Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

  1. Tan VP, Macdonald HM, McKay HA
    J. Bone Miner. Res., 2015 Mar;30(3):585-6.
    PMID: 25381875 DOI: 10.1002/jbmr.2399
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology*
  2. Effendy NM, Khamis MF, Shuid AN
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(13):1542-51.
    PMID: 24010967
    Bone quality assessment is important in assessments of potential agents for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Bone density, microarchitecture and strength are important determinants in osteoporotic study which are widely studied using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), histomorphometry and radiological imaging techniques. In recent years, high resolution micro-CT has become feasible for in vitro or in vivo evaluation of bone architecture. Three-dimensional images of micro-CT reflected high correlations with the conventional histomorphometry and DXA. In comparison to other imaging techniques, micro-CT is the most effective tool in detecting early bone changes for fracture prediction and assessments of potential anti-osteoporotic agents. It is crucial to define an ideal setting with safe radiation doses and appropriate methods for image reconstruction and segmentation to obtain high resolution images. Micro-CT evaluation provides a better insight of bone structure as well as non-metric parameters such as connectivity density, structural model index (SMI) and degree of anisotropy (DA). This non- invasive imaging technique is also equipped with finite element analysis for evaluation of bone biomechanical strength. Micro-CT allows a compressive understanding of the relationships between bone density, microarchitecture and strength which is fundamental to development of pharmacological interventions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology
  3. Kadir MR, Syahrom A, Ochsner A
    Med Biol Eng Comput, 2010 May;48(5):497-505.
    PMID: 20224954 DOI: 10.1007/s11517-010-0593-2
    Human bones can be categorised into one of two types--the compact cortical and the porous cancellous. Whilst the cortical is a solid structure macroscopically, the structure of cancellous bone is highly complex with plate-like and strut-like structures of various sizes and shapes depending on the anatomical site. Reconstructing the actual structure of cancellous bone for defect filling is highly unfeasible. However, the complex structure can be simplified into an idealised structure with similar properties. In this study, two idealised architectures were developed based on morphological indices of cancellous bone: the tetrakaidecahedral and the prismatic. The two architectures were further subdivided into two types of microstructure, the first consists of struts only and the second consists of a combination of plates and struts. The microstructures were transformed into finite element models and displacement boundary condition was applied to all four idealised cancellous models with periodic boundary conditions. Eight unit cells extracted from the actual cancellous bone obtained from micro-computed tomography were also analysed with the same boundary conditions. Young's modulus values were calculated and comparison was made between the idealised and real cancellous structures. Results showed that all models with a combination of plates and struts have higher rigidity compared to the one with struts only. Values of Young's modulus from eight unit cells of cancellous bone varied from 42 to 479 MPa with an average of 234 MPa. The prismatic architecture with plates and rods closely resemble the average stiffness of a unit cell of cancellous bone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology
  4. Noordin MY, Jiawkok N, Ndaruhadi PY, Kurniawan D
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H, 2015 Nov;229(11):761-8.
    PMID: 26399875 DOI: 10.1177/0954411915606169
    There are millions of orthopedic surgeries and dental implantation procedures performed every year globally. Most of them involve machining of bones and cartilage. However, theoretical and analytical study on bone machining is lagging behind its practice and implementation. This study views bone machining as a machining process with bovine bone as the workpiece material. Turning process which makes the basis of the actually used drilling process was experimented. The focus is on evaluating the effects of three machining parameters, that is, cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut, to machining responses, that is, cutting forces and surface roughness resulted by the turning process. Response surface methodology was used to quantify the relation between the machining parameters and the machining responses. The turning process was done at various cutting speeds (29-156 m/min), depths of cut (0.03 -0.37 mm), and feeds (0.023-0.11 mm/rev). Empirical models of the resulted cutting force and surface roughness as the functions of cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed were developed. Observation using the developed empirical models found that within the range of machining parameters evaluated, the most influential machining parameter to the cutting force is depth of cut, followed by feed and cutting speed. The lowest cutting force was obtained at the lowest cutting speed, lowest depth of cut, and highest feed setting. For surface roughness, feed is the most significant machining condition, followed by cutting speed, and with depth of cut showed no effect. The finest surface finish was obtained at the lowest cutting speed and feed setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology*
  5. Panagiotopoulou O, Iriarte-Diaz J, Wilshin S, Dechow PC, Taylor AB, Mehari Abraha H, et al.
    Zoology (Jena), 2017 10;124:13-29.
    PMID: 29037463 DOI: 10.1016/j.zool.2017.08.010
    Finite element analysis (FEA) is a commonly used tool in musculoskeletal biomechanics and vertebrate paleontology. The accuracy and precision of finite element models (FEMs) are reliant on accurate data on bone geometry, muscle forces, boundary conditions and tissue material properties. Simplified modeling assumptions, due to lack of in vivo experimental data on material properties and muscle activation patterns, may introduce analytical errors in analyses where quantitative accuracy is critical for obtaining rigorous results. A subject-specific FEM of a rhesus macaque mandible was constructed, loaded and validated using in vivo data from the same animal. In developing the model, we assessed the impact on model behavior of variation in (i) material properties of the mandibular trabecular bone tissue and teeth; (ii) constraints at the temporomandibular joint and bite point; and (iii) the timing of the muscle activity used to estimate the external forces acting on the model. The best match between the FEA simulation and the in vivo experimental data resulted from modeling the trabecular tissue with an isotropic and homogeneous Young's modulus and Poisson's value of 10GPa and 0.3, respectively; constraining translations along X,Y, Z axes in the chewing (left) side temporomandibular joint, the premolars and the m1; constraining the balancing (right) side temporomandibular joint in the anterior-posterior and superior-inferior axes, and using the muscle force estimated at time of maximum strain magnitude in the lower lateral gauge. The relative strain magnitudes in this model were similar to those recorded in vivo for all strain locations. More detailed analyses of mandibular strain patterns during the power stroke at different times in the chewing cycle are needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology*
  6. Tan VP, Macdonald HM, Kim S, Nettlefold L, Gabel L, Ashe MC, et al.
    J. Bone Miner. Res., 2014 Oct;29(10):2161-81.
    PMID: 24737388 DOI: 10.1002/jbmr.2254
    A preponderance of evidence from systematic reviews supports the effectiveness of weight-bearing exercises on bone mass accrual, especially during the growing years. However, only one systematic review (limited to randomized controlled trials) examined the role of physical activity (PA) on bone strength. Thus, our systematic review extended the scope of the previous review by including all PA intervention and observational studies, including organized sports participation studies, with child or adolescent bone strength as the main outcome. We also sought to discern the skeletal elements (eg, mass, structure, density) that accompanied significant bone strength changes. Our electronic-database, forward, and reference searches yielded 14 intervention and 23 observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We used the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) tool to assess the quality of studies. Due to heterogeneity across studies, we adopted a narrative synthesis for our analysis and found that bone strength adaptations to PA were related to maturity level, sex, and study quality. Three (of five) weight-bearing PA intervention studies with a strong rating reported significantly greater gains in bone strength for the intervention group (3% to 4%) compared with only three significant (of nine) moderate intervention studies. Changes in bone structure (eg, bone cross-sectional area, cortical thickness, alone or in combination) rather than bone mass most often accompanied significant bone strength outcomes. Prepuberty and peripuberty may be the most opportune time for boys and girls to enhance bone strength through PA, although this finding is tempered by the few available studies in more mature groups. Despite the central role that muscle plays in bones' response to loading, few studies discerned the specific contribution of muscle function (or surrogates) to bone strength. Although not the focus of the current review, this seems an important consideration for future studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology*
  7. Dehghan F, Haerian BS, Muniandy S, Yusof A, Dragoo JL, Salleh N
    Scand J Med Sci Sports, 2014 Aug;24(4):e220-9.
    PMID: 24283470 DOI: 10.1111/sms.12149
    Relaxin is a hormone structurally related to insulin and insulin-like growth factor, which exerts its regulatory effect on the musculoskeletal and other systems through binding to its receptor in various tissues, mediated by different signaling pathways. Relaxin alters the properties of cartilage and tendon by activating collagenase. This hormone is also involved in bone remodeling and healing of injured ligaments and skeletal muscle. In this review, we have summarized the literature on the effect of relaxin in musculoskeletal system to provide a broad perspective for future studies in this field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology
  8. Chai HY, Swee TT, Seng GH, Wee LK
    Biomed Eng Online, 2013;12:27.
    PMID: 23565999 DOI: 10.1186/1475-925X-12-27
    The high variations of background luminance, low contrast and excessively enhanced contrast of hand bone radiograph often impede the bone age assessment rating system in evaluating the degree of epiphyseal plates and ossification centers development. The Global Histogram equalization (GHE) has been the most frequently adopted image contrast enhancement technique but the performance is not satisfying. A brightness and detail preserving histogram equalization method with good contrast enhancement effect has been a goal of much recent research in histogram equalization. Nevertheless, producing a well-balanced histogram equalized radiograph in terms of its brightness preservation, detail preservation and contrast enhancement is deemed to be a daunting task.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology*
  9. Salin N, Ishak AK, Abdul Rahman S, Ali M, Nawawi HM, Said MS, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:67-8.
    PMID: 19024987
    Bone formation is an active process whereby osteoblasts are found on the surface of the newly formed bone. Adhesion to extracellular matrix is essential for the development of bone however not all surfaces are suitable for osteoblast adhesion and don't support osteoblastic functions. The objective of this study was to test the suitability of a collagen based microcarrier which would support osteoblastic functions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology*
  10. Sopyan I
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:14-5.
    PMID: 19024961
    Porous calcium phosphate ceramics have found enormous use in biomedical applications including bone tissue regeneration, cell proliferation, and drug delivery. In bone tissue engineering it has been applied as filling material for bone defects and augmentation, artificial bone graft material, and prosthesis revision surgery. Their high surface area leads to excellent osteoconductivity and resorbability providing fast bone ingrowths. Porous calcium phosphate can be produced by a variety of methods. This paper discusses briefly fundamental aspects of porous calcium phosphate for biomedical applications as well as various techniques used to prepare porous calcium phosphate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology*
  11. Mansourvar M, Shamshirband S, Raj RG, Gunalan R, Mazinani I
    PLoS One, 2015;10(9):e0138493.
    PMID: 26402795 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138493
    Assessing skeletal age is a subjective and tedious examination process. Hence, automated assessment methods have been developed to replace manual evaluation in medical applications. In this study, a new fully automated method based on content-based image retrieval and using extreme learning machines (ELM) is designed and adapted to assess skeletal maturity. The main novelty of this approach is it overcomes the segmentation problem as suffered by existing systems. The estimation results of ELM models are compared with those of genetic programming (GP) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) models. The experimental results signify improvement in assessment accuracy over GP and ANN, while generalization capability is possible with the ELM approach. Moreover, the results are indicated that the ELM model developed can be used confidently in further work on formulating novel models of skeletal age assessment strategies. According to the experimental results, the new presented method has the capacity to learn many hundreds of times faster than traditional learning methods and it has sufficient overall performance in many aspects. It has conclusively been found that applying ELM is particularly promising as an alternative method for evaluating skeletal age.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology*
  12. Mohamad NV, Soelaiman IN, Chin KY
    Clin Interv Aging, 2016;11:1317-1324.
    PMID: 27703340
    Osteoporosis is a condition causing significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population worldwide. Age-related testosterone deficiency is the most important factor of bone loss in elderly men. Androgen can influence bone health by binding to androgen receptors directly or to estrogen receptors (ERs) indirectly via aromatization to estrogen. This review summarized the direct and indirect effects of androgens on bone derived from in vitro, in vivo, and human studies. Cellular studies showed that androgen stimulated the proliferation of preosteoblasts and differentiation of osteoblasts. The converted estrogen suppressed osteoclast formation and resorption activity by blocking the receptor activator of nuclear factor k-B ligand pathway. In animal studies, activation of androgen and ERα, but not ERβ, was shown to be important in acquisition and maintenance of bone mass. Human epidemiological studies demonstrated a significant relationship between estrogen and testosterone in bone mineral density and fracture risk, but the relative significance between the two remained debatable. Human experimental studies showed that estrogen was needed in suppressing bone resorption, but both androgen and estrogen were indispensable for bone formation. As a conclusion, maintaining optimal level of androgen is essential in preventing osteoporosis and its complications in elderly men.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology*
  13. Abdullah AM, Mohamad D, Rahim TNAT, Akil HM, Rajion ZA
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Jun;99:719-725.
    PMID: 30889745 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.02.007
    This study reports the influence of ZrO2/β-TCP hybridization on the thermal, mechanical, and physical properties of polyamide 12 composites to be suited for bone replacement. Amount of 15 wt% of nano-ZrO2 along with 5,10,15,20 and 25 wt% of micro-β-TCP was compounded with polyamide 12 via a twin-screw extruder. The hybrid ZrO2/β-TCP filled polyamide 12 exhibited higher thermal, mechanical and physical properties in comparison to unfilled polyamide 12 at certain filler loading; which is attributed to the homogenous dispersion of ZrO2/β-TCP fillers particle in polyamide 12 matrix. The hybrid ZrO2/β-TCP filled PA 12 demonstrated an increment of tensile strength by up to 1%, tensile modulus of 38%, flexural strength of 15%, flexural modulus of 45%, and surface roughness value of 93%, as compared to unfilled PA 12. With enhanced thermal, mechanical and physical properties, the newly developed hybrid ZrO2/β-TCP filled PA 12 could be potentially utilized for bone replacement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology*
  14. Govindaraj D, Rajan M, Munusamy MA, Alarfaj AA, Sadasivuni KK, Kumar SS
    Nanomedicine, 2017 Nov;13(8):2661-2669.
    PMID: 28800874 DOI: 10.1016/j.nano.2017.07.017
    Minerals substituted apatite (M-HA) nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation of minerals and phosphate reactants in choline chloride-Thiourea (ChCl-TU) deep eutectic solvent (DESs) as a facile and green way approach. After preparation of nanoparticles (F-M-HA (F=Fresh solvent)), the DESs was recovered productively and reprocess for the preparation of R-M-HA nanoparticles (R=Recycle solvent).The functional groups, phase, surface texture and the elemental composition of the M-HA nanoparticles were evaluated by advance characterization methods. The physicochemical results of the current work authoritative the successful uses of the novel (ChCl-TU) DESs as eco-friendly recuperate and give the medium for the preparation of M-HA nanoparticles. Moreover, the as-synthesized both M-HA nanoparticles exhibit excellent biocompatibility, consisting of cell co-cultivation and cell adhesion, in vivo according to surgical implantation of Wistar rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology
  15. Mahmood SK, Razak IA, Ghaji MS, Yusof LM, Mahmood ZK, Rameli MABP, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2017;12:8587-8598.
    PMID: 29238193 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S145663
    The healing of load-bearing segmental defects in long bones is a challenge due to the complex nature of the weight that affects the bone part and due to bending, shearing, axial, and torsional forces. An innovative porous 3D scaffolds implant of CaCO3aragonite nanocomposite derived from cockle shell was advanced for substitute bone solely for load-bearing cases. The biomechanical characteristics of such materials were designed to withstand cortical bone strength. In promoting bone growth to the implant material, an ideal surface permeability was formed by means of freeze drying and by adding copolymers to the materials. The properties of coating and copolymers supplement were also assessed for bone-implant connection resolutions. To examine the properties of the material in advanced biological system, an experimental trial in an animal model was carried out. Critical sized defect of bone was created in rabbit's radial bone to assess the material for a load-bearing application with a short and extended period assessment with histological evaluation of the incorporated implanted material to the bone of the host. Trials in animal models proved that the material has the capability of enduring load-bearing conditions for long-term use devoid of breaking or generating stress that affects the host bone. Histological examination further confirmed the improved integration of the implanted materials to the host bone with profound bone development into and also above the implanted scaffold, which was attained with negligible reaction of the tissues to a foreign implanted material.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology
  16. Bharatham BH, Abu Bakar MZ, Perimal EK, Yusof LM, Hamid M
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:146723.
    PMID: 25110655 DOI: 10.1155/2014/146723
    A novel porous three-dimensional bone scaffold was developed using a natural polymer (alginate/Alg) in combination with a naturally obtained biomineral (nano cockle shell powder/nCP) through lyophilization techniques. The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells. Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios. All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications. Scaffolds produced using the combination mixture of 40% Alg and 60% nCP produced significantly promising results in terms of mechanical strength, degradation rate, and increased cell proliferation rates making it potentially the optimum composition mixture of Alg-nCP with future application prospects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology*
  17. Qi J, Zhang H, Wang Y, Mani MP, Jaganathan SK
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:2777-2788.
    PMID: 29785105 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S151242
    Introduction: Currently, the design of extracellular matrix (ECM) with nanoscale properties in bone tissue engineering is challenging. For bone tissue engineering, the ECM must have certain properties such as being nontoxic, highly porous, and should not cause foreign body reactions.

    Materials and methods: In this study, the hybrid scaffold based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blended with metallocene polyethylene (mPE) and plectranthus amboinicus (PA) was fabricated for bone tissue engineering via electrospinning. The fabricated hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle measurement, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and hemolytic assays were used to investigate the blood compatibility of the prepared hybrid nanocomposites.

    Results: The prepared hybrid nanocomposites showed reduced fiber diameter (238±45 nm) and also increased porosity (87%) with decreased pore diameter (340±86 nm) compared with pure PVA. The interactions between PVA, mPE, and PA were identified by the formation of the additional peaks as revealed in FTIR. Furthermore, the prepared hybrid nanocomposites showed a decreased contact angle of 51°±1.32° indicating a hydrophilic nature and exhibited lower thermal stability compared to pristine PVA. Moreover, the mechanical results revealed that the electrospun scaffold showed an improved tensile strength of 3.55±0.29 MPa compared with the pristine PVA (1.8±0.52 MPa). The prepared hybrid nanocomposites showed delayed blood clotting as noted in APTT and PT assays indicating better blood compatibility. Moreover, the hemolysis assay revealed that the hybrid nanocomposites exhibited a low hemolytic index of 0.6% compared with pure PVA, which was 1.6% suggesting the safety of the developed nanocomposite to red blood cells (RBCs).

    Conclusion: The prepared nanocomposites exhibited better physico-chemical properties, sufficient porosity, mechanical strength, and blood compatibility, which favors it as a valuable candidate in bone tissue engineering for repairing the bone defects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology*
  18. Shen CL, Klein A, Chin KY, Mo H, Tsai P, Yang RS, et al.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2017 Aug;1401(1):150-165.
    PMID: 28891093 DOI: 10.1111/nyas.13449
    Osteoporosis, a degenerative bone disease, is characterized by low bone mass and microstructural deterioration of bone tissue resulting in aggravated bone fragility and susceptibility to fractures. The trend of extended life expectancy is accompanied by a rise in the prevalence of osteoporosis and concomitant complications in the elderly population. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between vitamin E consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Animal studies show that ingestion of vitamin E, especially tocotrienols, may benefit bone health in terms of maintaining higher bone mineral density and improving bone microstructure and quality. The beneficial effects of tocotrienols on bone health appear to be mediated via antioxidant/anti-inflammatory pathways and/or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A mechanisms. We discuss (1) an overview of the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis, (2) types of vitamin E (tocopherols versus tocotrienols), (3) findings of tocotrienols and bone health from published in vitro and animal studies, (4) possible mechanisms involved in bone protection, and (5) challenges and future direction for research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology
  19. Hermizi H, Faizah O, Ima-Nirwana S, Ahmad Nazrun S, Norazlina M
    Calcif. Tissue Int., 2009 Jan;84(1):65-74.
    PMID: 19020790 DOI: 10.1007/s00223-008-9190-x
    This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of three forms of vitamin E supplements following nicotine treatment on bone histomorphometric parameters in an adult male rat model. Rats were divided into seven groups: baseline (B, killed without treatment), control (C, normal saline for 4 months), nicotine (N, nicotine for 2 months), nicotine cessation (NC), tocotrienol-enhanced fraction (TEF), gamma-tocotrienol (GTT), and alpha-tocopherol (ATF). Treatments for the NC, TEF, GTT, and ATF groups were performed in two phases. For the first 2 months they were given nicotine (7 mg/kg), and for the following 2 months nicotine administration was stopped and treatments with respective vitamin E preparations (60 mg/kg) were commenced except for the NC group, which was allowed to recover without treatment. Rats in the N and NC groups had lower trabecular bone volume, mineral appositional rate (MAR), and bone formation rate (BFR/BS) and higher single labeled surface and osteoclast surface compared to the C group. Vitamin E treatment reversed these nicotine effects. Both the TEF and GTT groups, but not the ATF group, had a significantly higher trabecular thickness but lower eroded surface (ES/BS) than the C group. The tocotrienol-treated groups had lower ES/BS than the ATF group. The GTT group showed a significantly higher MAR and BFR/BS than the TEF and ATF groups. In conclusion, nicotine induced significant bone loss, while vitamin E supplements not only reversed the effects but also stimulated bone formation significantly above baseline values. Tocotrienol was shown to be slightly superior compared to tocopherol. Thus, vitamin E, especially GTT, may have therapeutic potential to repair bone damage caused by chronic smoking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology
  20. Norazlina M, Ima-Nirwana S, Abul Gapor MT, Abdul Kadir Khalid B
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2002;11(3):194-9.
    PMID: 12230232
    In this study the effects of vitamin E deficiency and supplementation on bone calcification were determined using 4-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats weighed between 180 and 200 g. The study was divided in three parts. In experiment I the rats were given normal rat chow (RC, control group), a vitamin E deficient (VED) diet or a 50% vitamin E deficient (50%VED) diet. In experiment 2 the rats were given VED supplemented with 30 mg/kg palm vitamin E (PVE30), 60 mg/kg palm vitamin E (PVE60) or 30 mg/kg pure alpha-tocopherol (ATF). In experiment 3 the rats were fed RC and given the same supplements as in experiment 2. The treatment lasted 8 months. Vitamin E derived from palm oil contained a mixture of ATF and tocotrienols. Rats on the VED and 50%VED diets had lower bone calcium content in the left femur compared to the RC group (91.6 +/- 13.3 mg and 118.3 +/- 26.0 mg cf 165.7 +/- 15.2 mg; P < 0.05) and L5 vertebra (28.3 +/- 4.0 mg and 39.5 +/- 6.2 mg compared with 51.4 +/- 5.8 mg; P < 0.05). Supplementing the VED group with PVE60 improved bone calcification in the left femur (133.6 +/- 5.0 mg compared with 91.6 +/- 13.3 mg; P < 0.05) and L5 vertebra (41.3 +/- 3.3 mg compared with 28.3 +/- 4.0 mg; P < 0.05) while supplementation with PVE30 improved bone calcium content in the L5 vertebra (35.6 +/- 3.1 mg compared with 28.3 +/- 4.0 mg; P < 0.05). However, supplementation with ATF did not change the lumbar and femoral bone calcium content compared to the VED group. Supplementing the RC group with PVE30, PVE60 or ATF did not cause any significant changes in bone calcium content. In conclusion, vitamin E deficiency impaired bone calcification. Supplementation with the higher dose of palm vitamin E improved bone calcium content, but supplementation with pure ATF alone did not. This effect may be attributed to the tocotrienol content of palm vitamin E. Therefore, tocotrienols play an important role in bone calcification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/physiology*
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