Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 41 in total

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  1. Mohd Nadzir M, Nurhayati RW, Idris FN, Nguyen MH
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Feb 10;13(4).
    PMID: 33578978 DOI: 10.3390/polym13040530
    Bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are an essential group of compounds secreted by bacteria. These versatile EPSs are utilized individually or in combination with different materials for a broad range of biomedical field functions. The various applications can be explained by the vast number of derivatives with useful properties that can be controlled. This review offers insight on the current research trend of nine commonly used EPSs, their biosynthesis pathways, their characteristics, and the biomedical applications of these relevant bioproducts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  2. Lee WK, Lim YY, Leow AT, Namasivayam P, Ong Abdullah J, Ho CL
    Carbohydr Polym, 2017 May 15;164:23-30.
    PMID: 28325321 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.01.078
    Agar is a jelly-like biopolymer synthesized by many red seaweeds as their major cell wall component. Due to its excellent rheological properties, it has been exploited commercially for applications in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, biomedical and biotechnology industries. Despite its multiple uses, the biosynthesis of this phycocolloid is not fully understood. The current knowledge on agar biosynthesis is inferred from plant biochemistry and putative pathways for ulvan and alginate biosynthesis in green and brown seaweeds, respectively. In this review, the gaps in our current knowledge on agar biosynthetic pathway are discussed, focusing on the biosynthesis of agar precursors, elongation of agar polysaccharide chain and side chain modification. The development of molecular markers for the screening of desired seaweeds for industrial exploitation is also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  3. Peramuna A, Bae H, Quiñonero López C, Fromberg A, Petersen B, Simonsen HT
    PLoS One, 2020;15(12):e0243620.
    PMID: 33284858 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0243620
    Plant-derived terpenoids are extensively used in perfume, food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, and several attempts are being made to produce terpenes in heterologous hosts. Native hosts have evolved to accumulate large quantities of terpenes in specialized cells. However, heterologous cells lack the capacity needed to produce and store high amounts of non-native terpenes, leading to reduced growth and loss of volatile terpenes by evaporation. Here, we describe how to direct the sesquiterpene patchoulol production into cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) in Physcomitrium patens (syn. Physcomitrella patens), by attaching patchoulol synthase (PTS) to proteins linked to plant LD biogenesis. Three different LD-proteins: Oleosin (PpOLE1), Lipid Droplet Associated Protein (AtLDAP1) and Seipin (PpSeipin325) were tested as anchors. Ectopic expression of PTS increased the number and size of LDs, implying an unknown mechanism between heterologous terpene production and LD biogenesis. The expression of PTS physically linked to Seipin increased the LD size and the retention of patchoulol in the cell. Overall, the expression of PTS was lower in the anchored mutants than in the control, but when normalized to the expression the production of patchoulol was higher in the seipin-linked mutants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways*
  4. Foong LC, Loh CWL, Ng HS, Lan JC
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2021 Jan 04;37(1):12.
    PMID: 33392834 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-020-02967-3
    Carotenoids are a diverse group of lipid-soluble pigments that exhibit potent biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and provitamin A activities. The potent health benefits of carotenoids result in the surge in the market demands for carotenoids, especially natural carotenoids from sustainable sources. Microbial carotenoids have attracted considerable interests for many industrial applications because of the low costs and ease of scaling-up with shorter production time. There is a growing interest in the search of new and sustainable microbial sources and cost-efficient production strategies following the high economical values and vast commercial applications of carotenoids. This article presents a review on the industrial production strategies of microbial carotenoids from microalgae, fungi, and bacteria sources. The industrial significance of the mass production of microbial carotenoids is also discussed. The structure, classification, and biosynthesis pathway of the carotenoids are also presented in this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  5. Goh LPW, Mahmud F, Lee PC
    Data Brief, 2021 Jun;36:107128.
    PMID: 34095378 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2021.107128
    The genome data of Streptomyces sp. FH025 comprised of 8,381,474 bp with a high GC content of 72.51%. The genome contains 7035 coding sequences spanning 1261 contigs. Streptomyces sp. FH025 contains 57 secondary metabolite gene clusters including polyketide synthase, nonribosomal polyketide synthase and other biosynthetic pathways such as amglyccycl, butyrolactone, terpenes, siderophores, lanthipeptide-class-iv, and ladderane. 16S rRNA analysis of Streptomyces sp. FH025 is similar to the Streptomyces genus. This whole genome project has been deposited at NCBI under the accession JAFLNG000000000.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  6. Samadlouie HR, Hamidi-Esfahani Z, Alavi SM, Varastegani B
    Braz J Microbiol, 2014;45(2):439-45.
    PMID: 25242926
    The time courses for production of fungal biomass, lipid, phenolic and arachidonic acid (ARA) as well as expression of the genes involved in biosynthesis of ARA and lipid were examined in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68. A significant increase in the arachidonic acid content in lipids that coincided with reduced levels of lipid was obtained. Reduced gene expression occurred presumably due to the steady reduction of carbon and nitrogen resources. However, these energy resources were inefficiently compensated by the breakdown of the accumulated lipids that in turn, induced up-regulated expression of the candidate genes. The results further indicated that the expression of the GLELO encoding gene is a rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of ARA in the early growth phase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics*
  7. Roslan ND, Yusop JM, Baharum SN, Othman R, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Ismail I, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(3):2692-706.
    PMID: 22489118 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13032692
    P. minus is an aromatic plant, the leaf of which is widely used as a food additive and in the perfume industry. The leaf also accumulates secondary metabolites that act as active ingredients such as flavonoid. Due to limited genomic and transcriptomic data, the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids is currently unclear. Identification of candidate genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway will significantly contribute to understanding the biosynthesis of active compounds. We have constructed a standard cDNA library from P. minus leaves, and two normalized full-length enriched cDNA libraries were constructed from stem and root organs in order to create a gene resource for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, especially flavonoid biosynthesis. Thus, large-scale sequencing of P. minus cDNA libraries identified 4196 expressed sequences tags (ESTs) which were deposited in dbEST in the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI). From the three constructed cDNA libraries, 11 ESTs encoding seven genes were mapped to the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Finally, three flavonoid biosynthetic pathway-related ESTs chalcone synthase, CHS (JG745304), flavonol synthase, FLS (JG705819) and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase, LDOX (JG745247) were selected for further examination by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in different P. minus organs. Expression was detected in leaf, stem and root. Gene expression studies have been initiated in order to better understand the underlying physiological processes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics*
  8. Butt FI, Muhammad N, Hamid A, Moniruzzaman M, Sharif F
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Dec;120(Pt A):1294-1305.
    PMID: 30189278 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.09.002
    PHAs (polyhydroxyalkanoates) have emerged as biodegradable plastics more strongly in the 20th century. A wide range of bacterial species along with fungi, plants, oilseed crops and carbon sources have been used extensively to synthesize PHA on large scales. Alteration of PHA monomers in their structures and composition has led to the development of biodegradable and biocompatible polymers with highly specific mechanical properties. This leads to the incorporation of PHA in numerous biomedical applications within the previous decade. PHAs have been fabricated in various forms to perform tissue engineering to repair liver, bone, cartilage, heart tissues, cardiovascular tissues, bone marrow, and to act as drug delivery system and nerve conduits. A large number of animal trials have been carried out to assess the biomedical properties of PHA monomers, which also confirms the high compatibility of PHA family for this field. This review summarizes the synthesis of PHA from different sources, and biosynthetic pathways and biomedical applications of biosynthesized polyhydroxyalkanoates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics*
  9. Makita Y, Ng KK, Veera Singham G, Kawashima M, Hirakawa H, Sato S, et al.
    DNA Res, 2017 Apr 01;24(2):159-167.
