Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 139 in total

  1. Raman S, Mahmood S, Hilles AR, Javed MN, Azmana M, Al-Japairai KAS
    Curr Drug Metab, 2020;21(9):649-660.
    PMID: 32384025 DOI: 10.2174/1389200221666200508074348
    BACKGROUND: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a most hindering role in drug delivery to the brain. Recent research comes out with the nanoparticles approach, is continuously working towards improving the delivery to the brain. Currently, polymeric nanoparticle is extensively involved in many therapies for spatial and temporal targeted areas delivery.

    METHODS: We did a non-systematic review, and the literature was searched in Google, Science Direct and PubMed. An overview is provided for the formulation of polymeric nanoparticles using different methods, effect of surface modification on the nanoparticle properties with types of polymeric nanoparticles and preparation methods. An account of different nanomedicine employed with therapeutic agent to cross the BBB alone with biodistribution of the drugs.

    RESULTS: We found that various types of polymeric nanoparticle systems are available and they prosper in delivering the therapeutic amount of the drug to the targeted area. The effect of physicochemical properties on nanoformulation includes change in their size, shape, elasticity, surface charge and hydrophobicity. Surface modification of polymers or nanocarriers is also vital in the formulation of nanoparticles to enhance targeting efficiency to the brain.

    CONCLUSION: More standardized methods for the preparation of nanoparticles and to assess the relationship of surface modification on drug delivery. While the preparation and its output like drug loading, particle size, and charge, permeation is always conflicted, so it requires more attention for the acceptance of nanoparticles for brain delivery.

    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism*
  2. Tamijani SM, Karimi B, Amini E, Golpich M, Dargahi L, Ali RA, et al.
    Seizure, 2015 Sep;31:155-64.
    PMID: 26362394 DOI: 10.1016/j.seizure.2015.07.021
    Thyroid hormones (THs) L-thyroxine and L-triiodothyronine, primarily known as metabolism regulators, are tyrosine-derived hormones produced by the thyroid gland. They play an essential role in normal central nervous system development and physiological function. By binding to nuclear receptors and modulating gene expression, THs influence neuronal migration, differentiation, myelination, synaptogenesis and neurogenesis in developing and adult brains. Any uncorrected THs supply deficiency in early life may result in irreversible neurological and motor deficits. The development and function of GABAergic neurons as well as glutamatergic transmission are also affected by THs. Though the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unknown, the effects of THs on inhibitory and excitatory neurons may affect brain seizure activity. The enduring predisposition of the brain to generate epileptic seizures leads to a complex chronic brain disorder known as epilepsy. Pathologically, epilepsy may be accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and eventually dysregulation of excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. Based on the latest evidence on the association between THs and epilepsy, we hypothesize that THs abnormalities may contribute to the pathogenesis of epilepsy. We also review gender differences and the presumed underlying mechanisms through which TH abnormalities may affect epilepsy here.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism
  3. Dutta S, Rahman S, Ahmad R, Kumar T, Dutta G, Banerjee S, et al.
    Expert Rev Neurother, 2021 12;21(12):1455-1472.
    PMID: 34756134 DOI: 10.1080/14737175.2021.2003705
    INTRODUCTION: Dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder impairing memory and cognition. Alzheimer's Disease, followed by vascular dementia - the most typical form. Risk factors for vascular dementia include diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia. Lipids' levels are significantly associated with vascular changes in the brain.

    AREAS COVERED: The present article reviews the cholesterol metabolism in the brain, which includes: the synthesis, transport, storage, and elimination process. Additionally, it reviews the role of cholesterol in the pathogenesis of dementia and statin as a therapeutic intervention in dementia. In addition to the above, it further reviews evidence in support of as well as against statin therapy in dementia, recent updates of statin pharmacology, and demerits of use of statin pharmacotherapy.

    EXPERT OPINION: Amyloid-β peptides and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles are markers of Alzheimer's disease. Evidence shows cholesterol modulates the functioning of enzymes associated with Amyloid-β peptide processing and synthesis. Lowering cholesterol using statin may help prevent or delay the progression of dementia. This paper reviews the role of statin in dementia and recommends extensive future studies, including genetic research, to obtain a precise medication approach for patients with dementia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism
  4. Tsutsui K, Osugi T, Son YL, Ubuka T
    Gen Comp Endocrinol, 2018 08 01;264:48-57.
    PMID: 28754274 DOI: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2017.07.024
    Neuropeptides that possess the Arg-Phe-NH2 motif at their C-termini (i.e., RFamide peptides) have been characterized in the nervous system of both invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, RFamide peptides make a family and consist of the groups of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), neuropeptide FF (NPFF), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), kisspeptin (kiss1 and kiss2), and pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide/26RFamide peptide (QRFP/26RFa). It now appears that these vertebrate RFamide peptides exert important neuroendocrine, behavioral, sensory, and autonomic functions. In 2000, GnIH was discovered as a novel hypothalamic RFamide peptide inhibiting gonadotropin release in quail. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that GnIH acts on the brain and pituitary to modulate reproductive physiology and behavior across vertebrates. To clarify the origin and evolution of GnIH, the existence of GnIH was investigated in agnathans, the most ancient lineage of vertebrates, and basal chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates (represented by amphioxus). This review first summarizes the structure and function of GnIH and other RFamide peptides, in particular NPFF having a similar C-terminal structure of GnIH, in vertebrates. Then, this review describes the evolutionary origin of GnIH based on the studies in agnathans and basal chordates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism
  5. Parhar I, Ogawa S, Kitahashi T
    Prog. Neurobiol., 2012 Aug;98(2):176-96.
    PMID: 22684005 DOI: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2012.05.011
    Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key hormone for reproductive functions in vertebrates and non-vertebrates. Although GnRH neuronal system is regulated by several factors such as steroids, neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, it is not fully understood how environmental signals control the GnRH neuronal system. RFamide peptides, members of peptides possessing an Arg-Phe-NH(2) motif at their C-terminus, have recently been characterized as major regulators of GnRH neurons. In particular, two key RFamide peptides, kisspeptin and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), are emerging as important regulators of the reproductive axis. Kisspeptin acts as the accelerator, directly driving GnRH neurons, whereas GnIH acts as the restraint. In addition, other RFamide peptides such as prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), PQRFa peptide, 26RFa/QRFP are also known to control reproduction. These RFamide peptides are regulated by environmental factors such as photoperiods, steroid hormones, metabolic signals, and stress. How environmental signals are integrated by RFamide peptides to regulate reproduction through the GnRH neurons?
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism*
  6. Prakash A, Dhaliwal GK, Kumar P, Majeed AB
    Int J Neurosci, 2017 Feb;127(2):99-108.
    PMID: 27044501
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the basis of disease onset and progression. A complicated array of molecular events has been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. It is attributed to a variety of pathological conditions that share similar critical processes, such as oxidative stress, proteinaceous aggregations, mitochondrial dysfunctions and energy failure. There is increasing evidence suggesting that metal homeostasis is dysregulated in the pathology of AD. Biometals play an important role in the normal body functioning but AD may be mediated or triggered by disproportion of metal ions leading to changes in critical biological systems and initiating a cascade of events finally leading to neurodegeneration and cell death. The link is multifactorial, and although the source of the shift in oxidative homeostasis is still unclear, current evidence points to changes in the balance of redox transition metals, especially iron, copper (Cu) and other trace metals. Their levels in the brain are found to be elevated in AD. In other neurodegenerative disorders, Cu, zinc, aluminum and manganese are involved. This paper is a review of recent advances of the role of metals in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of AD and related neurodegenerative diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism*
  7. Kim SE, Lee B, Jang H, Chin J, Khoo CS, Choe YS, et al.
    Alzheimers Res Ther, 2021 02 19;13(1):48.
    PMID: 33608041 DOI: 10.1186/s13195-021-00787-7
    BACKGROUND: The presence of ß-amyloid (Aß) in the brain can be identified using amyloid PET. In clinical practice, the amyloid PET is interpreted based on dichotomous visual rating, which renders focal Aß accumulation be read as positive for Aß. However, the prognosis of patients with focal Aß deposition is not well established. Thus, we investigated cognitive trajectories of patients with focal Aß deposition.

    METHODS: We followed up 240 participants (112 cognitively unimpaired [CU], 78 amnestic mild cognitive impairment [aMCI], and 50 Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia [ADD]) for 2 years from 9 referral centers in South Korea. Participants were assessed with neuropsychological tests and 18F-flutemetamol (FMM) positron emission tomography (PET). Ten regions (frontal, precuneus/posterior cingulate (PPC), lateral temporal, parietal, and striatum of each hemisphere) were visually examined in the FMM scan, and participants were divided into three groups: No-FMM, Focal-FMM (FMM uptake in 1-9 regions), and Diffuse-FMM. We used mixed-effects model to investigate the speed of cognitive decline in the Focal-FMM group according to the cognitive level, extent, and location of Aß involvement, in comparison with the No- or Diffuse-FMM group.

