"Cauliflower Ears" describes the appearance of swelling of the auricular cartilage resulting in gross distortion of the auricle. The underlying pathology is inflammation of the auricular cartilage. We report a case of a patient who presented to the ophthalmology clinic with an ocular inflammation, whose subsequent diagnosis of replapsing polychondritis was clinched with the finding of "Cauliflower Ears". This case emphasizes the importance of an appropriate general examination of ophthalmic patients for early diagnosis and prompt institution of medical treatment, which may prevent life-threatening complications to the patient.
Study site: Eye clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Development of in vitro plant regeneration method from Brassica explants via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis is influenced by many factors such as culture environment, culture medium composition, explant sources, and genotypes which are reviewed in this study. An efficient in vitro regeneration system to allow genetic transformation of Brassica is a crucial tool for improving its economical value. Methods to optimize transformation protocols for the efficient introduction of desirable traits, and a comparative analysis of these methods are also reviewed. Hence, binary vectors, selectable marker genes, minimum inhibitory concentration of selection agents, reporter marker genes, preculture media, Agrobacterium concentration and regeneration ability of putative transformants for improvement of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brassica are discussed.
Peat moss (PM) is the most widely used growing substrate for the pot culture. Due to diminishing availability and increasing price of PM, researchers are looking for viable alternatives for peat as a growth media component for potted plants. A pot study was conducted with a view to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom waste (SMW) for Kai-lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra) production replacing peat moss (PM) in growth media. The treatments evaluated were 100% PM (control), 100% SMW, and mixtures of SMW and PM in different ratios like 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 (v/v) with/without NPK amendment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications per treatment. Chemical properties like pH and salinity level (EC) of SMW were within the acceptable range of crop production but, nutrient content, especially nitrogen content was not enough to provide sufficient nutrition to plant for normal growth. Only PM (100%) and SMW and PM mixture in 1 : 1 ratio with NPK amendment performed equally in terms of Kai-lan growth. This study confirms the feasibility of replacing PM by SMW up to a maximum of 50% in the growth media and suggests that NPK supplementation from inorganic sources is to ensure a higher productivity of Kai-lan.
The Brassica napus secondary embryogenesis system requires no exogenous growth regulator to stimulate embryo development. It is stable embryogenically over a long period of culture and has a distinct pre-embryogenic stage. This system was used to investigate the morphological and cellular changes occurring in the embryogenic tissue compared to non-embryogenic tissue using various microscopy techniques. A unique ultrastructural feature designated the extracellular matrix (ECM) was observed on the surface of pre-embryogenic embryoids but not on the non-embryogenic individuals. The ECM layer was found to be dominant in the pre-embryogenic stage and reduced to fragments during embryo growth and development in mature embryogenic tissue. This is a novel aspect of the phenotype previously unreported in the Brassica system. This structure might be linked to acquisition of embryogenic competence.
The soil plant transfer coefficient or f factor of 14 C-carbofuran pesticide was studied in outdoor lysimeter experiment consisting of Brassica sp. vegetable crop, riverine alluvial clayey soil and Bungor series sandy loam soil. Soil transfer coefficients at 0-10 cm soil depth were 4.38 + 0.30, 5.76 + 1.04, 0.99 + 0.25 and 2.66 + 0.71; from 1X recommended application rate in alluvial soil, 2X recommended application rate in alluvial soil, 1X recommended application rate in Bungor soil and 2X recommended application rate in Bungor soil, respectively. At 0-25 cm soil depth, soil plant transfer coefficients were 8.96 + 0.91, 10.40 + 2.63, 2.34 + 0.68 and 6.19 + 1.40; from 1X recommended application rate in alluvial soil, 2X recommended application rate in alluvial soil, 1X recommended application rate in Bungor soil and 2X recommended application rate in Bungor soil, respectively. At 77 days after treatment (DAT), the soil plant transfer coefficient was significantly higher in riverine alluvial soil than Bungor soil whereas shoot and root growth was significantly higher in Bungor soil than in riverine alluvial soil. At both 0-10 cm Brassica sp. rooting depth and 0-25 cm soil depth, the soil plant transfer coefficient was significantly higher in 2X recommended application rate of 14 C-carbofuran as compared to 1X recommended application rate, in both Bungor and riverine alluvial soils.
