Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 167 in total

  1. Yip CH, Taib NA, Mohamed I
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2006;7(3):369-74.
    PMID: 17059323
    Data from the National Cancer Registry of Malaysia for 2004 provide an age-standardised incidence rate (ASR) of 46.2 per 100,000 women. This means that approximately 1 in 20 women in the country develop breast cancer in their lifetime. However, the rate differs between the three main races, the Malays, Chinese and Indians. The age standardized incidence in Chinese is the highest, with 59.7 per 100,000, followed by the Indians at 55.8 per 100,000. The Malays have the lowest incidence of 33.9 per 100,000. This translates into 1 in 16 Chinese, 1 in 16 Indian and 1 in 28 Malay women developing breast cancer at some stage in their lives. The commonest age at presentation is between 40-49 years, with just over 50% of the cases under the age of 50 years, 16.8% below 40, and 2% under 30. Some 55.7% of all cases were found to be ER positive. The commonest presenting symptom was a lump in the breast in over 90% of cases, generally felt by the woman herself. The mean size of the lump was 4.2 cm, and on average, the women waited 3 months before seeking medical attention. Over the 12-year period from 1993 to 2004, about 60-70% of women presented with early stage (Stages 1-2) while 30-40% presented with late breast cancer (Stages 3-4). Especially Malays present at later stages and with larger tumours. Consequently their survival is worse than with Chinese and Indian women. The challenge in Malaysia is to be able to provide a comprehensive service in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, and this requires training of a team of health professionals dedicated to breast health, such as breast surgeons, radiologists specializing in breast imaging, breast pathologists, plastic surgeons specializing in breast reconstruction, medical and radiation oncologists, psycho-oncologists, counselors, and breast nurses. Advocacy can play a role here in galvanizing the political will to meet this challenge.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis
  2. Bhoo-Pathy N, Yip CH, Hartman M, Uiterwaal CS, Devi BC, Peeters PH, et al.
    Eur J Cancer, 2013 Feb;49(3):703-9.
    PMID: 23040889 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejca.2012.09.014
    The incidence and mortality of breast cancer continues to rise rapidly in Asian countries. However, most of our current knowledge on breast cancer has been generated in Western populations. As the socio-economic profile, life style and culture of Asian and Western women are substantially different, and genetic backgrounds vary to some extent, we need to answer the question on whether to 'adopt' or 'adapt' Western knowledge before applying it in the Asian setting. It is generally accepted that breast cancer risk factors, which have mainly been studied in Western populations are similar worldwide. However, the presence of gene-environment or gene-gene interactions may alter their importance as causal factors across populations. Diagnostic and prognostic study findings, including breast cancer prediction rules, are increasingly shown to be 'setting specific' and must therefore be validated in Asian women before implementing them in clinical care in Asia. Interventional research findings from Caucasian patients may not be applicable in patients in Asia due to differences in tumour biology/profiles, metabolism of drugs and also health beliefs which can influence treatment acceptance and adherence. While breast cancer research in Asia is warranted in all domains of medical research, it is felt that for Asian breast cancer patients, needs are highest for diagnostic and prognostic studies. International clinical trials meanwhile need to include breast cancer patients from various Asian settings to provide an insight into the effectiveness of new treatment modalities in this part of the world.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis
  3. Ng KH, Yip CH, Taib NA
    Lancet Oncol, 2012 Apr;13(4):334-6.
    PMID: 22469115 DOI: 10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70093-1
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*
  4. Dunn RA, Tan AK
    Breast J, 2011 Jul-Aug;17(4):399-402.
    PMID: 21615819 DOI: 10.1111/j.1524-4741.2011.01098.x
    As is the case in many developing nations, previous studies of breast cancer screening behavior in Malaysia have used relatively small samples that are not nationally representative, thereby limiting the generalizability of results. Therefore, this study uses nationally representative data from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 to investigate the role of socio-economic status on breast cancer screening behavior in Malaysia, particularly differences in screening behaviour between ethnic groups. The decisions of 816 women above age 40 in Malaysia to screen for breast cancer using mammography, clinical breast exams (CBE), and breast self-exams (BSE) are modeled using logistic regression. Results indicate that after adjusting for differences in age, education, household income, marital status, and residential location, Malay women are less likely than Chinese and Indian women to utilize mammography, but more likely to perform BSE. Education level and urban residence are positively associated with utilization of each method, but these relationships vary across ethnicity. Higher education levels are strongly related to using each screening method among Chinese women, but have no statistically significant relationship to screening among Malays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*
  5. Norsa'adah B, Rampal KG, Rahmah MA, Naing NN, Biswal BM
    BMC Cancer, 2011;11:141.
    PMID: 21496310 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-141
    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in Malaysia. Delayed diagnosis is preventable and has major effects on patients' prognosis and survival. The objectives of our study were to identify the magnitude of delayed diagnosis and its associated factors in women with breast cancer in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*
  6. Meselhy Eltoukhy M, Faye I, Belhaouari Samir B
    Comput Biol Med, 2010 Apr;40(4):384-91.
    PMID: 20163793 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2010.02.002
    This paper presents a comparative study between wavelet and curvelet transform for breast cancer diagnosis in digital mammogram. Using multiresolution analysis, mammogram images are decomposed into different resolution levels, which are sensitive to different frequency bands. A set of the biggest coefficients from each decomposition level is extracted. Then a supervised classifier system based on Euclidian distance is constructed. The performance of the classifier is evaluated using a 2 x 5-fold cross validation followed by a statistical analysis. The experimental results suggest that curvelet transform outperforms wavelet transform and the difference is statistically significant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*
  7. Yip CH
    Methods Mol Biol, 2009;471:51-64.
    PMID: 19109774 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-59745-416-2_3
    Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in most countries in Asia. The incidence rates remain low, although increasing at a more rapid rate than in western countries, due to changes in the lifestyle and diet. There are many differences between breast cancer in Asia compared with western countries. The mean age at onset is younger than in the west, and unlike the west, the age-specific incidence decreases after the age of 50 years. Because there is no population-based breast cancer screening program in the majority of Asian countries, the majority of patients present with advanced disease. There is a higher proportion of hormone receptor-negative patients, and some evidence that the cancers in Asia are of a higher grade. Most of the Asian countries are low- and middle-income countries, where access to effective care is limited. Because of the late detection and inadequate access to care, survival of women with breast cancer in Asia is lower than in western countries. Improving breast health in most of the Asian countries remains a challenge that may be overcome with collaboration from multiple sectors, both public and private.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*
  8. Tan GJS, Tan AGS, Peh WCG
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jun;63(2):164-5.
    PMID: 18942311
    A 74-year-old woman was incidentally found to have a left breast mass. The mass could not be adequately compressed to be visualized on mammography. Ultrasonography showed a heavily-calcified rounded mass in the left axillary tail of the left breast. Chest radiograph confirmed that the mass was a migrated humeral head. Remotely-displaced fracture-dislocations of the humeral head are very rare and to our knowledge, displacement into the breast, clinically mimicking a breast mass, has not been previously described.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*
  9. Forrest AP
    Med J Malaysia, 1996 Mar;51(1):163-73; quiz 174.
    PMID: 10968004
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*
  10. Zulfiqar A, Param V, Meah FA, Nair S, Siti-Aishah MA, Norizan A
    Med J Malaysia, 1993 Sep;48(3):317-24.
    PMID: 8183145
    Radiologically guided localization procedures are indicated pre-operatively when breast lesions are nonpalpable. The results of 42 percutaneous hookwire localizations over a period of 3 years are described. Of the total, 7 (17%) were found to be malignant. Biopsy was indicated by mammographically detected mass in 48%, by microcalcifications in 40% and by microcalcifications with an associated mass in 12%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*
  11. Islam MT, Mahmud MZ, Islam MT, Kibria S, Samsuzzaman M
    Sci Rep, 2019 10 29;9(1):15491.
