Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary fungal metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Human exposure to aflatoxins may result directly from ingestion of contaminated foods, or indirectly from consumption of foods from animals previously exposed to aflatoxins in feeds. This paper focuses on exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in various human body fluids. Research on different metabolites present in blood, urine, breast milk, and other human fluids or tissues including their detection techniques is reviewed. The association between dietary intake of aflatoxins and biomarker measurement is also highlighted. Finally, aspects related to the differences between aflatoxin determination in food versus the biomarker approach are discussed.
A three phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction with in situ derivatization (in situ HF-LPME) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) method was developed for the trace determination of metformin hydrochloride (MH) in biological fluids. A new derivatization agent pentafluorobenzoyl chloride (PFBC) was used. Several parameters that affect the derivatization and extraction efficiency were studied and optimized (i.e., type of organic solvent, volume of NaOH (4M) and derivatization agent in the donor phase, acceptor phase (HCl) concentration, stirring speed, temperature, time and salt addition). Under the optimum conditions (organic solvent, dihexyl ether; volume of NaOH (4M) and derivatization agent (10mg PFBC in 1mL acetonitrile) in the donor phase, 600 and100μL, respectively; acceptor phase, 100mM HCl (10μL); stirring speed, 300rpm; extraction time, 30min; derivatization temperature, 70°C; without addition of salt) an enrichment factor of 210-fold was achieved. Good linearity was observed over the range of 1-1000ngmL(-1) (r(2)=0.9998). The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.56 and 1.68ngmL(-1), respectively. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of MH in biological fluids (plasma and urine) and water samples. Prior to the microextraction treatment of plasma samples, deproteinization step using acetonitrile was conducted. The proposed method is simple, rapid, sensitive and suitable for the determination of MH in a variety of samples.
In recent years, calcium phosphate-base composites, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and carbonate apatite (CA) have been considered desirable and biocompatible coating layers in clinical and biomedical applications such as implants because of the high resistance of the composites. This review focuses on the effects of voltage, time and electrolytes on a calcium phosphate-base composite layer in case of pure titanium and other biomedical grade titanium alloys via the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. Remarkably, these parameters changed the structure, morphology, pH, thickness and crystallinity of the obtained coating for various engineering and biomedical applications. Hence, the structured layer caused improvement of the biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and assignment of extra benefits for Osseo integration. The fabricated layer with a thickness range of 10 to 20 μm was evaluated for physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological characteristics via XRD, FESEM, EDS, EIS and corrosion analysis respectively, to determine the effects of the applied parameters and various electrolytes on morphology and phase transition. Moreover, it was observed that during PEO, the concentration of calcium, phosphor and titanium shifts upward, which leads to an enhanced bioactivity by altering the thickness. The results confirm that the crystallinity, thickness and contents of composite layer can be changed by applying thermal treatments. The corrosion behavior was investigated via the potentiodynamic polarization test in a body-simulated environment. Here, the optimum corrosion resistance was obtained for the coating process condition at 500 V for 15 min in Ringer solution. This review has been summarized, aiming at the further development of PEO by producing more adequate titanium-base implants along with desired mechanical and biomedical features.
In the present work, the microstructure, corrosion, and bioactivity of graphene oxide (GO) coating on the laser-modified and -unmodified surfaces of TiNb shape memory alloys (SMAs) were investigated. The surface morphology and chemical composition was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface modification was carried out via a femtosecond laser with the aim to increase the surface roughness, and thus increase the adhesion property. FE-SEM analysis of the laser-treated Ti-30at.% Nb revealed the increase in surface roughness and oxygen/nitrogen containing groups on the Ti-30at.% Nb surface after being surface modified via a femtosecond laser. Furthermore, the thickness of GO was increased from 35μm to 45μm after the surface was modified. Potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies revealed that both the GO and laser/GO-coated samples exhibited higher corrosion resistance than that of the uncoated TiNb SMA sample. However, the laser/GO-coated sample presented the highest corrosion resistance in SBF at 37°C. In addition, during soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF), both the GO and laser/GO coating improved the formation of apatite layer. Based on the bioactivity results, the GO coating exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria compared with the uncoated. In conclusion, the present results indicate that Ti-30at.% Nb SMAs may be promising alternatives to NiTi for certain biomedical applications.