Kajian yang dijalankan adalah berkaitan dengan penentuan model yang sesuai serta analisis data penyerapan logam berat oleh sayuran berdaun yang terpilih iaitu kangkung (Ipomea aquatica), sawi bunga (Brassica chinensis var parachinensis), bayam (Amaranthus oleraceus L) dan sawi putih (Brassica chinensis L.). Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan dan membandingkan kandungan serta corak pengambilan logam berat yang diserap oleh sayuran dan juga bahagian-bahagiannya yang meliputi daun, batang dan akar. Penentuan model yang dibuat bertujuan bagi melihat corak penyerapan logam berat oleh sayuran atau bahagian sayuran tertentu. Logam berat yang dikaji terdiri daripada kadmium , kromium, kuprum, ferum , mangan, plumbum dan zink. Plot serakan digunakan bagi menentukan corak pengambilan logam berat dalam sayuran dan bahagian-bahagiannya. Selain itu ujian Kruskal-Wallis digunakan bagi membuat perbandingan median di antara logam berat yang diserap oleh sayuran yang dikaji. Nilai khi-kuasa dua dan juga nilai-p digunakan bagi menentukan sama ada sesuatu logam berat yang diserap itu berkait rapat dengan jenis sayuran secara signifikan. Secara umum bolehlah dikatakan bahawa logam Fe, Mn dan Zn adalah dominan dalam semua bahagian sayuran yang dikaji. Selain itu, melalui ujian Kruskal-Wallis didapati penyerapan kesemua logam berat pada setiap bahagian sayuran adalah berbeza secara signifikan. Penyuaian model regresi linear, kuadratik, kubik atau eksponen telah dilakukan terhadap data ini dan didapati kebanyakan data dapat disuaikan dengan baik oleh model kuadratik dan kubik berdasarkan nilai pekali penentuan (R2).
The growing human population and a changing environment have raised significant concern for global food security, with the current improvement rate of several important crops inadequate to meet future demand 1 . This slow improvement rate is attributed partly to the long generation times of crop plants. Here, we present a method called 'speed breeding', which greatly shortens generation time and accelerates breeding and research programmes. Speed breeding can be used to achieve up to 6 generations per year for spring wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and pea (Pisum sativum), and 4 generations for canola (Brassica napus), instead of 2-3 under normal glasshouse conditions. We demonstrate that speed breeding in fully enclosed, controlled-environment growth chambers can accelerate plant development for research purposes, including phenotyping of adult plant traits, mutant studies and transformation. The use of supplemental lighting in a glasshouse environment allows rapid generation cycling through single seed descent (SSD) and potential for adaptation to larger-scale crop improvement programs. Cost saving through light-emitting diode (LED) supplemental lighting is also outlined. We envisage great potential for integrating speed breeding with other modern crop breeding technologies, including high-throughput genotyping, genome editing and genomic selection, accelerating the rate of crop improvement.
The present study investigates heavy metal uptake and protein expression by different vegetables collected from various districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhawa province of Pakistan. Statistical analysis of the data showed that maximum concentration of Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn were found in radish and spinach, respectively, collected from Peshawar. Maximum Pb and Mg accumulation were found in cauliflower and pea at Swat followed by coriander at Haripur and minimum Pb uptake was noticed in radish taken from Nowshehra. Highest Cu uptake was detected in spinach at Nowshehra. Data regarding Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, Mg and Zn concentration in water samples gathered from different sites of KPK indicated that maximum concentration of Cd was observed in Swat. Maximum Cr and Cu concentration were measured in water samples from Peshawar while maximum concentration of Pb and Ni were detected in water samples from Haripur. In case of soil samples, maximum Cd, Cr, Mg and Zn uptake was observed in soil sample at Nowshehra. Maximum Pb and Ni concentration was found in soil samples collected from Peshawar. Cu concentration was observed to be the highest in soil at Swat. Protein profile of different vegetables i.e. cauliflower, radish, carrot, turnip, pea, spinach, coriander and garlic sampled across five different sites showed that uptake of Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, Mg and Zn by these vegetables caused the expression of numerous polypeptides.
