METHODS: We did a non-systematic review, and the literature was searched in Google, Science Direct and PubMed. An overview is provided for the formulation of polymeric nanoparticles using different methods, effect of surface modification on the nanoparticle properties with types of polymeric nanoparticles and preparation methods. An account of different nanomedicine employed with therapeutic agent to cross the BBB alone with biodistribution of the drugs.
RESULTS: We found that various types of polymeric nanoparticle systems are available and they prosper in delivering the therapeutic amount of the drug to the targeted area. The effect of physicochemical properties on nanoformulation includes change in their size, shape, elasticity, surface charge and hydrophobicity. Surface modification of polymers or nanocarriers is also vital in the formulation of nanoparticles to enhance targeting efficiency to the brain.
CONCLUSION: More standardized methods for the preparation of nanoparticles and to assess the relationship of surface modification on drug delivery. While the preparation and its output like drug loading, particle size, and charge, permeation is always conflicted, so it requires more attention for the acceptance of nanoparticles for brain delivery.
AREAS COVERED: The present article reviews the cholesterol metabolism in the brain, which includes: the synthesis, transport, storage, and elimination process. Additionally, it reviews the role of cholesterol in the pathogenesis of dementia and statin as a therapeutic intervention in dementia. In addition to the above, it further reviews evidence in support of as well as against statin therapy in dementia, recent updates of statin pharmacology, and demerits of use of statin pharmacotherapy.
EXPERT OPINION: Amyloid-β peptides and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles are markers of Alzheimer's disease. Evidence shows cholesterol modulates the functioning of enzymes associated with Amyloid-β peptide processing and synthesis. Lowering cholesterol using statin may help prevent or delay the progression of dementia. This paper reviews the role of statin in dementia and recommends extensive future studies, including genetic research, to obtain a precise medication approach for patients with dementia.
METHODS: We followed up 240 participants (112 cognitively unimpaired [CU], 78 amnestic mild cognitive impairment [aMCI], and 50 Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia [ADD]) for 2 years from 9 referral centers in South Korea. Participants were assessed with neuropsychological tests and 18F-flutemetamol (FMM) positron emission tomography (PET). Ten regions (frontal, precuneus/posterior cingulate (PPC), lateral temporal, parietal, and striatum of each hemisphere) were visually examined in the FMM scan, and participants were divided into three groups: No-FMM, Focal-FMM (FMM uptake in 1-9 regions), and Diffuse-FMM. We used mixed-effects model to investigate the speed of cognitive decline in the Focal-FMM group according to the cognitive level, extent, and location of Aß involvement, in comparison with the No- or Diffuse-FMM group.
RESULTS: Forty-five of 240 (18.8%) individuals were categorized as Focal-FMM. The rate of cognitive decline in the Focal-FMM group was faster than the No-FMM group (especially in the CU and aMCI stage) and slower than the Diffuse-FMM group (in particular in the CU stage). Within the Focal-FMM group, participants with FMM uptake to a larger extent (7-9 regions) showed faster cognitive decline compared to those with uptake to a smaller extent (1-3 or 4-6 regions). The Focal-FMM group was found to have faster cognitive decline in comparison with the No-FMM when there was uptake in the PPC, striatum, and frontal cortex.
CONCLUSIONS: When predicting cognitive decline of patients with focal Aß deposition, the patients' cognitive level, extent, and location of the focal involvement are important.
OBJECTIVE: Less is understood about the role of CYP2E1 in the central nervous system, therefore the purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the expression and activity of CYP2E1 enzyme relevant to Parkinson's disease and to identify whether an increase in the expression of CYP2E1 is associated with neurodegeneration.
METHODS: The objectives of the study were achieved by implicating an unsystematic integrative literature review approach in which the literature was qualitatively analysed, critically evaluated and a new theory with an overall view of the mechanism was presented.
RESULTS: The contribution of CYP2E1 in the development of Parkinson's disease was found to be significant as the negative effects of CYP2E1 overshadowed its protective detoxifying role.
CONCLUSION: Overexpression of CYP2E1 seems detrimental to dopaminergic neurons, therefore, to overcome this, a synthetic biochemical is required, which paves the way for further research and development of valuable biomolecules.