Nanocomposites of magnetite (Fe3O4) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) generate heat under an alternating magnetic field and therefore have potential applications as thermoseeds for cancer hyperthermia treatment. However, the properties of such nanocomposites as biomaterials have not been sufficiently well characterized. In this study, the osteoconductivity of Fe3O4-rGO nanocomposites of various compositions was evaluated in vitro in terms of their apatite-forming ability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Furthermore, the heat generation of the nanocomposites was measured under an alternating magnetic field. The apatite-forming ability in SBF improved as the Fe3O4 content in the nanocomposite was increased. As the Fe3O4 content was increased, the nanocomposite not only rapidly raised the surrounding temperature to approximately 100 °C, but the specific absorption rate also increased. We assumed that the ionic interaction between the Fe3O4 and rGO was enhanced and that Brown relaxation was suppressed as the proportion of rGO in the nanocomposite was increased. Consequently, a high content of Fe3O4 in the nanocomposite was effective for improving both the osteoconductivity and heat generation characteristics for hyperthermia applications.
Poor reproducibility within and across studies arising from lack of knowledge regarding the performance of extracellular RNA (exRNA) isolation methods has hindered progress in the exRNA field. A systematic comparison of 10 exRNA isolation methods across 5 biofluids revealed marked differences in the complexity and reproducibility of the resulting small RNA-seq profiles. The relative efficiency with which each method accessed different exRNA carrier subclasses was determined by estimating the proportions of extracellular vesicle (EV)-, ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-specific miRNA signatures in each profile. An interactive web-based application (miRDaR) was developed to help investigators select the optimal exRNA isolation method for their studies. miRDar provides comparative statistics for all expressed miRNAs or a selected subset of miRNAs in the desired biofluid for each exRNA isolation method and returns a ranked list of exRNA isolation methods prioritized by complexity, expression level, and reproducibility. These results will improve reproducibility and stimulate further progress in exRNA biomarker development.
Electrospinning of hydroxyapatite (HA)/polyvinyl butyral solution resulted in the formation of fibers with average diameter of 937-1440 nm. These fibers were converted into HA nanoparticles with size <100 nm after undergoing calcination treatment at 600°C. The diameter of the fiber was found to be influenced by applied voltage and spinning distance. The injection flowrate did not affect the diameter significantly. The electrospinning method successfully reduced the commercial HA particle size in the range of 400-1100 nm into <100 nm. The dispersion of the finally calcined HA nanoparticles was improved significantly after anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant was introduced. The experimental data of HA growth kinetics were subjected to the integral method of analysis, and the rate law of the reaction was found to follow the first order reaction.
Peptides with biological properties, that is, bioactive peptides, are a class of biomolecules whose health-promoting properties are increasingly being exploited in food and health products. However, research on targeted techniques for the detection and quantification of these peptides is still in its infancy. Such information is needed in order to enhance the biological and chemometric characterization of peptides and their subsequent application in the functional food and pharmaceutical industries. In this review, the role of classic techniques such as electrophoretic, chromatographic, and peptide mass spectrometry in the structure-informed detection and quantitation of bioactive peptides are discussed. Prospects for the use of aptamers in the characterization of bioactive peptides are also discussed. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Although bioactive peptides have huge potential applications in the functional foods and health area, there are limited techniques in enhancing throughput detection, quantification, and characterization of these peptides. This review discusses state-of-the-art techniques relevant in complementing bioactive detection and profiling irrespective of the small number of amino acid units. Insights into challenges, possible remedies and prevailing areas requiring thorough research in the extant literature for food chemists and biotechnologists are also presented.
In this study, randomly oriented hydroxyethyl cellulose/polyvinyl alcohol (HEC/PVA) nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning. The blend solutions of HEC/PVA with different weight ratio of HEC to PVA were prepared using water as solvent to fabricate nanofibers. These nanofibrous scaffolds were coated with bone-like apatite by immersing into 10x simulated body fluid (SBF) for different time periods. The morphology and structure of the nanofibers were characterized by SEM, FTIR and DSC. FESEM-EDS and FTIR analysis were used to confirm the deposition of apatite on the surface of nanofibers. The results of this study suggest that this apatite coated nanofibrous scaffolds could be a suitable biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.
Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium.