Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 208 in total

  1. Wael Mohamed, Rozita Hassan, Shaifulizan Ab. Rahman
    Duration of treatment is one of the things orthodontic patients complaint about
    most and challenging orthodontist to shorten treatment time. A new surgical technique was
    introduced to accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatment through combining surgical
    and orthodontic treatment by doing surgical reduction of the bone mass in the path of desired
    tooth movement prior to start orthodontic alignment of the teeth. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density
  2. Yeap SS
    JUMMEC, 1998;3(1&2):13-17.
    Bisphosphonates are synthetic analogues of pyrophosphate. Their main pharmacological effect is to iuhibit bone resorption by a variety of mechanisms, not all of which are clearly understood. The activity of the bisphosphonates varies depending on the compound. In clinical trials, they have been shown to stop postmenopausal bone loss and increase bone density, with a concomitant reduction in fracture rate with some agents. This article reviews the currently known mechanisms of action of the bisphosphonates and the evidence that they are useful in the treatment of osteoporosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density
  3. Goh SSL, Lai PSM, Tan ATB, Ponnampalavanar S
    Osteoporos Int, 2018 03;29(3):595-613.
    PMID: 29159533 DOI: 10.1007/s00198-017-4305-8
    A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in HIV-infected and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated individuals was significantly higher than respective controls. Evidence regarding bone loss within first year of HIV infection or ART initiation was preliminary.

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to systematically review published literature on the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis and its associated risk factors in HIV-infected individuals.

    METHODS: A literature search was conducted from 1989 to 2015 in six databases. Full text, English articles on HIV-infected individuals ≥ 18 years, which used dual X-ray absorptiometry to measure BMD, were included. Studies were excluded if the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis was without a comparison group, and the BMD/T-score were not reported.

    RESULTS: Twenty-one cross sectional and eight longitudinal studies were included. The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis was significantly higher in both HIV-infected [odds ratio (OR) = 2.4 (95%Cl: 2.0, 2.8) at lumbar spine, 2.6 (95%Cl: 2.2, 3.0) at hip] and ART-treated individuals [OR = 2.8 (95%Cl: 2.0, 3.8) at lumbar spine, 3.4 (95%Cl: 2.5, 4.7) at hip] when compared to controls. PI-treated individuals had an OR of 1.3 (95%Cl: 1.0, 1.7) of developing osteopenia/osteoporosis compared to controls. A higher proportion of tenofovir-treated individuals (52.6%) had lower BMD compared to controls (42.7%), but did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.248). No significant difference was found in the percent change of BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, or total hip from baseline to follow-up between HIV-infected, PI-treated, tenofovir-treated, and controls. Older age, history of bone fracture, low BMI, low body weight, being Hispanic or Caucasian, low testosterone level, smoking, low CD4 cell count, lipodystrophy, low fat mass, and low lean body mass were associated with low BMD.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in HIV-infected and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated individuals was two times more compared to controls. However, evidence concerning bone loss within the first year of HIV infection and ART initiation was preliminary.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density*
  4. Parvaneh K, Jamaluddin R, Karimi G, Erfani R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:595962.
    PMID: 24587733 DOI: 10.1155/2014/595962
    A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1) increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2) producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3) reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4) hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density/drug effects*
  5. Zaini WM, Md Ariff A
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Oct;67(5):487-90.
    PMID: 23770864 MyJurnal
    This short-term study which was carried out in a small group of pre- and postmenopausal women at Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II (HRPZII) aims to compare between Tscores detected by heel Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) and by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) of the hip and spine. The prevalence of osteoporosis by heel QUS was 63.3% and up to 16.7% by DXA. Insufficient or weak agreement exists between T-score measurements by heel QUS and axial DXA. Significant correlations were found between measurements of T-scores by both methods, with r values from 0.364 to 0.91. Although some correlation was found, significant discrepancy in the frequency of osteoporosis using different methods and sites is substantial.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density*
  6. Kuan YC, How SH, Azian AA, Liam CK, Ng TH, Fauzi AR
    Annals of thoracic medicine, 2012 Apr;7(2):69-73.
    PMID: 22558010 DOI: 10.4103/1817-1737.94522
    Prolonged use of oral corticosteroids is a risk factor for osteoporosis. However, the effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on bone mineral density (BMD) of asthmatic patients remains controversial.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density
  7. Yeap SS
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2008;11:323-326.
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-185X.2008.00404.x
    Osteoporosis only became a 'disease' entity in the 20th century. After the initial observations and definitions of osteoporosis based on Caucasian populations, systematic research in Asian populations started in the 1980s. Significant variations between different ethnic groups with respect to the rate of osteoporotic fractures, bone mineral density and disease risk factors emerged from the data; this article highlights some of the earlier important findings and the dissimilarities. Osteoporosis is therefore not a homogeneous disease across the world.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density
  8. Ong T, Yong BKA, Shouter T, Shahrokhi N, Sahota O
    Eur Geriatr Med, 2020 08;11(4):635-638.
    PMID: 32488688 DOI: 10.1007/s41999-020-00340-z
    PURPOSE: Patients with a hip fracture and co-existing advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at risk of further fractures due to either CKD-mineral bone disease or osteoporosis.