    RESULTS: Forty-five of 240 (18.8%) individuals were categorized as Focal-FMM. The rate of cognitive decline in the Focal-FMM group was faster than the No-FMM group (especially in the CU and aMCI stage) and slower than the Diffuse-FMM group (in particular in the CU stage). Within the Focal-FMM group, participants with FMM uptake to a larger extent (7-9 regions) showed faster cognitive decline compared to those with uptake to a smaller extent (1-3 or 4-6 regions). The Focal-FMM group was found to have faster cognitive decline in comparison with the No-FMM when there was uptake in the PPC, striatum, and frontal cortex.

    CONCLUSIONS: When predicting cognitive decline of patients with focal Aß deposition, the patients' cognitive level, extent, and location of the focal involvement are important.

    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism
  8. Chatterjee B, Gorain B, Mohananaidu K, Sengupta P, Mandal UK, Choudhury H
    Int J Pharm, 2019 Jun 30;565:258-268.
    PMID: 31095983 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.05.032
    Intranasal delivery has shown to circumvent blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and deliver the drugs into the CNS at a higher rate and extent than other conventional routes. The mechanism of drug transport from nose-to-brain is not fully understood yet, but several neuronal pathways are considered to be involved. Intranasal nanoemulsion for brain targeting is investigated extensively. Higher brain distribution of drug after administering intranasal nanoemulsion was established by many researchers. Issues with nasomucosal clearance are solved by formulating modified nanoemulsion; for instance, mucoadhesive nanoemulsion or in situ nanoemulgel. However, no intranasal nanoemulsion for brain targeted drug delivery has been able to cross the way from 'benches to bed-side' of patients. Possibilities of toxicity by repeated administration, irregular nasal absorption during the diseased condition, use of a high amount of surfactants are few of the persisting challenges that need to overcome in coming days. Understanding the ways how current developments has solved some challenges is necessary. At the same time, the future direction of the research on intranasal nanoemulsion should be figured out based on existing challenges. This review is focused on the current developments of intranasal nanoemulsion with special emphasis on the existing challenges that would help to set future research direction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism*
  9. Shah A, Ong CE, Pan Y
    Curr Drug Metab, 2021;22(9):698-708.
    PMID: 34325630 DOI: 10.2174/1389200222666210729115151
    BACKGROUND: In recent years, the significance of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) has expanded beyond their role in the liver. Factors such as genetics, environmental toxins, drug biotransformation and underlying diseases mediate the expression of these enzymes. Among the CYP enzymes, CYP2E1, a well-recognized monooxygenase enzyme involved in the metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous substances, plays a crucial role in the brain concerning the development of Parkinson's disease. The expression of CYP2E1 varies in different brain regions making certain regions more vulnerable than others. CYP2E1 expression is inducible which generates tissuedamaging radicals leading to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and ultimately neurodegeneration.

    OBJECTIVE: Less is understood about the role of CYP2E1 in the central nervous system, therefore the purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the expression and activity of CYP2E1 enzyme relevant to Parkinson's disease and to identify whether an increase in the expression of CYP2E1 is associated with neurodegeneration.

    METHODS: The objectives of the study were achieved by implicating an unsystematic integrative literature review approach in which the literature was qualitatively analysed, critically evaluated and a new theory with an overall view of the mechanism was presented.

    RESULTS: The contribution of CYP2E1 in the development of Parkinson's disease was found to be significant as the negative effects of CYP2E1 overshadowed its protective detoxifying role.

    CONCLUSION: Overexpression of CYP2E1 seems detrimental to dopaminergic neurons, therefore, to overcome this, a synthetic biochemical is required, which paves the way for further research and development of valuable biomolecules.

