METHODS: We reviewed 22 previous studies that (1) empirically manipulated social support in a stressful situation, (2) measured CVR, and (3) tested a moderator of social support effects on CVR.
RESULTS: Although a majority of studies reported a CVR-mitigating effect of social support resulting in an overall significant combined p-value, we found that there were different effects of social support on CVR when we considered high- and low-engagement contexts. That is, compared to control conditions, social support lowered CVR in more engaging situations but had no significant effect on CVR in less engaging situations.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a dual-effect model of social support effects on CVR may better capture the nature of social support, CVR, and health associations than the buffering hypothesis and emphasize a need to better understand the health implications of physiological reactivity in various contexts. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? According to the stress-buffering hypothesis (Cohen & McKay, ), one pathway social support benefits health is through mitigating the physiological arousal caused by stress. However, previous studies that examined the effects of social support on blood pressure and heart rate changes were not consistently supporting the hypothesis. Some studies reported that social support causes elevations in cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to stress (Anthony & O'Brien, ; Hilmert, Christenfeld, & Kulik, ; Hilmert, Kulik, & Christenfeld, ) and others showed no effect of social support on CVR (Christian & Stoney, ; Craig & Deichert, ; Gallo, Smith, & Kircher, ). What does this study add? When participants were in more engaging conditions, social support decreased CVR relative to no support. When participants were in less engaging conditions, social support did not have a significant effect on CVR. Provide an alternative way to explain the ways social support affects cardiac health.
METHODS: We conducted a randomised, double blinded, two-armed parallel study comparing 20 g/day of Tualang Honey versus 20 g/day Honey Cocktail among postmenopausal women aged 45-65 years. The cardiovascular parameters and anthropometrics measurements were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months of the intervention.
RESULTS: 100 subjects were successfully randomised into the groups. There was a significant decrease in the diastolic blood pressure from 77.92 mmHg at baseline to 73.45 mmHg at 12 months (F-statistic = 2.55, p-value = 0.047) in the Tualang Honey group compared to Honey Cocktail. There was also a significant decrease in the fasting blood sugar from 6.11 mmol/L at baseline to 5.71 mmol/L at 12 months (F-statistic = 4.03, p-value = 0.021) in the Tualang Honey group compared to the Honey Cocktail group. The body mass index remained unchanged at 27 kg/m2 (F-statistic = 1.60, p-value = 0.010) throughout 12 months of the intervention in the Honey Cocktail group.
CONCLUSION: Subjects who received Honey Cocktail showed remarkable effects on body mass index. However, Tualang Honey supplementation showed superior effect in lowering diastolic blood pressure and fasting blood sugar compared to Honey Cocktail. Further studies are required to ascertain the underlying mechanism(s) of Tualang Honey and Honey Cocktail on each observed parameter.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review will be undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data (IPD) guideline. A search of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE and MEDLINE from inception will be conducted to identify randomised controlled trials of BP management in adults with acute spontaneous (non-traumatic) ICH enrolled within the first 7 days of symptom onset. Authors of studies that meet the inclusion criteria will be invited to share their IPD. The primary outcome will be functional outcome according to the modified Rankin Scale. Safety outcomes will be early neurological deterioration, symptomatic hypotension and serious adverse events. Secondary outcomes will include death and neuroradiological and haemodynamic variables. Meta-analyses of pooled IPD using the intention-to-treat dataset of included trials, including subgroup analyses to assess modification of the effects of BP lowering by time to treatment, treatment strategy and patient's demographic, clinical and prestroke neuroradiological characteristics.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No new patient data will be collected nor is there any deviation from the original purposes of each study where ethical approvals were granted; therefore, further ethical approval is not required. Results will be reported in international peer-reviewed journals.
PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019141136.
METHODS: MyBFF@home intervention was a quasi-experimental study which involved 328 overweight and obese housewives aged 18-59 years old (Control group: 159, Intervention group: 169). Data of the control and intervention group (pre and post intervention who completed the body composition and blood pressure measurements were analysed. Body compositions were measured using the Body Impedance Analyser (InBody 720) and blood pressure (Systolic and Diastolic) was taken using the blood pressure monitoring device (Omron HEM 907) at baseline, 6 month and 12 month. Data analyses (Pearson's correlation test and ANOVA) were performed and analysed using SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 22.0.
RESULTS: Visceral fat area, fat mass and body fat percentage, were all significantly decreased in the intervention group compared to the control group after 6 month intervention (p blood pressure was reduced significantly by - 6.81 mmHg (95% CI: -9.72,-3.90; p blood pressure was significantly correlated with BMI (r = 0.19), waist circumference (r = 0.23), body fat mass (r = 0.22), body fat percentage (r = 0.18) visceral fat area (r = 0.22) and skeletal muscle mass (r = 0.14) with p blood pressure were detected in both groups.
CONCLUSION: There were significant changes in the body fat and systolic blood pressure over 6 month among the participants in the intervention group compared to the control group. However, both groups were unable to sustain the positive changes in the body fats during the maintenance phase. There was a relationship between the body composition and blood pressure during the weight loss intervention and weight loss maintenance phase. Participation among obese housewives in a community-based intervention programme led to the improvements in blood pressure and body composition.
METHODS: Literature databases were searched to June 2019. Observational studies were eligible if they measured short-term BPV, defined as variability in blood pressure measurements acquired either over a 24-hour period or several days. Data were extracted on method of BPV and reported association (or not) on future cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Methodological quality was assessed using the CASP observational study tool and data narratively synthesised.
RESULTS: Sixty-one studies including 3,333,801 individuals were eligible. BPV has been assessed by various methods including ambulatory and home-based BP monitors assessing 24-hour, "day-by-day" and "week-to-week" variability. There was moderate quality evidence of an association between BPV and cardiovascular events (43 studies analysed) or all-cause mortality (26 studies analysed) irrespective of the measurement method in the short- to longer-term. There was moderate quality evidence reporting inconsistent findings on the potential association between cardiovascular mortality, irrespective of methods of BPV assessment (17 studies analysed).
CONCLUSION: An association between BPV, cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular events and/or all-cause mortality were reported by the majority of studies irrespective of method of measurement. Direct comparisons between studies and reporting of pooled effect sizes were not possible.
METHODS: This was a subanalysis of secondary data collected from the two cross-sectional national population-based surveys conducted in Malaysia in 2006 and 2015. Adults aged 60 and older who had participated in these two surveys were included in the study.
RESULTS: A total of 4954 (2295 males and 2659 females) and 3790 (1771 males and 2019 females) respondents completed the hypertension module surveys in 2006 and 2015, respectively. The mean age of the respondents was 68.5±6.9 years in 2006 and 68.6±7.1 years in 2015 and the difference was not significant. The prevalence of hypertension significantly reduced from 73.8% in 2006 to 69.2% in 2015 (p<0.001). Among the respondents with hypertension, the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension significantly increased from 49.7% to 60.2%, 86.7% to 91.5% and 23.3% to 44.8%, respectively, from 2006 to 2015. Logistic regression analysis showed that female sex and unemployed/retiree were significantly associated with higher hypertension prevalence in both 2006 and 2015. Being unemployed/ retiree was significantly associated with higher awareness of hypertension in both 2006 and 2015. In both 2006 and 2015, Chinese ethnicity were significantly associated with higher awareness and control of hypertension.
CONCLUSIONS: The mean population BP levels and hypertension prevalence among the elderly population in Malaysia have reduced significantly over the past decade. Although the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among older adults have improved significantly, the awareness and control rates remain suboptimal. As population aging is inevitable, appropriate public health programs and optimal treatment strategies targeting this vulnerable group are urgently needed to improve the overall awareness and control of hypertension and to prevent hypertension-related complications.
METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and ProQuest were searched. Studies were included if participants were more than 60 years, were set within the community or within long-term care and diagnosis was based on a postural drop in systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥20 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥10 mmHg. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Random and quality effects models were used for pooled analysis.
RESULTS: Of 23,090 identified records, 20 studies were included for community-dwelling older people (n = 24,967) and six were included for older people in long-term settings (n = 2,694). There was substantial variation in methods used to identify OH with differing supine rest duration, frequency and timing of standing BP, measurement device, use of standing and tilt-tables and interpretation of the diagnostic drop in BP. The pooled prevalence of OH in community-dwelling older people was 22.2% (95% CI = 17, 28) and 23.9% (95% CI = 18.2, 30.1) in long-term settings. There was significant heterogeneity in both pooled results (I2 > 90%).
CONCLUSIONS: OH is very common, affecting one in five community-dwelling older people and almost one in four older people in long-term care. There is great variability in methods used to identify OH.