Balance Modeling (PBM) and the Cybernetic Modeling (CM), respectively. To date, they have yet to be applied in unison on SSF resulting in a general inadequacy or haphazard approaches to examine the dynamics and interactions of depolymerization and fermentation. To overcome this unsatisfactory state of affairs, here, the general linkage between PBM and CM is established to model SSF. A notable feature is the flexible linkage, which allows the individual PBM and CM models to be independently modified to the desired levels of detail. A more general treatment of the secretion of extracellular enzyme is also proposed in the CM model. Through a case study on the growth of a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of excreting a chain-end scission enzyme (glucoamylase) on starch, the interlinked model calibrated using data from the literature (Nakamura et al., Biotechnol. Bioeng. 53:21-25, 1997), captured features not attainable by existing approaches. In particular, the effect of various enzymatic actions on the temporal evolution of the polymer distribution and how the microbes respond to the diverse polymeric environment can be studied through this framework.
Patches has recently emerged and attracting more attention for its versatility in many areas such as cosmetic, pharmaceutical and medical. Patches can either be used to administer selected drug to skin or deliver some beneficial ingredients for cosmetic purposes. With that, as polymer is used as the matrix for patches, the polymer selected must be non-toxic, have adhesive property and non-irritative to the skin. Currently, synthetic polymer had been used as the matrix. However, as time passes, people are more concern with the environment, therefore biopolymer is chosen over synthetic polymer as they are degradable and also safe to use. Nowadays, as consumers are demanding for a more effective product that is not only good for appearance but also the health of the skin, studies had been done on many kinds of active ingredient that will give the best effect to the skin. Thus in this paper, patches made up of different combinations of polymer and active ingredients, as well as fabrication method currently used to produce patches will be discussed.
This paper proposes a novel idea to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) optical sensor for detection of dengue virus type-2 envelope proteins (DENV-2 E-proteins) using polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer biopolymer-based nanocomposite thin film. For this purpose, two ranges of DENV-2 E-protein concentrations, i.e., 0.000008-0.0001 nM and 0.00008-0.005 nM were evaluated, and the lowest detectable concentration was achieved at 0.00008 nM. The incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer-based nanocomposite thin film with an SPR sensor exhibited a significant increase in sensitivity and binding affinity to a lower range DENV-2 E-protein concentrations. Moreover, the proposed sensor displayed good selectivity towards DENV-2 E-proteins and have an average recovery of 80-120%. The findings of this study demonstrated that PAMAM dendrimer-based nanocomposite thin film combined with SPR sensor is a promising diagnostic tool for sensitive and selective detection of DENV-2 E-proteins.
Extensive employment of biomaterials in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications is considered to be of prime importance. As expected, oil based polymer materials were gradually replaced by natural or synthetic biopolymers due to their well-known intrinsic characteristics such as biodegradability, non-toxicity and biocompatibility. Literature on this subject was found to be expanding, especially in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications. Introduction of porosity into a biomaterial broadens the scope of applications. In addition, increased porosity can have a beneficial effect for the applications which exploit their exceptional ability of loading, retaining and releasing of fluids. Different applications require a unique set of pore characteristics in the biopolymer matrix. Various pore morphologies have different characteristics and contribute different performances to the biopolymer matrix. Fabrication methods for bio-based porous materials more related to the choice of material. By choosing the appropriate combination of fabrication technique and biomaterial employment, one can obtain tunable pore characteristic to fulfill the requirements of desired application. In our previous review, we described the literature related to biopolymers and fabrication techniques of porous materials. This paper we will focus on the biomedical and microbiological applications of bio-based porous materials.
The properties of a composite material depend on its constituent materials such as natural biopolymers or synthetic biodegradable polymers and inorganic or organic nanomaterials or nano-scale minerals. The significance of bio-based and synthetic polymers and their drawbacks on coating film application is currently being discussed in research papers and articles. Properties and applications vary for each novel synthetic bio-based material, and a number of such materials have been fabricated in recent years. This review provides an in-depth discussion on the properties and applications of biopolymer-based nanocomposite coating films. Recent works and articles are cited in this paper. These citations are ubiquitous in the development of novel bionanocomposites and their applications.