    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism*
  10. Nadeem M, Ahmad M, Saeed MA, Shaari A, Riaz S, Naseem S, et al.
    IET Nanobiotechnol, 2015 Jun;9(3):136-41.
    PMID: 26023157 DOI: 10.1049/iet-nbt.2014.0012
    Nanoparticles as solid colloidal particles are extensively studied and used as anticancer drug delivery agents because of their physical properties. This current research aims to prepare water base suspension of uncoated iron oxide nanoparticles and their biodistribution study to different organs, especially the brain, by using a single photon emission computed tomography gamma camera. The water-based suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles was synthesised by a reformed version of the co-precipitation method and labelled with Tc99m for intravenous injection. The nanoparticles were injected without surface modification. X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques were used for characterisation. Peaks of XRD and EDS indicate that the particles are magnetite and exist in aqueous suspension. The average diameter of iron oxide nanoparticles without any surface coating determined by TEM is 10 nm. These particles are capable of evading the reticuloendothelial system and can cross the blood-brain barrier in the rabbit. The labelling efficiency of iron oxide nanoparticles labelled with Tc99m is 85%, which is good for the biodistribution study. The sufficient amount of iron oxide nanoparticles concentration in the brain as compared with the surrounding soft tissues and their long blood retention time indicates that the water-based suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles may be an option for drug delivery into the brain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism*
  11. Ogawa S, Parhar IS
    Gen Comp Endocrinol, 2013 Jan 15;181:169-74.
    PMID: 22967958 DOI: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2012.08.023
    Kisspeptin and its cognate receptor, GPR54 (kisspeptin receptor, Kiss-R) have recently been recognized potent regulators of reproduction in vertebrates. In non-mammalian vertebrates, kisspeptin-Kiss-R homologous and paralogous genes have been identified with their conserved functions in reproduction. Teleosts possess two paralogous genes encoding kisspeptin (kiss1 and kiss2) and Kiss-R (kissr1 and kissr2). Identification of the location and the distribution of the kisspeptin-Kiss-R systems as well as their connectivity with other neural system in the brain is important to elucidate the role of kisspeptin in neuroendocrine functions. This review focuses on the comparative aspects of neuroanatomical distribution of two kisspeptin-Kiss-R systems in the brain of teleosts and their potential roles in reproductive and non-reproductive functions. Finally, based on the association of kisspeptin types with tachykinin peptides, their potential neuromodulatory roles in the brain of teleost will be discussed. The existence of two kisspeptin systems suggests their independent functions in the brain of teleosts. Understanding of teleosts Kiss1 and Kiss2 systems will provide insight into the physiological and evolutional significance of multiple kisspeptin systems in the vertebrate brain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism
  12. Najafi P, Zulkifli I, Jajuli NA, Farjam AS, Ramiah SK, Amir AA, et al.
    Int J Biometeorol, 2015 Nov;59(11):1577-83.
    PMID: 25649005 DOI: 10.1007/s00484-015-0964-3
    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different stocking densities on serum corticosterone (CORT), ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations, brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression and performance in broiler chickens exposed to unheated and heated conditions. Day-old chicks were stocked at 0.100 m(2)/bird (low density (LD)) or 0.063 m(2)/bird (high density (HD)), in battery cages and housed in environmentally controlled rooms. From 21 to 35 days of age, birds from each stocking density group were exposed to either 24 or 32 °C. Growth performance was recorded during the heat treatment period, and blood and brain samples were collected to determine CORT, OVT, AGP, CP and HSP 70 levels on day 35. Heat treatment but not stocking density was detrimental to growth performance. There were significant temperature × density interactions for CORT, CP and OVT on day 35. Although HD elevated CORT, CP and OVT when compared to LD, the effects of the former were more obvious under heated condition. Both temperature and density had significant effect on AGP and HSP 70. In conclusion, irrespective of temperature, high stocking density was physiologically stressful to broiler chickens, as indicated by CORT, AGP, CP, OVT and HSP 70, but not detrimental to growth performance and survivability. As it was shown in the present study, AGP, CP and OVT could be useful biomarkers to determine the effect of overcrowding and high temperature on the welfare of broiler chickens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism
  13. Moriya S, Ogawa S, Parhar IS
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2013 Jun 14;435(4):562-6.
    PMID: 23669040 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.05.004
    Most vertebrates possess at least two gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron types. To understand the physiological significance of the multiple GnRH systems in the brain, we examined three GnRH neuron type-specific transcriptomes using single-cell microarray analyses in the medaka (Oryzias latipes). A microarray profile of the three GnRH neuron types revealed five genes that are uniquely expressed in specific GnRH neuron types. GnRH1 neurons expressed three genes that are homologous to functionally characterised genes, GnRH2 neurons uniquely expressed one unnamed gene, and GnRH3 neurons uniquely expressed one known gene. These genes may be involved in the modulation or maintenance of each GnRH neuron type.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism*
  14. Ogawa S, Ramadasan PN, Goschorska M, Anantharajah A, Ng KW, Parhar IS
    J. Comp. Neurol., 2012 Sep 1;520(13):2991-3012.
    PMID: 22430310 DOI: 10.1002/cne.23103
    The tachykinins are a family of neuropeptides, including substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), and neurokinin B (NKB), that are encoded by the tac1 (SP and NKA) or tac2/3 (NKB) genes. Tachykinins are widely distributed in the central nervous system and have roles as neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators. Recent studies in mammals have demonstrated the coexpression of NKB and kisspeptin and their comodulatory roles over the control of reproduction. We have recently identified two kisspeptin-encoding genes, kiss1 and kiss2, in teleosts. However, such relationship between tachykinins and kisspeptins has not been demonstrated in non-mammalian species. To determine the involvement of tachykinins in the reproduction in teleosts, we identified tac1 and two tac2 (tac2a and tac2b) sequences in the zebrafish genome using in silico data mining. Zebrafish tac1 encodes SP and NKA, whereas the tac2 sequences encode NKB and an additional peptide homologous to NKB (NKB-related peptide). Digoxigenin in situ hybridization in the brain of zebrafish showed tac1 mRNA-containing cells in the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, preoptic region, hypothalamus, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon. The zebrafish tac2a mRNA-containing cells were observed in the preoptic region, habenula, and hypothalamus, whereas the tac2b mRNA-containing cells were predominantly observed in the dorsal telencephalic area. Furthermore, we examined the coexpression of tachykinins and two kisspeptin genes in the brain of zebrafish. Dual fluorescent in situ hybridization showed no coexpression of tachykinins mRNA with kisspeptins mRNA in hypothalamic nuclei or the habenula. These results suggest the presence of independent pathways for kisspeptins and NKB neurons in the brain of zebrafish.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism*
  15. Soleimani AF, Zulkifli I, Omar AR, Raha AR
    PMID: 22036750 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2011.10.003
    Physiological responses to social isolation stress were compared in 56-day-old male Japanese quail. Birds were fed pretreated diets for 3 days as follows: (i) Basal diet (control); (ii) Basal diet+1500 mg/kg metyrapone (BM); (iii) Basal diet+30 mg/kg corticosterone (BCO); (iv) Basal diet+250 mg/kg ascorbic acid (BC); (v) Basal diet+250 mg/kg α-tocopherol (BE); (vi) Basal diet+250 mg/kg ascorbic acid and 250 mg/kg α-tocopherol (BCE). The birds were subsequently socially isolated in individual opaque brown paper box for 2 hours. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentration and heart and brain heat shock protein 70 (Hsp 70) expressions were determined before stress and immediately after stress. Two hours of isolation stress elevated CORT concentration significantly in the control and BE birds but not in the BC, BCE and BM birds. There was a significant reduction in CORT concentration after isolation stress in the BCO group. Isolation stress increased Hsp 70 expression in the brain and heart of control and BM birds. However, brain and heart Hsp 70 expressions were not significantly altered in the isolated BC, BCE and BE birds. Although, the CORT concentration of BM birds was not affected by isolation stress, Hsp70 expression in both brain and heart were significantly increased. Moreover, exogenous corticosterone supplementation did not result in elevation of Hsp 70 expression. It can be concluded that, although Hsp 70 induction had not been directly affected by CORT concentration, it may be modulated by the HPA axis function via activation of ACTH.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism
  16. Mokhtarudin MJ, Payne SJ
    PMID: 26991256 DOI: 10.1002/cnm.2784
    Brain oedema is thought to form and to clear through the use of water-protein channels, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which are found in the astrocyte endfeet. The model developed here is used to study the function of AQP4 in the formation and elimination of oedema fluid in ischaemia-reperfusion injury. The cerebral space is assumed to be made of four fluid compartments: astrocyte, neuron, ECS and blood microvessels, and a solid matrix for the tissue, and this is modelled using multiple-network poroelastic theory. AQP4 allows the movement of water between astrocyte and the ECS and the microvessels. It is found that the presence of AQP4 may help in reducing vasogenic oedema shown by a decrease in brain tissue extracellular pressure. However, the astrocyte pressure will increase to compensate for this decrease, which may lead to cytotoxic oedema. In addition, the swelling will also depend on the ionic concentrations in the astrocyte and extracellular space, which may change after ischaemic stroke. Understanding the role of AQP4 in oedema may thus help the development of a treatment plan in reducing brain swelling after ischaemia-reperfusion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism
  17. Lim LW, Prickaerts J, Huguet G, Kadar E, Hartung H, Sharp T, et al.
    Transl Psychiatry, 2015;5:e535.
    PMID: 25826110 DOI: 10.1038/tp.2015.24
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising therapy for patients with refractory depression. However, key questions remain with regard to which brain target(s) should be used for stimulation, and which mechanisms underlie the therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of DBS, with low- and high-frequency stimulation (LFS, HFS), in different brain regions (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, vmPFC; cingulate cortex, Cg; nucleus accumbens (NAc) core or shell; lateral habenula, LHb; and ventral tegmental area) on a variety of depressive-like behaviors using rat models. In the naive animal study, we found that HFS of the Cg, vmPFC, NAc core and LHb reduced anxiety levels and increased motivation for food. In the chronic unpredictable stress model, there was a robust depressive-like behavioral phenotype. Moreover, vmPFC HFS, in a comparison of all stimulated targets, produced the most profound antidepressant effects with enhanced hedonia, reduced anxiety and decreased forced-swim immobility. In the following set of electrophysiological and histochemical experiments designed to unravel some of the underlying mechanisms, we found that vmPFC HFS evoked a specific modulation of the serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), which have long been linked to mood. Finally, using a neuronal mapping approach by means of c-Fos expression, we found that vmPFC HFS modulated a brain circuit linked to the DRN and known to be involved in affect. In conclusion, HFS of the vmPFC produced the most potent antidepressant effects in naive rats and rats subjected to stress by mechanisms also including the DRN.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism
  18. Gavai AK, Supandi F, Hettling H, Murrell P, Leunissen JA, van Beek JH
    PLoS One, 2015;10(3):e0119016.
    PMID: 25806817 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119016
    Predicting the distribution of metabolic fluxes in biochemical networks is of major interest in systems biology. Several databases provide metabolic reconstructions for different organisms. Software to analyze flux distributions exists, among others for the proprietary MATLAB environment. Given the large user community for the R computing environment, a simple implementation of flux analysis in R appears desirable and will facilitate easy interaction with computational tools to handle gene expression data. We extended the R software package BiGGR, an implementation of metabolic flux analysis in R. BiGGR makes use of public metabolic reconstruction databases, and contains the BiGG database and the reconstruction of human metabolism Recon2 as Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) objects. Models can be assembled by querying the databases for pathways, genes or reactions of interest. Fluxes can then be estimated by maximization or minimization of an objective function using linear inverse modeling algorithms. Furthermore, BiGGR provides functionality to quantify the uncertainty in flux estimates by sampling the constrained multidimensional flux space. As a result, ensembles of possible flux configurations are constructed that agree with measured data within precision limits. BiGGR also features automatic visualization of selected parts of metabolic networks using hypergraphs, with hyperedge widths proportional to estimated flux values. BiGGR supports import and export of models encoded in SBML and is therefore interoperable with different modeling and analysis tools. As an application example, we calculated the flux distribution in healthy human brain using a model of central carbon metabolism. We introduce a new algorithm termed Least-squares with equalities and inequalities Flux Balance Analysis (Lsei-FBA) to predict flux changes from gene expression changes, for instance during disease. Our estimates of brain metabolic flux pattern with Lsei-FBA for Alzheimer's disease agree with independent measurements of cerebral metabolism in patients. This second version of BiGGR is available from Bioconductor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism*
  19. Malini M, Kwan TK, Perumal R
    Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int., 1994 Feb;32(2):279-90.
    PMID: 8019433
    In vivo studies involved monitoring the effect of morphine administration on catecholamine biosynthesis by the brain while in vitro studies involved studying the effect of morphine on the uptake of tritiated tyrosine by synaptosomes and its subsequent incorporation into the catecholamines. The extremely low levels of these endogenous compounds required the use of High Performance Liquid Chromatography with electrochemical detection. Intra-peritoneal injection of morphine at a dosage of 10 mg/kg did not produce appreciable changes in the catecholamine levels but a dosage of 30 mg/kg morphine was found to elevate dihydroxy phenylacetic acid content. At a dosage of 60 mg/kg, dopamine levels were elevated while noradrenaline was depleted. Morphine, at a concentration of 1 x 10(-5)M increases the incorporation of tritiated tyrosine into dopamine and dihydroxy phenylacetic acid in synaptosomal preparations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism*
  20. Perumal R, Bhattathiry EP
    Med J Malaya, 1970 Mar;24(3):208-11.
    PMID: 4246803
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism
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