    METHODS: An analysis of a hospital's hip fracture service registry of patients ≥ 60 years with CKD stage 4 (15-29 ml/min/1.73m2) or stage 5 (bone health clinic appointment made, but less than half attended.

    CONCLUSION: Patients with advanced CKD admitted to hospital with a hip fracture have a poor survival. In many, the focus of care should be on supporting quality daily living and not bone health optimisation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density
  9. Pang KL, Low NY, Chin KY
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2020;14:4029-4051.
    PMID: 33061307 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S270829
    Denosumab is a receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand inhibitor, which suppresses the bone resorption process to preserve bone mass. It is usually recommended to postmenopausal women and men with high fracture risk. With the recent publication of the results from FREEDOM study and its extension, the long-term effect of denosumab in preventing fragility fractures has been put forward. This review aims at summarising the evidence of denosumab in reducing fracture risk and its safety derived from clinical studies. Most of the evidence are derived from FREEDOM trials up to 10 years of exposure. Denosumab is reported to prevent vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. It is also proven effective in Japanese women, patients with chronic kidney diseases and breast cancer patients receiving antineoplastic therapy. Denosumab discontinuation leads to high remodeling, loss of bone mineral density and increased fracture risk. These negative effects might be preventable by bisphosphonate treatment. The safety profile of denosumab is consistent with increased years of exposure. In conclusion, denosumab is a safe and effective option for reducing fracture risk among patients with osteoporosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density/drug effects; Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology*
  10. Effendy NM, Khamis MF, Shuid AN
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(13):1542-51.
    PMID: 24010967
    Bone quality assessment is important in assessments of potential agents for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Bone density, microarchitecture and strength are important determinants in osteoporotic study which are widely studied using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), histomorphometry and radiological imaging techniques. In recent years, high resolution micro-CT has become feasible for in vitro or in vivo evaluation of bone architecture. Three-dimensional images of micro-CT reflected high correlations with the conventional histomorphometry and DXA. In comparison to other imaging techniques, micro-CT is the most effective tool in detecting early bone changes for fracture prediction and assessments of potential anti-osteoporotic agents. It is crucial to define an ideal setting with safe radiation doses and appropriate methods for image reconstruction and segmentation to obtain high resolution images. Micro-CT evaluation provides a better insight of bone structure as well as non-metric parameters such as connectivity density, structural model index (SMI) and degree of anisotropy (DA). This non- invasive imaging technique is also equipped with finite element analysis for evaluation of bone biomechanical strength. Micro-CT allows a compressive understanding of the relationships between bone density, microarchitecture and strength which is fundamental to development of pharmacological interventions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density*
  11. Zain NM, Seriramulu VP, Chelliah KK
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2016;17(7):3229-34.
    PMID: 27509955
    BACKGROUND: Bone mineral density (BMD) is a lifetime marker of estrogen in a woman's body and has been associated with increased breast cancer risk. Nonetheless the actual association is still debatable. Furthermore, estrogen is very crucial in maintaining human bone density and gradually decreases over age. A systematic search was conducted to assess any association of BMD with breast cancer risk factors among premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review identification was performed through databases searching on MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS and 19 qualified studies were elected. The keywords used were "bone mineral density", "breast cancer", and "breast density".

    RESULTS: A total of 19 articles showed variation with the majority of the studies focused on postmenopausal and a few focused on premenopausal women. Overall there was no concensus on effects.

    CONCLUSIONS: An enormous effort is being undertaken by researchers to prove that BMD might be one of the significant risk factors for breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density*
  12. Yeo PS, Shahar S, Rajikan R, Mohd Yusoff NA
    Int J Public Health Res, 2014;4St(1):399-404.
    Introduction Low bone mineral density is a significant problem in children with Thalassemia which may lead to increased risk for fragility fractures and suboptimal peak bone mass. This cross-sectional study was conducted to
    determine the bone health status of Thalassemia children Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre and Paediatrics Insititute Kuala Lumpur Hospital.
    Methods A total of 81 respondents diagnosed with transfusion dependant beta Thalassemia (41 boys and 40 girls) aged between 7 to 19 years old completed the study. The data collected were demographic information, anthropometric measurements, dairy frequency questionnaires, dietary habits of the respondents and their parents, dietary intakes and bone densitometry using Ultrasound Bone Densitometer.
    Results For Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) parameters, T-score of 9.8% participants were lower than -1.0 and 30.9% of the participants had lower Speed of Sound (SOS) than healthy SOS. This study showed there was no difference in bone density by sex (p>0.05). The median bone density of boys was 1616.00 m/sec (IQR= 39.00) and girls’ was 1579.00 m/ sec (IQR= 116.00). SOS was not increased with age, height and weight; but girls’ Body Mass Index (BMI). Malay children had significantly higher SOS than non-Malay children.
    Conclusions This study highlights a need of proper intervention for the high risk group to achieve optimal bone health.
    Study site: inpatient or outpatient, Institut Pediatrik (Hospital Kuala Lumpur), Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density*
  13. Rosen HN, Hamnvik OR, Jaisamrarn U, Malabanan AO, Safer JD, Tangpricha V, et al.
    J Clin Densitom, 2019 07 10;22(4):544-553.
    PMID: 31327665 DOI: 10.1016/j.jocd.2019.07.004
    The indications for initial and follow-up bone mineral density (BMD) in transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals are poorly defined, and the choice of which gender database to use to calculate Z-scores is unclear. Herein, the findings of the Task Force are presented after a detailed review of the literature. As long as a TGNC individual is on standard gender-affirming hormone treatment, BMD should remain stable to increasing, so there is no indication to monitor for bone loss or osteoporosis strictly on the basis of TGNC status. TGNC individuals who experience substantial periods of hypogonadism (>1 yr) might experience bone loss or failure of bone accrual during that time, and should be considered for baseline measurement of BMD. To the extent that this hypogonadism continues over time, follow-up measurements can be appropriate. TGNC individuals who have adequate levels of endogenous or exogenous sex steroids can, of course, suffer from other illnesses that can cause osteoporosis and bone loss, such as hyperparathyroidism and steroid use; they should have measurement of BMD as would be done in the cisgender population. There are no data that TGNC individuals have a fracture risk different from that of cisgender individuals, nor any data to suggest that BMD predicts their fracture risk less well than in the cisgender population. The Z-score in transgender individuals should be calculated using the reference data (mean and standard deviation) of the gender conforming with the individual's gender identity. In gender nonconforming individuals, the reference data for the sex recorded at birth should be used. If the referring provider or the individual requests, a set of "male" and "female" Z-scores can be provided, calculating the Z-score against male and female reference data, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density*
  14. Benjamin B, Benjamin MA, Swe M, Sugathan S
    Osteoporos Sarcopenia, 2016 Jun;2(2):77-81.
    PMID: 30775470 DOI: 10.1016/j.afos.2016.03.003
    Objectives: Osteoporosis is a rapidly rising cause of concern for elderly patients. Various classes of drugs are available in the market. Bisphosphonates are considered as a first-line therapy for the prevention and treatment. Denosumab is an antiresorptive agent which is a RANK ligand inhibitor. There is a scarcity of comparison between these two classes of drugs. The aim of this study is to compare efficacy of Bisphosphonates and Denosumab in various parameters.

    Methods: Literature search was done for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing bisphosphonates with denosumab. RCTs with a treatment period of at least one year with a baseline bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTM) and follow up values at one year were included in the study. All included studies were also analysed for complications. The study has also been registered in PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews.

    Results: A total of five RCTs were identified providing data on 3751 participants. In all five studies, the BMD changes at both hip and spine were statistically significant in favour of denosumab. Result was similar in three studies that studied BMD changes at the wrist. Denosumab also produced significant reduction in BTM as early as one month, but at one year there was no difference compared to the bisphosphonates. There was no statistically significant differences in the complication rates.

    Conclusions: Though both bisphosphonates and denosumab were effective with similar side effects, the latter was statistically superior in increasing the BMD and reducing the BTM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density; Bone Density Conservation Agents
  15. Jamil NA, Jia Ling C, Md Ibrahim HI, Hamzaid NH, Kok Yong C
    J Appl Res Intellect Disabil, 2020 May;33(3):632-639.
    PMID: 32080943 DOI: 10.1111/jar.12708
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the nutritional and bone health status between young men with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and those without intellectual disability and to determine predictors for their bone health status.

    METHOD: A total of 95 men (47 men with intellectual disability; 48 men without intellectual disability), aged 20-39 years, participated in this study. Anthropometric profile, dietary intake, physical activity level and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) were collected.

    RESULTS: The men with intellectual disability had moderate diet quality whilst the men without intellectual disability had poor diet quality. More participants with intellectual disability (97.9%) were inactive compared with their counterparts (10.4%). The SOS value was similar between groups and was lower than the reference. Increasing age and low physical activity level were negative predictors for bone health status.

    CONCLUSION: Both young men with and without intellectual disability have suboptimal nutritional and bone health status. Strategies to improve their nutritional and bone health status are warranted.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density*
  16. Subramaniam S, Chan CY, Soelaiman IN, Mohamed N, Muhammad N, Ahmad F, et al.
    PMID: 32272697 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17072526
    Background: The current osteoporosis screening instruments are not optimized to be used among the Malaysian population. This study aimed to develop an osteoporosis screening algorithm based on risk factors for Malaysians. Methods: Malaysians aged ≥50 years (n = 607) from Klang Valley, Malaysia were interviewed and their bone health status was assessed using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry device. The algorithm was constructed based on osteoporosis risk factors using multivariate logistic regression and its performance was assessed using receiver operating characteristics analysis. Results: Increased age, reduced body weight and being less physically active significantly predicted osteoporosis in men, while in women, increased age, lower body weight and low-income status significantly predicted osteoporosis. These factors were included in the final algorithm and the optimal cut-offs to identify subjects with osteoporosis was 0.00120 for men [sensitivity 73.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 54.1%-87.7%), specificity 67.8% (95% CI = 62.7%-85.5%), area under curve (AUC) 0.705 (95% CI = 0.608-0.803), p < 0.001] and 0.161 for women [sensitivity 75.4% (95% CI = 61.9%-73.3%), specificity 74.5% (95% CI = 68.5%-79.8%), AUC 0.749 (95% CI = 0.679-0.820), p < 0.001]. Conclusion: The new algorithm performed satisfactorily in identifying the risk of osteoporosis among the Malaysian population ≥50 years. Further validation studies are required before applying this algorithm for screening of osteoporosis in public.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density*
  17. Chang CY, Arasu K, Wong SY, Ong SH, Yang WY, Chong MHZ, et al.
    BMC Pediatr, 2021 09 03;21(1):382.
    PMID: 34479539 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-021-02842-6
    BACKGROUND: Modifiable lifestyle factors and body composition can affect the attainment of peak bone mass during childhood. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis of the determinants of bone health among pre-adolescent (N = 243) Malaysian children with habitually low calcium intakes and vitamin D status in Kuala Lumpur (PREBONE-Kids Study).

    METHODS: Body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) at the lumbar spine (LS) and total body (TB) were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Calcium intake was assessed using 1-week diet history, MET (metabolic equivalent of task) score using cPAQ physical activity questionnaire, and serum 25(OH) vitamin D using LC-MS/MS.

    RESULTS: The mean calcium intake was 349 ± 180 mg/day and mean serum 25(OH)D level was 43.9 ± 14.5 nmol/L. In boys, lean mass (LM) was a significant predictor of LSBMC (β = 0.539, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density*
  18. Shuid AN, Ibrahim N', Mohd Amin MC, Mohamed IN
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(13):1558-64.
    PMID: 24200294
    Anti-osteoporotic drugs are available for treatment of osteoporosis and for preventing osteoporosis complications especially fractures. Most of the current anti-osteoporotic drugs are administered orally or parenterally to target the osteoporosis-affected bones. However, bone is a peripheral organ with limited blood supply. Therefore, the drugs delivered are exposed to various physicochemical and biological factors which affect the bioavailability of the drugs. In preclinical research, the dose of a potential anti-osteoporotic agent used in animal model may be too high for human application when administered via the conventional route of administration. The current anti-osteoporotic drugs need to be administered at higher doses to account for pharmacological interactions. However, this will expose the patients to adverse effects such as the cancer risks of postmenopausal women who took estrogen replacement therapy. There is also problem with patient compliance as anti-osteoporotic drugs may have to be taken for prolonged duration. The current deliveries of drugs need to be improved to overcome these problems. This review discussed several potential drug delivery systems which are able to contain the anti-osteoporosis drugs and release them slowly to the targeted bone. Among them are various carriers, polymers and microsponges, which may not only increase drug efficacy but also reduce adverse effects. The delivery systems allow the drugs to be administered locally at the targeted bone for longer duration, therefore reducing drug frequency and improving patient's compliance. It is hoped that these delivery systems may be applicable for the treatment of osteoporosis in the future to keep tab of the rising osteoporotic fracture incidence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density/drug effects; Bone Density Conservation Agents/administration & dosage*
  19. Shuid AN, Mohamed IN
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(13):1565-78.
    PMID: 24200293
    This review explores the effects of pomegranate on the pathogenesis of bone loss in osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify the relevant studies on pomegranate and osteoporosis/osteoarthritis/rheumatoid arthritis. A comprehensive search was conducted in Medline and CINAHL for relevant studies published between the years 1946 to 2012. The main inclusion criteria were research articles published in English, studies had to report the association or effect of pomegranate and these bone and joint diseases: osteoporosis, osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. The literature search identified 35 potentially relevant articles, whereby 8 met the inclusion criteria. Two animal studies, two combinations of animal and in vitro studies, three in vitro studies and one human study were included in this review. All the studies reported positive effects of pomegranate extract or juice on osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. This evidence-based review highlighted the potential of pomegranate extract being used for treating bone loss in osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Further studies are required to identify the active ingredients and molecular mechanisms before controlled human observational studies are conducted to provide stronger evidence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density/drug effects*; Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use*
  20. Abdulameer SA, Sulaiman SAS, Hassali MAA, Subramaniam K, Sahib MN
    Diabetology International, 2012;3:113-130.
    DOI: 10.1007/s13340-012-0083-x
    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a pandemic and heterogeneous metabolic disorder with significant morbidity and mortality. In addition, osteoporosis (OP) is a silent disease that constitutes an enormous socioeconomic crisis, with a harmful impact on morbidity and mortality. Therefore, this systematic review focuses on the association between OP and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods: Systematic reviews of full-length articles published in English from January 1950 to October 2010 were identified in PubMed and other available electronic databases at Universiti Sains Malaysia Library Database. The following keywords were used for the search: T1DM, insulin, OP, bone mass, and skeletal. Studies of more than 20 patients with T1DM were included. Results: Fifty studies were identified. In general, most of the studies showed unambiguous evidence for a decrease in bone mineral density in T1DM. Conclusions: Screening, identification and prevention of potential risk factors for OP in T1DM patients are crucial and important in terms of preserving a good quality of life in diabetic patients. Patient education about an adequate calcium and vitamin D intake and regular exercise are important for improving muscle strength and balance, and specific measures for preventing falls. Furthermore, adequate glycemic control and the prevention of diabetic complications are the starting point of therapy in T1DM. © 2012 The Japan Diabetes Society.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Density
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