    PMID: 31664056 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-51620-z
    Globally, breast cancer is a major reason for female mortality. Due to the limitations of current clinical imaging, the researchers are encouraged to explore alternative and complementary tools to available techniques to detect the breast tumor in an earlier stage. This article outlines a new, portable, and low-cost microwave imaging (MWI) system using an iterative enhancing technique for breast imaging. A compact side slotted tapered slot antenna is designed for microwave imaging. The radiating fins of tapered slot antenna are modified by etching nine rectangular side slots. The irregular slots on the radiating fins enhance the electrical length as well as produce strong directive radiation due to the suppression of induced surface currents that radiate vertically at the outer edges of the radiating arms with end-fire direction. It has remarkable effects on efficiency and gain. With the addition of slots, the side-lobe levels are reduced, the gain of the main-lobe is increased and corrects the squint effects simultaneously, thus improving the characteristics of the radiation. For experimental validation, a heterogeneous breast phantom was developed that contains dielectric properties identical to real breast tissues with the inclusion of tumors. An alternative PC controlled and microcontroller-based mechanical MWI system is designed and developed to collect the antenna scattering signal. The radiated backscattered signals from the targeted area of the human body are analyzed to reveal the changes in dielectric properties in tissues. The dielectric constants of tumorous cells are higher than that of normal tissues due to their higher water content. The remarkable deviation of the scattered field is processed by using newly proposed Iteratively Corrected Delay and Sum (IC-DAS) algorithm and the reconstruction of the image of the phantom interior is done. The developed UWB (Ultra-Wideband) antenna based MWI has been able to perform the detection of tumorous cells in breast phantom that can pave the way to saving lives.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*
  12. Brouckaert O, Rudolph A, Laenen A, Keeman R, Bolla MK, Wang Q, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res, 2017 Nov 07;19(1):119.
    PMID: 29116004 DOI: 10.1186/s13058-017-0909-3
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that reproductive factors are differentially associated with breast cancer (BC) risk by subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between reproductive factors and BC subtypes, and whether these vary by age at diagnosis.

    METHODS: We used pooled data on tumor markers (estrogen and progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)) and reproductive risk factors (parity, age at first full-time pregnancy (FFTP) and age at menarche) from 28,095 patients with invasive BC from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). In a case-only analysis, we used logistic regression to assess associations between reproductive factors and BC subtype compared to luminal A tumors as a reference. The interaction between age and parity in BC subtype risk was also tested, across all ages and, because age was modeled non-linearly, specifically at ages 35, 55 and 75 years.

    RESULTS: Parous women were more likely to be diagnosed with triple negative BC (TNBC) than with luminal A BC, irrespective of age (OR for parity = 1.38, 95% CI 1.16-1.65, p = 0.0004; p for interaction with age = 0.076). Parous women were also more likely to be diagnosed with luminal and non-luminal HER2-like BCs and this effect was slightly more pronounced at an early age (p for interaction with age = 0.037 and 0.030, respectively). For instance, women diagnosed at age 35 were 1.48 (CI 1.01-2.16) more likely to have luminal HER2-like BC than luminal A BC, while this association was not significant at age 75 (OR = 0.72, CI 0.45-1.14). While age at menarche was not significantly associated with BC subtype, increasing age at FFTP was non-linearly associated with TNBC relative to luminal A BC. An age at FFTP of 25 versus 20 years lowered the risk for TNBC (OR = 0.78, CI 0.70-0.88, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis
  13. Ng KH, Lau S
    Med Phys, 2015 Dec;42(12):7059-77.
    PMID: 26632060 DOI: 10.1118/1.4935141
    Breast density is a strong predictor of the failure of mammography screening to detect breast cancer and is a strong predictor of the risk of developing breast cancer. The many imaging options that are now available for imaging dense breasts show great promise, but there is still the question of determining which women are "dense" and what imaging modality is suitable for individual women. To date, mammographic breast density has been classified according to the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories from visual assessment, but this is known to be very subjective. Despite many research reports, the authors believe there has been a lack of physics-led and evidence-based arguments about what breast density actually is, how it should be measured, and how it should be used. In this paper, the authors attempt to start correcting this situation by reviewing the history of breast density research and the debates generated by the advocacy movement. The authors review the development of breast density estimation from pattern analysis to area-based analysis, and the current automated volumetric breast density (VBD) analysis. This is followed by a discussion on seeking the ground truth of VBD and mapping volumetric methods to BI-RADS density categories. The authors expect great improvement in VBD measurements that will satisfy the needs of radiologists, epidemiologists, surgeons, and physicists. The authors believe that they are now witnessing a paradigm shift toward personalized breast screening, which is going to see many more cancers being detected early, with the use of automated density measurement tools as an important component.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis
  14. Yip CH, Rhodes A
    Future Oncol, 2014 Nov;10(14):2293-301.
    PMID: 25471040 DOI: 10.2217/fon.14.110
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. The majority of breast cancers show overexpression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs). The development of drugs to target these hormone receptors, such as tamoxifen, has brought about significant improvement in survival for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancers. Since information about ER and PR is vital for patient management, quality assurance is important to ensure accurate testing. In recent guidelines, the recommended definition of ER and PR positivity is 1% or more of cells that stain positive. Semiquantitative assessment of ER and PR is important for prognosis and, hence, management. Even with the development of genomic tests, hormone receptor status remains the most significant predictive and prognostic biomarker.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis
  15. Juliana N, Shahar S, Chelliah KK, Ghazali AR, Osman F, Sahar MA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(14):5759-65.
    PMID: 25081698
    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a potential supplement for mammogram screening. This study aimed to evaluate and feasibility of EIT as opposed to mammography and to determine pain perception with both imaging methods. Women undergoing screening mammography at the Radiology Department of National University of Malaysia Medical Centre were randomly selected for EIT imaging. All women were requested to give a pain score after each imaging session. Two independent raters were chosen to define the image findings of EIT. A total of 164 women in the age range from 40 to 65-year-old participated and were divided into two groups; normal and abnormal. EIT sensitivity and specificity for rater 1 were 69.4% and 63.3, whereas for rater 2 they were 55.3% and 57.0% respectively. The reliability for each rater ranged between good to very good (p<0.05). Quantitative values of EIT showed there were significant differences in all values between groups (ANCOVA, p<0.05). Interestingly, EIT scored a median pain score of 1.51±0.75 whereas mammography scored 4.15±0.87 (Mann Whitney U test, p<0.05). From these quantitative values, EIT has the potential as a health discriminating index. Its ability to replace image findings from mammography needs further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis
  16. Al Joudi FS
    Indian J. Med. Res., 2014 May;139(5):675-85.
    PMID: 25027076
    Human mammaglobin is a member of the uteroglobin proteins family that has recently been tested as a specific marker for breast cancer. While low levels may be seen in normal breast tissue, expression is increased dramatically in breast cancer and is correlated with higher grade. Detection in blood and body fluids is also correlated with cancer metastasis, and its levels with prognosis. This promises to be a useful screen for early detection of breast cancer, especially in high risk individuals. Mammoglobin has also been used for immunotherapeutic targeting of breast cancer cells. However, there are some controversies regarding its diagnostic efficacy and prognostic value, which warrant further study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis
  17. Farid ND, Aziz NA, Al-Sadat N, Jamaludin M, Dahlui M
    PLoS One, 2014;9(9):e106469.
    PMID: 25188003 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106469
    Breast cancer is the most common cause of deaths and the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of breast cancer screening, specifically on clinical breast examination, and the predictors of its uptake among women in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was carried out in five selected districts whereby women aged between 20 to 64 years old, from a total of 1000 households were interviewed. A total of 1192 women responded to the survey of which 53.3% reported had ever done clinical breast examination. Significant associations with clinical breast examination were noted for income and distance from the hospital. These factors should be considered in developing interventions aimed at promoting clinical breast examination. In particular, healthcare providers should be proactive in raising awareness about clinical breast examination among women in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*
  18. Sim KS, Chia FK, Nia ME, Tso CP, Chong AK, Abbas SF, et al.
    Comput Biol Med, 2014 Jun;49:46-59.
    PMID: 24736203 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2014.03.003
    A computer-aided detection auto-probing (CADAP) system is presented for detecting breast lesions using dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, through a spatial-based discrete Fourier transform. The stand-alone CADAP system reduces noise, refines region of interest (ROI) automatically, and detects the breast lesion with minimal false positive detection. The lesions are then classified and colourised according to their characteristics, whether benign, suspicious or malignant. To enhance the visualisation, the entire analysed ROI is constructed into a 3-D image, so that the user can diagnose based on multiple views on the ROI. The proposed method has been applied to 101 sets of digital images, and the results compared with the biopsy results done by radiologists. The proposed scheme is able to identify breast cancer regions accurately and efficiently.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*
  19. Bhoo-Pathy N, Subramaniam S, Taib NA, Hartman M, Alias Z, Tan GH, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2014 Apr 29;110(9):2187-94.
    PMID: 24736587 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2014.183
    Within a setting without organised breast cancer screening, the characteristics and survival of very early breast cancer were determined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*
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