Oil blending has been recognized as one of the most potent solution in producing vegetable oils with good storage stabilities and optimum fatty acids compositions. This study was conducted to identify the best oil blends in terms of physicochemical properties between canola, olive and palm olein oil. Canola and olive oils were blended at different ratios of 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, and 20:80. Palm olein is stable against rancidity and oxidation thus the above blends were mixed with 20% palm olein. The 80:20 canola: olive blend shows the best properties after being mixed with 20% palm olein compared to other blends. It passed the cold stability test and has significantly the lowest cloud point of 6.0oC (p
The study was conducted to determine the best model suitable for the determination of ferrum uptake in Brassica chinensis (flowering white cabbage). A nonlinear regression model was selected to determine the amount of ferrum absorbed by each part of the Brassica chinensis plant namely the leaves, stems and roots. The Levenberg-Marquardt method was used to perform the nonlinear least square fit. This method employs information on the gradients and hence requires specification of the partial derivatives. A suitable model was obtained from the exponential regression model. The polynomial model was found to be appropriate for leaves, the mono-exponential model was suitable for stems and the simple exponential model for roots. The residual plots and the normal probability plots from each of the models indicated no substantial diagnostic problems, so it can be concluded that the polynomial and exponential regression models provide adequate fit to determine data on heavy metal uptake by the flowering white cabbage.
HyperDSC™(fast scan rate) was used to study the melting behavior of canola (CLO), sunflower (SFO), palm olein (PO), rice bran oils (RBO), and cocoa butter (CB), and was compared to the melting behaviors using conventional DSC. There was an increase in sensitivity with increase in scan rate. Slow scan rate (5 to 20C/min) gave low sensitivity, which increased when the scan rates were increased to 50, 100 and 200C/min. Peak resolution was affected by scan rate depending on the sample weight. Increase in the size of sample coupled with the use of fast scan rate decreased the peak resolution. Generally small sample sizes gave better peak resolution. Results of the effect of scan rate on glass transition (Tg) shows that Tg, which is a weak transition especially in crystalline and low amorphous materials was not detected using conventional scan rates (5 to 20oC/min). It was however detected using of hyperDSC™ scan rates (100 to 200oC/min). Increasing the scan rate resulted in an increase in the peak temperature and the elimination of shoulder peaks, which were caused due to the polymorphic behavior of the triacylglycerols in the oils. The increase in peak temperature caused a shift in the peak position towards a higher temperature value. There is a positive correlation between the peak temperature and scan rate. The correlation coefficients (r) for CLO, SFO, PO, RBO and CB were 0.96, 0.95, 0.97, 0.96 and 0.96 respectively.
Resistance of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostela (L), to coventional pesticides and concerns about environmental quality have lead to increased worldwide efforts to develop viable biocontrol methods for DBM. The success of using parasitoids, especially larval parasitoids like Diadegma, Cotesia and Microplitis species for controlling DBM have been reported in several countries. These larval parasitoids of DBM are commonly found in the field. Diadegma semiclausum (=eucerophaga) Hellen is the major parasitoid of DBM in Europe and Asia, while Diadegma insulare (Cresson) are predominates in the Americas. To date, the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner subspecies kurstaki, has been the most widely used DBM pathogen. Although it is environment friendly pesticides, its effectiveness always vary with weather, field location and frequency of application per season. These are the main factors that contribute to the slow acceptance of B.thuringiensis by the cabbage growers worldwide. Because of this many studies have been done to improve its efficacay and persistence in the field. This paper provides an overview of the current status of these agents for use in controlling DBM and suggest research that is needed to improve the usefulness of these biocontrol agents and to maximize their impact on the DBM management in the future.
Ketahanan rama-rama belakang-intan (diamondback moth), Plutella xylostella (L.), kepada semua racun-racun perosak yang biasa digunakan untuk mengawalnya dan keprihatinan terhadap kualiti alam sekitar telah menyebabkan bertambahnya usaha mencari beberapa kaedah kawalan biologi rama-rama ini di seluruh dunia. Kejayaan menggunakan parasitoids, terutamanya parasitoid larva seperti spesies Diadegma, Cotesia dan Microplitis bagi kawalan serangga ini telah dilaporkan oleh beberapa negara. Parasitoid-parasitoid larva ini mudah didapati di lapangan. Diadegma semiclausum (=eucerophaga) Hellen adalah merupakan parasitoid utama di Eropah dan Asia, sementara Diadegma insulare (Cresson) predominen di benua America. Sehingga kini, bakteria Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner subspesies kurstaki, adalah sejenis patogen serangga yang digunakan secara meluas untuk mengawal rama-rama tersebut. Walaupun B. thuringiensis adalah sejenis racun makhluk perosak yang tidak mencemari alam sekitar, tahap keberkesanan tindakannya adalah kerap berubah-ubah mengikut perubahan cuaca, lokasi lapangan dan kekerapan penggunaannya. Ini adalah merupakan faktor-faktor penting yang menyebabkan kelambatan penerimaannya oleh penanam-penanam kobis di merata dunia. Oleh sebab inilah banyak kajian telah dan sedang dijalankan bagi memperbaiki tahap keberkesanan dan persistentnya di lapangan. Kertas ini disedia bagi memperihalkan status penggunaan kedua-dua jenis agen kawalan biologi disamping mengesyurkan penyelidikan yang perlu dibuat untuk mempertingkatkan kegunaan dan memaksimumkan dampaknya dalam pengurusan rama-rama ini masa akan datang.