    PMID: 28431015 DOI: 10.1093/dnares/dsw056
    Natural rubber has unique physical properties that cannot be replaced by products from other latex-producing plants or petrochemically produced synthetic rubbers. Rubber from Hevea brasiliensis is the main commercial source for this natural rubber that has a cis-polyisoprene configuration. For sustainable production of enough rubber to meet demand elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in the production of latex is vital. To this end, we firstly constructed rubber full-length cDNA libraries of RRIM 600 cultivar and sequenced around 20,000 clones by the Sanger method and over 15,000 contigs by Illumina sequencer. With these data, we updated around 5,500 gene structures and newly annotated around 9,500 transcription start sites. Second, to elucidate the rubber biosynthetic pathways and their transcriptional regulation, we carried out tissue- and cultivar-specific RNA-Seq analysis. By using our recently published genome sequence, we confirmed the expression patterns of the rubber biosynthetic genes. Our data suggest that the cytoplasmic mevalonate (MVA) pathway is the main route for isoprenoid biosynthesis in latex production. In addition to the well-studied polymerization factors, we suggest that rubber elongation factor 8 (REF8) is a candidate factor in cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis. We have also identified 39 transcription factors that may be key regulators in latex production. Expression profile analysis using two additional cultivars, RRIM 901 and PB 350, via an RNA-Seq approach revealed possible expression differences between a high latex-yielding cultivar and a disease-resistant cultivar.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics*
  10. Hasan H, Abd Rahim MH, Campbell L, Carter D, Abbas A, Montoya A
    N Biotechnol, 2019 Sep 25;52:19-24.
    PMID: 30995533 DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2019.04.003
    Lovastatin is widely prescribed to reduce elevated levels of cholesterol and prevent heart-related diseases. Cultivation of Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 20542) with carbohydrates or low-value feedstocks such as glycerol produces lovastatin as a secondary metabolite and (+)-geodin as a by-product. An A. terreus mutant strain was developed (gedCΔ) with a disrupted (+)-geodin biosynthesis pathway. The gedCΔ mutant was created by inserting the antibiotic marker hygromycin B (hyg) within the gedC gene that encodes emodin anthrone polyketide synthase (PKS), a primary gene responsible for initiating (+)-geodin biosynthesis. The effects of emodin anthrone PKS gene disruption on (+)-geodin and lovastatin biosynthesis and the production of the precursors acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA were investigated with cultures based on glycerol alone and in combination with lactose. The gedCΔ strain showed improved lovastatin production, particularly when cultivated on the glycerol-lactose mixture, increasing lovastatin production by 80% (113 mg/L) while simultaneously inhibiting (+)-geodin biosynthesis compared to the wild-type strain. This study thus shows that suppression of the (+)-geodin pathway increases lovastatin yield and demonstrates a practical approach of manipulating carbon flux by modulating enzyme activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways*
  11. Van Thuoc D, Loan TT, Trung TA, Van Quyen N, Tung QN, Tien PQ, et al.
    Mar Biotechnol (NY), 2020 Oct;22(5):651-660.
    PMID: 32827070 DOI: 10.1007/s10126-020-09986-z
    Salinivibrio proteolyticus M318, a halophilic bacterium isolated from fermented shrimp paste, is able to produce polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from different carbon sources. In this study, we report the whole-genome sequence of strain M138, which comprises 2 separated chromosomes and 2 plasmids, and the complete genome contains 3,605,935 bp with an average GC content of 49.9%. The genome of strain M318 contains 3341 genes, 98 tRNA genes, and 28 rRNA genes. The 16S rRNA gene sequence and average nucleotide identity analysis associated with morphological and biochemical tests showed that this strain has high homology to the reference strain Salinivibrio proteolyticus DSM 8285. The genes encoding key enzymes for PHA and ectoine synthesis were identified from the bacterial genome. In addition, the TeaABC transporter responsible for ectoine uptake from the environment and the operon doeABXCD responsible for the degradation of ectoine were also detected. Strain M318 was able to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] from different carbon sources such as glycerol, maltose, glucose, fructose, and starch. The ability to produce ectoines at different NaCl concentrations was investigated. High ectoine content of 26.2% of cell dry weight was obtained by this strain at 18% NaCl. This report provides genetic information regarding adaptive mechanisms of strain M318 to stress conditions, as well as new knowledge to facilitate the application of this strain as a bacterial cell factory for the production of PHA and ectoine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics
  12. Eng-Chong T, Yean-Kee L, Chin-Fei C, Choon-Han H, Sher-Ming W, Li-Ping CT, et al.
    PMID: 23243448 DOI: 10.1155/2012/473637
    Boesenbergia rotunda is a herb from the Boesenbergia genera under the Zingiberaceae family. B. rotunda is widely found in Asian countries where it is commonly used as a food ingredient and in ethnomedicinal preparations. The popularity of its ethnomedicinal usage has drawn the attention of scientists worldwide to further investigate its medicinal properties. Advancement in drug design and discovery research has led to the development of synthetic drugs from B. rotunda metabolites via bioinformatics and medicinal chemistry studies. Furthermore, with the advent of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, new insights on the biosynthetic pathways of B. rotunda metabolites can be elucidated, enabling researchers to predict the potential bioactive compounds responsible for the medicinal properties of the plant. The vast biological activities exhibited by the compounds obtained from B. rotunda warrant further investigation through studies such as drug discovery, polypharmacology, and drug delivery using nanotechnology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  13. Kabir, M.U., Abdulkarim, S.M., Son, R., Azizah, A.H., Saari, N.B.
    MyJurnal
    Phytochemicals belonging to the group’s phenols, terpenes, betalains, organosulfides, indoles and protein inhibitors are important components in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts that have health promoting benefits and a variety of applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. Initially only a few of these important phytochemicals are produced commercially by chemical synthesis. However, recent developments in the field of biotechnology have provided metabolic engineering strategies that use microorganisms as cell factories for high production of these products. This review will discuss the general biosynthetic pathways, metabolic engineering and optimization strategies of functional phytochemicals that have received a lot of attention from investigators.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  14. Gan HM, Thomas BN, Cavanaugh NT, Morales GH, Mayers AN, Savka MA, et al.
    PeerJ, 2017;5:e4030.
    PMID: 29158974 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4030
    In industry, the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa is commonly used for the production of carotenoids. The production of carotenoids is important because they are used as natural colorants in food and some carotenoids are precursors of retinol (vitamin A). However, the identification and molecular characterization of the carotenoid pathway/s in species belonging to the genus Rhodotorula is scarce due to the lack of genomic information thus potentially impeding effective metabolic engineering of these yeast strains for improved carotenoid production. In this study, we report the isolation, identification, characterization and the whole nuclear genome and mitogenome sequence of the endophyte R. mucilaginosa RIT389 isolated from Distemonanthus benthamianus, a plant known for its anti-fungal and antibacterial properties and commonly used as chewing sticks. The assembled genome of R. mucilaginosa RIT389 is 19 Mbp in length with an estimated genomic heterozygosity of 9.29%. Whole genome phylogeny supports the species designation of strain RIT389 within the genus in addition to supporting the monophyly of the currently sequenced Rhodotorula species. Further, we report for the first time, the recovery of the complete mitochondrial genome of R. mucilaginosa using the genome skimming approach. The assembled mitogenome is at least 7,000 bases larger than that of Rhodotorula taiwanensis which is largely attributed to the presence of large intronic regions containing open reading frames coding for homing endonuclease from the LAGLIDADG and GIY-YIG families. Furthermore, genomic regions containing the key genes for carotenoid production were identified in R. mucilaginosa RIT389, revealing differences in gene synteny that may play a role in the regulation of the biotechnologically important carotenoid synthesis pathways in yeasts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  15. Remali J, Sarmin N'M, Ng CL, Tiong JJL, Aizat WM, Keong LK, et al.
    PeerJ, 2017;5:e3738.