Biofiber is used in the polymer based composite as a renewable resource due to its positive environmental benefits, biodegradable properties, low cost and high toughness. Biocomposite was fabricated using oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) as filler in phenolated EFB (PEFB) matrix. Phenolated EFB (PEFB) obtained from liquefaction of EFB in phenol was used as a biopolymer to replace novolak phenolic resin which is commonly used in composite materials. Sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst in the liquefaction reaction. The effect of thermal aging and blending ratio of PEFB matrix and EFB fibers on the mechanical properties of composites has been studied. The flexural data before and after thermal aging revealed the optimum amount of EFB filler is 50% . The result showed better compatibility between EFB and PEFB when compared with EFB and commercial novolak resin.
Proteins have been increasingly suggested as suitable candidates for the fabrication of biological computers and other biomolecular-based electronic devices mainly due to their interesting structure-related intrinsic electrical properties. These natural biopolymers are environmentally friendly substitutes for conventional inorganic materials and find numerous applications in bioelectronics. Effective manipulation of protein biomolecules allows for accurate fabrication of nanoscaled device dimensions for miniaturized electronics. The prerequisite, however, demands an interrogation of its various electronic properties prior to understanding the complex charge transfer mechanisms in protein molecules, the knowledge of which will be crucial toward development of such nanodevices. One significantly preferred method in recent times involves the utilization of solid-state sensors where interactions of proteins could be investigated upon contact with metals such as gold. Therefore, in this work, proteins (hemoglobin and collagen) were integrated within a two-electrode system, and the resulting electronic profiles were investigated. Interestingly, structure-related electronic profiles representing semiconductive-like behaviors were observed. These characteristic electronic profiles arise from the metal (Au)-semiconductor (protein) junction, clearly demonstrating the formation of a Schottky junction. Further interpretation of the electronic behavior of proteins was done by the calculation of selected solid-state parameters. For example, the turn-on voltage of hemoglobin was measured to occur at a lower turn-on voltage, indicating the possible influence of the hem group present as a cofactor in each subunit of this tetrameric protein.
Researchers and companies have increasingly been drawn to biodegradable polymers and composites because of their environmental resilience, eco-friendliness, and suitability for a range of applications. For various uses, biodegradable fabrics use biodegradable polymers or natural fibers as reinforcement. Many approaches have been taken to achieve better compatibility for tailored and improved material properties. In this article, PBS (polybutylene succinate) was chosen as the main topic due to its excellent properties and intensive interest among industrial and researchers. PBS is an environmentally safe biopolymer that has some special properties, such as good clarity and processability, a shiny look, and flexibility, but it also has some drawbacks, such as brittleness. PBS-based natural fiber composites are completely biodegradable and have strong physical properties. Several research studies on PBS-based composites have been published, including physical, mechanical, and thermal assessments of the properties and its ability to replace petroleum-based materials, but no systematic analysis of up-to-date research evidence is currently available in the literature. The aim of this analysis is to highlight recent developments in PBS research and production, as well as its natural fiber composites. The current research efforts focus on the synthesis, copolymers and biodegradability for its properties, trends, challenges and prospects in the field of PBS and its composites also reviewed in this paper.
The present study was aimed to evaluate the suitability of agro-wastes and crude vegetable oils for the cost-effective production of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), to evaluate growth kinetics and PHB production in Alcaligenes faecalis RZS4 and Pseudomonas sp. RZS1 with these carbon substrates and to study the biodegradation of PHB accumulated by these cultures. Alcaligenes faecalis RZS4 and Pseudomonas sp. RZS1 accumulates higher amounts of PHB corn (79.90% of dry cell mass) and rice straw (66.22% of dry cell mass) medium respectively. The kinetic model suggests that the Pseudomonas sp. RZS1 follows the Monod model more closely than A. faecalis RZS4. Both the cultures degrade their PHB extract under the influence of PHB depolymerase. Corn waste and rice straw appear as the best and cost-effective substrates for the sustainable production of PHB from Alcaligenes faecalis RZS4 and Pseudomonas sp. RZS1. The biopolymer accumulated by these organisms is biodegradable in nature. The agro-wastes and crude vegetable oils are good and low-cost sources of nutrients for the growth and production of PHB and other metabolites. Their use would lower the production cost of PHB and the low-cost production will reduce the sailing price of PHB-based products. This would promote the large-scale commercialization and popularization of PHB as an ecofriendly bioplastic/biopolymer.