The effects of zeolite and zinc foliar applications on the biochemical characteristics of canola cultivars under different moisture regimes were investigated in a study conducted during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. The study was completed using a factorial split-plot experiment based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications at the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Karaj, Iran. The treatments were: irrigation (I): complete (I1) and restricted (I2); zeolite (Z): 0 (Z1) and 15 ton ha-1 (Z2) and Zn: 0, 0.1 and 0.2% concentrations of zinc sulfate (Zn1, Zn2, and Zn3) at the pod formation stage. These treatments were applied during the pod formation stage to the Licord, RGS003 and Opera cultivars. This study showed that although applying Z and Zn had positive effects on the quality of canola, the highest performance and the best results were obtained using a combination of Z and Zn. The combined application of Z and Zn decreased the proline and carbohydrate contents to 44.35 and 34.42%, respectively. Therefore, with the low cost of natural Z and moderate Zn intake, these treatments can be used to enhance the performance of canola, especially in regions frequently subjected to water stress.
Extruded canola meal (ECM) was included in diet of broiler chickens at 0, 10, 20, and 30% (wt/wt) from 1 to 35 days of age. A total of 240 day-old male chicks were assigned in groups of 5 to 48 battery cages in environmentally controlled chambers and diets were replicated with 12 cages/treatment. From d 29 to 35, birds from each dietary group were exposed to either thermoneutral (23 ± 1°C; unheated) or high (36 ± 1°C; heated) temperature conditions. High ambient temperature, irrespective of ECM inclusion, depressed the growth performance of birds. Inclusion of ECM increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) linearly in unheated birds during d 1 to 28 (P < 0.001) and d 29 to 35 (P = 0.001). However, no adverse effects of ECM inclusion were observed on the growth performance of heated birds. The absence of these detrimental effects could be associated with the lack of triiodothyronine (T3) elevation by ECM inclusion in heated birds. In conclusion, ECM can be fed, at least, up to 30%, without any adverse effect on growth performance of broiler chickens raised under chronic high ambient temperature.
In this present study, we reported broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) as a potential candidate for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) in green chemistry method. The synthesized metal nanoparticles are evaluated their antimicrobial efficacy against different human pathogenic organisms. The physico-chemical properties of gold nanoparticles were analyzed using different analytical techniques such as a UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometer. In addition, gold and silver NP antimicrobial efficacy was checked by disc diffusion assay. UV-Vis color intensity of the nanoparticles was shown at 540 and 450 nm for gold and silver nanoparticles respectively. Higher magnification of the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy image shows the variable morphology of the gold nanoparticles such as spherical, rod and triangular shapes and silver nanoparticles were seen in spherical shapes. The average spherical size of the particles was observed in 24-38 nm for gold and 30-45 nm for silver NPs. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles which were crystalline in nature. Additionally, the functional metabolites were identified by the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. IR spectra revealed phenols, alcohols, aldehydes (sugar moieties), vitamins and proteins are present in the broccoli extract which are accountable to synthesize the nanoparticles. The synthesized gold and silver NPs inhibited the growth of the tested bacterial and fungal pathogens at the concentration of 50 μg/mL respectively. In addition, broccoli mediated gold and silver nanoparticles have shown potent antimicrobial activity against human pathogens.
The incubation period of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) was not influenced by the host plant, whereas larval development time and pupal period were affected. Larval development time was longest on shallot and lady's finger, followed by cabbage and long bean. Larvae did not develop beyond the first instar when fed on chilli. The pupal period was longer on lady's finger than on cabbage, shallot and long bean. Overall, adult longevity was not influenced by the host plant but there was a difference between female and male longevity among the host plants. Survival of S. exigua was affected by the host plant at the larval stage. The number of larval instars varied between 5 and 8 within and between the studied host plants. Long bean was found to be the most suitable host plant and provide the best food quality for S. exigua compared to the other host plants, as it allowed faster development, fewer larval instars and a higher survival rate.