    PMID: 29201559 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3738
    Background: Streptomyces are well known for their capability to produce many bioactive secondary metabolites with medical and industrial importance. Here we report a novel bioactive phenazine compound, 6-((2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenoxy) carbonyl) phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (HCPCA) extracted from Streptomyces kebangsaanensis, an endophyte isolated from the ethnomedicinal Portulaca oleracea.

    Methods: The HCPCA chemical structure was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We conducted whole genome sequencing for the identification of the gene cluster(s) believed to be responsible for phenazine biosynthesis in order to map its corresponding pathway, in addition to bioinformatics analysis to assess the potential of S. kebangsaanensis in producing other useful secondary metabolites.

    Results: The S. kebangsaanensis genome comprises an 8,328,719 bp linear chromosome with high GC content (71.35%) consisting of 12 rRNA operons, 81 tRNA, and 7,558 protein coding genes. We identified 24 gene clusters involved in polyketide, nonribosomal peptide, terpene, bacteriocin, and siderophore biosynthesis, as well as a gene cluster predicted to be responsible for phenazine biosynthesis.

    Discussion: The HCPCA phenazine structure was hypothesized to derive from the combination of two biosynthetic pathways, phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylic acid and 4-methoxybenzene-1,2-diol, originated from the shikimic acid pathway. The identification of a biosynthesis pathway gene cluster for phenazine antibiotics might facilitate future genetic engineering design of new synthetic phenazine antibiotics. Additionally, these findings confirm the potential of S. kebangsaanensis for producing various antibiotics and secondary metabolites.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  16. Ramzi AB, Baharum SN, Bunawan H, Scrutton NS
    Front Bioeng Biotechnol, 2020;8:608918.
    PMID: 33409270 DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2020.608918
    Increasing demands for the supply of biopharmaceuticals have propelled the advancement of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies for biomanufacturing of bioactive natural products. Using metabolically engineered microbes as the bioproduction hosts, a variety of natural products including terpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, and cannabinoids have been synthesized through the construction and expression of known and newly found biosynthetic genes primarily from model and non-model plants. The employment of omics technology and machine learning (ML) platforms as high throughput analytical tools has been increasingly leveraged in promoting data-guided optimization of targeted biosynthetic pathways and enhancement of the microbial production capacity, thereby representing a critical debottlenecking approach in improving and streamlining natural products biomanufacturing. To this end, this mini review summarizes recent efforts that utilize omics platforms and ML tools in strain optimization and prototyping and discusses the beneficial uses of omics-enabled discovery of plant biosynthetic genes in the production of complex plant-based natural products by bioengineered microbes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  17. Lim PC, Ali Z, Khan IA, Khan SI, Kassim NK, Awang K, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2021 Feb 12.
    PMID: 33576269 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2021.1885031
    An undescribed conjugated sesquiterpene, amelicarin (1), together with nine known compounds (2-10) were isolated for the first time from Melicope latifolia. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric methods. The conjugated sesquiterpene possesses a unique 6/6/9/4-ring fused tetracyclic skeleton. The proposed biosynthesis pathway of 1 consist of three reactions steps: (1) polyketide formation, (2) cyclisation and (3) addition to form the conjugated sesquiterpenoid as final metabolite. Out of the ten isolated metabolites, amelicarin (1) showed activity against 4 cancerous cell lines namely SK-MEL skin cancer, KB oral cancer, BT-549 breast cancer, and SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer with IC50 values between 15 and 25 µg/mL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  18. Khalidah-Syahirah Ashari, Zeti-Azura Mohamed-Hussein, Muhammad-Redha Abdullah-Zawawi, Sarahani Harun
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:2993-3002.
    Aliphatic glucosinolate is an important secondary metabolite responsible in plant defense mechanism and carcinogenic
    activity. It plays a crucial role in plant adaptation towards changes in the environment such as salinity and drought.
    However, in many plant genomes, there are thousands of genes encoding proteins still with putative functions and
    incomplete annotations. Therefore, the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana was selected to be investigated further to identify
    any putative genes that are potentially involved in the aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway, most of its gene are
    with incomplete annotation. Known genes for aliphatic glucosinolates were retrieved from KEGG and AraCyc databases.