New food packaging materials provide an attractive option for the advancement of nanomaterials. The poor thermal, mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of biopolymers and their inherent permeability to gases and vapor have increased this interest. Polymeric materials (matrix) in modern technologies require a filler, which can react/interact with the available matrix to provide a new formulation with improved packaging properties including oxygen permeability, moisture permeability, crystalline structure, barrier properties, morphology, thermal stability, optical properties, anti-microbial characteristics, and mechanical properties. The performance of nanocomposite films and packaging is dependent on the size of the nanofillers used and the uniformity of the nanoparticles (NPs) distribution and dispersion in the matrix. Advancement in nanocomposite technologies is expected to grow with the advent of sustainable, low price, environmentally friendly materials with an enhanced performance. The current review addresses advances in the biopolymeric nanocomposites as alternatives to petroleum plastics in the food packaging industry. It also provides a brief description of biopolymer nanocomposite films and gives general information about different metal NPs with an emphasis on their influence on the emerging characteristics of biodegradable films. The results of recent reports provide a better understanding of the influence of metal NPs in food packaging.
Bioadhesive polymers offer versatility to medical and pharmaceutical inventions. The incorporation of such materials to conventional dosage forms or medical devices may confer or improve the adhesivity of the bioadhesive systems, subsequently prolonging their residence time at the site of absorption or action and providing sustained release of actives with improved bioavailability and therapeutic outcomes. For decades, much focus has been put on scientific works to replace synthetic polymers with biopolymers with desirable functional properties. Gelatine has been considered one of the most promising biopolymers. Despite its biodegradability, biocompatibility and unique biological properties, gelatine exhibits poor mechanical and adhesive properties, limiting its end-use applications. The chemical modification and blending of gelatine with other biomaterials are strategies proposed to improve its bioadhesivity. Here we discuss the classical approaches involving a variety of polymer blends and composite systems containing gelatine, and gelatine modifications via thiolation, methacrylation, catechol conjugation, amination and other newly devised strategies. We highlight several of the latest studies on these strategies and their relevant findings.
Two solid biopolymer electrolytes (SBEs) systems of carboxymethyl cellulose doped ammonium chloride (CMC-AC) and propylene carbonate plasticized (CMC-AC-PC) were prepared via solution casting technique. The ionic conductivity of SBEs were analyzed using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the frequency range of 50 Hz-1 MHz at ambient temperature (303K). The highest ionic conductivity of CMC-AC SBE is 1.43 × 10(-3)S/cm for 16 wt.% of AC while the highest conductivity of plasticized SBE system is 1.01 × 10(-2)S/cm when added with 8 wt.% of PC. TGA/DSC showed that the addition of PC had increased the decomposition temperature compared of CMC-AC SBE. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed the occurrence of complexation between the SBE components and it is proved successfully executed by Gaussian software. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that amorphous nature of SBEs. It is believed that the PC is one of the most promising plasticizer to enhance the ionic conductivity and performance for SBE system.
Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) is a multipurpose palm species from which a variety of foods and beverages, timber commodities, biofibres, biopolymers and biocomposites can be produced. Recently, it is being used as a source of renewable energy in the form of bio-ethanol via fermentation process of the sugar palm sap. Although numerous products can be produced from sugar palm, three products that are most prominent are palm sugar, fruits and fibres. This paper focuses mainly on the significance of fibres as they are highly durable, resistant to sea water and because they are available naturally in the form of woven fibre they are easy to process. Besides the recent advances in the research of sugar palm fibres and their composites, this paper also addresses the development of new biodegradable polymer derived from sugar palm starch, and presents reviews on fibre surface treatment, product development, and challenges and efforts on properties enhancement of sugar palm fibre composites.