To date, the exact route and mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori remains elusive. The detection of H. pylori in food using molecular approaches has led us to postulate that the gastric pathogen may survive in the extragastric environment for an extended period. In this study, we show that H. pylori prolongs its survival by forming biofilm and micro-colonies on vegetables. The biofilm forming capability of H. pylori is both strain and vegetable dependent. H. pylori strains were classified into high and low biofilm formers based on their highest relative biofilm units (BU). High biofilm formers survived longer on vegetables compared to low biofilm formers. The bacteria survived better on cabbage compared to other vegetables tested. In addition, images captured on scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopes revealed that the bacteria were able to form biofilm and reside as micro-colonies on vegetable surfaces, strengthening the notion of possible survival of H. pylori on vegetables for an extended period of time. Taken together, the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm on vegetables (a common food source for human) potentially plays an important role in its survival, serving as a mode of transmission of H. pylori in the extragastric environment.
Crucifer vegetables, Brassicaceae and other species of the order Brassicales, e.g., Moringaceae that are commonly consumed as spice and food, have been reported to have potential benefits for the treatment and prevention of several health disorders. Though epidemiologically inconclusive, investigations have shown that consumption of those vegetables may result in reducing and preventing the risks associated with neurodegenerative disease development and may also exert other biological protections in humans. The neuroprotective effects of these vegetables have been ascribed to their secondary metabolites, glucosinolates (GLs), and their related hydrolytic products, isothiocyanates (ITCs) that are largely investigated for their various medicinal effects. Extensive pre-clinical studies have revealed more than a few molecular mechanisms of action elucidating multiple biological effects of GLs hydrolytic products. This review summarizes the most significant and up-to-date in vitro and in vivo neuroprotective actions of sulforaphane (SFN), moringin (MG), phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), 6-(methylsulfinyl) hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) and erucin (ER) in neurodegenerative diseases.
A developed colorimetric pH sensor film based on edible materials for real-time monitoring of food freshness is described. The mixed natural dyes from edible plants Clitoria sp and Brassica sp were extracted and incorporated into ι-carrageenan film as a colorimetric pH sensor film for monitoring food spoilage and its freshness. The color changes of the developed colorimetric sensor film were measured with chromametry and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively. Experimental results show that colorimetric pH sensor film demonstrated statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between CIE-L*a*b* coordinates color system indicated that the developed colorimetric sensor film was able to give a gradual change in color over a wide pH range. The color of the colorimetric sensor film also changes discretely and linearly with factors that contribute to food spoilage using shrimp and durian samples. Moreover, the developed colorimetric pH sensor film has the potential to be used as a safe, non-destructive testing and also a flexibly visual method for direct assessment of food freshness indicator during storage.
An efficient system for shoot regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Brassica oleracea cv. Green Marvel cultivar is described. This study focuses on developing shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants of broccoli cv. Green Marvel using thidiazuron (TDZ), zeatin, and kinetin, the optimization of factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the hypocotyl explants with heat-resistant cDNA, followed by the confirmation of transgenicity of the regenerants. High shoot regeneration was observed in 0.05-0.1 mg dm(-3) TDZ. TDZ at 0.1 mg dm(-3) produced among the highest percentage of shoot regeneration (96.67 %) and mean number of shoot formation (6.17). The highest percentage (13.33 %) and mean number (0.17) of putative transformant production were on hypocotyl explants subjected to preculture on shoot regeneration medium (SRM) with 200 µM acetosyringone. On optimization of bacterial density and inoculation time, the highest percentage and mean number of putative transformant production were on hypocotyl explants inoculated with a bacterial dilution of 1:5 for 30 min. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay indicated a transformation efficiency of 8.33 %. The luciferase assay showed stable integration of the Arabidopsis thaliana HSP101 (AtHSP101) cDNA in the transgenic broccoli regenerants. Three out of five transgenic lines confirmed through PCR showed positive hybridization bands of the AtHSP101 cDNA through Southern blot analysis. The presence of AtHSP101 transcripts in the three transgenic broccoli lines indicated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed the expression of the gene. In conclusion, an improved regeneration system has been established from hypocotyl explants of broccoli followed by successful transformation with AtHSP101 for resistance to high temperature.