    Three co-expression databases i.e., ATTED-II, GeneMANIA and STRING were used to perform the co-expression network
    analysis. The integrated co-expression network was then being clustered, annotated and visualized using Cytoscape plugin,
    MCODE and ClueGO. Then, the regulatory network of A. thaliana from AtRegNet was mapped onto the co-expression
    network to build the transcriptional regulatory network. This study showed that a total of 506 genes were co-expressed
    with the 61 aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes. Five transcription factors have been predicted to be involved
    in the biosynthetic pathway of aliphatic glucosinolate, namely SEPALLATA 3 (SEP3), PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR
    3-like 5 (AtbHLH15/PIL5), ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), AGAMOUS-like 15 (AGL15) and GLABRA 3 (GL3). Meanwhile,
    three other genes with high potential to be involved in the aliphatic glucosinolates biosynthetic pathway were identified,
    i.e., methylthioalkylmalate-like synthase 4 (MAML-4) and aspartate aminotransferase (ASP1 and ASP4). These findings
    can be used to complete the aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway in A. thaliana and to update the information
    on the glucosinolate-related pathways in public metabolic databases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  19. Harun S, Abdullah-Zawawi MR, Goh HH, Mohamed-Hussein ZA
    J Agric Food Chem, 2020 Jul 15;68(28):7281-7297.
    PMID: 32551569 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.0c01916
    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are plant secondary metabolites comprising sulfur and nitrogen mainly found in plants from the order of Brassicales, such as broccoli, cabbage, and Arabidopsis thaliana. The activated forms of GSL play important roles in fighting against pathogens and have health benefits to humans. The increasing amount of data on A. thaliana generated from various omics technologies can be investigated more deeply in search of new genes or compounds involved in GSL biosynthesis and metabolism. This review describes a comprehensive inventory of A. thaliana GSLs identified from published literature and databases such as KNApSAcK, KEGG, and AraCyc. A total of 113 GSL genes encoding for 23 transcription components, 85 enzymes, and five protein transporters were experimentally characterized in the past two decades. Continuous efforts are still on going to identify all molecules related to the production of GSLs. A manually curated database known as SuCCombase (http://plant-scc.org) was developed to serve as a comprehensive GSL inventory. Realizing lack of information on the regulation of GSL biosynthesis and degradation mechanisms, this review also includes relevant information and their connections with crosstalk among various factors, such as light, sulfur metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism, not only in A. thaliana but also in other crucifers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  20. Ikram NK, Zhan X, Pan XW, King BC, Simonsen HT
    Front Plant Sci, 2015;6:129.
    PMID: 25852702 DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00129
    Plants biosynthesize a great diversity of biologically active small molecules of interest for fragrances, flavors, and pharmaceuticals. Among specialized metabolites, terpenoids represent the greatest molecular diversity. Many terpenoids are very complex, and total chemical synthesis often requires many steps and difficult chemical reactions, resulting in a low final yield or incorrect stereochemistry. Several drug candidates with terpene skeletons are difficult to obtain by chemical synthesis due to their large number of chiral centers. Thus, biological production remains the preferred method for industrial production for many of these compounds. However, because these chemicals are often found in low abundance in the native plant, or are produced in plants which are difficult to cultivate, there is great interest in engineering increased production or expression of the biosynthetic pathways in heterologous hosts. Although there are many examples of successful engineering of microbes such as yeast or bacteria to produce these compounds, this often requires extensive changes to the host organism's metabolism. Optimization of plant gene expression, post-translational protein modifications, subcellular localization, and other factors often present challenges. To address the future demand for natural products used as drugs, new platforms are being established that are better suited for heterologous production of plant metabolites. Specifically, direct metabolic engineering of plants can provide effective heterologous expression for production of valuable plant-derived natural products. In this review, our primary focus is on small terpenoids and we discuss the benefits of plant expression platforms and provide several successful examples of stable production of small terpenoids in plants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
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