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transference number measurement (TNM) techniques were applied to investigate the complexation, structural, and ionic transport properties of and the dominant charge-carrier species in a solid biopolymer electrolyte (SBE) system based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) doped with ammonium fluoride (NH4F), which was prepared via a solution casting technique. The SBEs were partially opaque in appearance, with no phase separation. The presence of interactions between the host polymer (CMC) and the ionic dopant (NH4F) was proven by FT-IR analysis at the C-O band. XRD spectra analyzed using Origin 8 software disclose that the degree of crystallinity (χc%) of the SBEs decreased with the addition of NH4F, indicating an increase in the amorphous nature of the SBEs. Analysis of the ionic transport properties reveals that the ionic conductivity of the SBEs is dependent on the ionic mobility (μ) and diffusion of ions (D). TNM analysis confirms that the SBEs are proton conductors.
Great efforts have been devoted to the invention of environmental sensors as the amount of water pollution has increased in recent decades. Chitosan, cellulose and nanocrystalline cellulose are examples of biopolymers that have been intensively studied due to their potential applications, particularly as sensors. Furthermore, the rapid use of conducting polymer materials as a sensing layer in environmental monitoring has also been developed. Thus, the incorporation of biopolymer and conducting polymer materials with various methods has shown promising potential with sensitively and selectively toward heavy metal ions. In this feature paper, selected recent and updated investigations are reviewed on biopolymer and conducting polymer-based materials in sensors aimed at the detection of heavy metal ions by optical methods. This review intends to provide sufficient evidence of the potential of polymer-based materials as sensing layers, and future outlooks are considered in developing surface plasmon resonance as an excellent and valid sensor for heavy metal ion detection.
Hydrophilic behaviour of carrageenan macroalgae biopolymer, due to hydroxyl groups, has limited its applications, especially for packaging. In this study, macroalgae were reinforced with cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) isolated from kenaf bast fibres. The macroalgae CNF film was after that treated with silane for hydrophobicity enhancement. The wettability and functional properties of unmodified macroalgae CNF films were compared with silane-modified macroalgae CNF films. Characterisation of the unmodified and modified biopolymers films was investigated. The atomic force microscope (AFM), SEM morphology, tensile properties, water contact angle, and thermal behaviour of the biofilms showed that the incorporation of Kenaf bast CNF remarkably increased the strength, moisture resistance, and thermal stability of the macroalgae biopolymer films. Moreover, the films' modification using a silane coupling agent further enhanced the strength and thermal stability of the films apart from improved water-resistance of the biopolymer films compared to unmodified films. The morphology and AFM showed good interfacial interaction of the components of the biopolymer films. The modified biopolymer films exhibited significantly improved hydrophobic properties compared to the unmodified films due to the enhanced dispersion resulting from the silane treatment. The improved biopolymer films can potentially be utilised as packaging materials.
Globally, agro-industrial by products such as fruit waste has attained immense recognition to be used for the extraction of valuable functional ingredients. Pectin is naturally occurring biopolymer that is widely recognized in food industry as well as in biotechnology. Keeping in view, current research was conducted for extraction, characterization and utilization of grapefruit peel pectin from Duncan cultivar. The extracted pectin was characterized for different parameters that explored its role in value added products. Acid extraction was carried out and then pectin was characterized for equivalent weight, ash content and methoxyl content. With the addition of extracted pectin, jam was prepared and analysed for physicochemical analysis and sensory attributes. The maximum extraction (22.55%) was done from grapefruit peel at temperature-120°C with pH-1.5, while minimum extraction (0.41%) was obtained at temperature-120°C with pH-2. Moreover, adding pectin in jam formulation resulted in significant effect on texture of the final product. Conclusively, pectin holds a great potential to be extracted and utilized in fruit based products for best quality and value addition.