Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 210 in total

  1. Aziz S
    Med J Malaysia, 1983 Jun;38(2):153-7.
    PMID: 6621447
    This communication describes the quantitative and qualitative analysis of oestrogen receptors in breast tumour biopsies of Malaysian patients. This preliminary investigation establishes certain rigid criteria that makes possible the classification of patients most likely to respond to hormonal therapy. 20 percent of the patients had oestrogen receptor positive tumours while 60 percent were oestrogen receptor negative.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy
  2. Venil CK, Sathishkumar P, Malathi M, Usha R, Jayakumar R, Yusoff ARM, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Feb;59:228-234.
    PMID: 26652368 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.10.019
    In this work, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from a pigment produced by a recently-discovered bacterium, Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497, was achieved, followed by an investigation of its anticancer properties. The bacterial pigment was identified as flexirubin following NMR ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR), UV-Vis, and LC-MS analysis. An aqueous silver nitrate solution was treated with isolated flexirubin to produce silver nanoparticles. The synthesised silver nanoparticles were subsequently characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy methodologies. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of synthesised silver nanoparticles in a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated. The tests showed significant cytotoxicity activity of the silver nanoparticles in the cultured cells, with an IC50 value of 36μgmL(-1). This study demonstrates that silver nanoparticles, synthesised from flexirubin from C. artocarpi CECT 8497, may have potential as a novel chemotherapeutic agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*
  3. Yusoff N, Low WY, Yip CH
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Mar;65(1):41-4.
    PMID: 21265247 MyJurnal
    This paper validates the Brief COPE Scale in Malaysian women with breast cancer. Test-retest evaluation was undertaken at two/three weeks and ten weeks following surgery. Internal consistencies ranged from 0.25 to 1.00. Meanwhile, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.05 to 1.00. Sensitivity of the scale was indicated by the mean differences as observed in most of the domains with Effect Size Index (ESI) ranged from 0 to 0.53. Significant differences between mastectomy and lumpectomy were observed for Active coping, Planning and Acceptance. Brief COPE Scale showed fairly good reliability and validity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy
  4. Bonde GV, Yadav SK, Chauhan S, Mittal P, Ajmal G, Thokala S, et al.
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv, 2018 05;15(5):495-507.
    PMID: 29521126 DOI: 10.1080/17425247.2018.1449832
    INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer stands the second prominent cause of death among women. For its efficient treatment, Lapatinib (LAPA) was developed as a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor of receptors, overexpressed by breast cancer cells. Various explored delivery strategies for LAPA indicated its controlled release with enhanced aqueous solubility, improved bioavailability, decreased plasma protein binding, reduced dose and toxicity to the other organs with maximized clinical efficacy, compared to its marketed tablet formulation.

    AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review deals with the survey, performed through different electronic databases, regarding various challenges and their solutions attained by fabricating delivery systems like nanoparticles, micelle, nanocapsules, nanochannels, and liposomes. It also covers the synthesis of novel LAPA-conjugates for diagnostic purpose.

    EXPERT OPINION: Unfortunately, clinical use of LAPA is restricted because of its extensive albumin binding capacity, poor oral bioavailability, and poor aqueous solubility. LAPA is marketed as the oral tablet only. Therefore, it becomes imperative to formulate alternate efficient multiparticulate or nano-delivery systems for administration through non-oral routes, for active/passive targeting, and to scale-up by pharmaceutical scientists followed by their clinical trials by clinical experts. LAPA combinations with capecitabine and letrozole should also be tried for breast cancer treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*
  5. Bhoo-Pathy NT, Inaida S, Tanaka S, Taib NA, Yip CH, Saad M, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol, 2017 06;48:56-61.
    PMID: 28371729 DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2017.03.007
    BACKGROUND: The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in women with T1N0M0 breast cancers is unclear. While gene expression-based prognostic assays may aid management of women with early estrogen receptor (ER) positive tumors, therapeutic decision-making in women with early stage ER negative tumors remains fraught with difficulties. We investigated the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and overall survival in women with T1N0M0, hormone receptor negative breast cancers.

    METHOD: All newly diagnosed breast cancer patients with node-negative and hormone receptor negative tumors measuring≤2cm at the University Malaya Medical Centre (Malaysia) from 1993 to 2013 were included. Mortality of patients with and without adjuvant chemotherapy were compared and adjusted for possible confounders using propensity score.

    RESULTS: Of 6732 breast cancer patients, 341 (5.1%) had small (≤2cm), node-negative and hormone receptor negative tumors at diagnosis. Among them, only 214 (62.8%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Five-year overall survival was 88.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 82.0%-94.2%) for patients receiving chemotherapy and 89.6% (95% CI: 85.1%-94.1%) for patients without chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was not associated with survival following adjustment for age, ethnicity, tumor size, tumor grade, HER2 status, lympho-vascular invasion, type of surgery and radiotherapy administration. However, chemotherapy was associated with a significant survival advantage (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.14-0.91) in a subgroup of women with high-grade tumors.

    CONCLUSION: Adjuvant chemotherapy does not appear to be associated with a survival benefit in women with T1N0M0, hormone receptor negative breast cancer except in those with high-grade tumors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*
  6. Banik U, Parasuraman S, Adhikary AK, Othman NH
    J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Jul 19;36(1):98.
    PMID: 28724427 DOI: 10.1186/s13046-017-0566-5
    Worldwide breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. For many years clinicians and the researchers are examining and exploring various therapeutic modalities for breast cancer. Yet the disease has remained unconquered and the quest for cure is still going on. Present-day strategy of breast cancer therapy and prevention is either combination of a number of drugs or a drug that modulates multiple targets. In this regard natural products are now becoming significant options. Curcumin exemplifies a promising natural anticancer agent for this purpose. This review primarily underscores the modulatory effect of curcumin on the cancer hallmarks. The focus is its anticancer effect in the complex pathways of breast carcinogenesis. Curcumin modulates breast carcinogenesis through its effect on cell cycle and proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, cancer spread and angiogenesis. Largely the NFkB, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, MAPK and JAK/STAT are the key signaling pathways involved. The review also highlights the curcumin mediated modulation of tumor microenvironment, cancer immunity, breast cancer stem cells and cancer related miRNAs. Using curcumin as a therapeutic and preventive agent in breast cancer is perplexed by its diverse biological activity, much of which remains inexplicable. The information reviewed here should point toward potential scope of future curcumin research in breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*
  7. Shahruzaman SH, Yusof FZ, Maniam S, Fakurazi S, Maniam S
    BMC Complement Med Ther, 2021 Oct 01;21(1):245.
    PMID: 34598696 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-021-03417-9
    BACKGROUND: Adaptive metabolic response towards a low oxygen environment is essential to maintain rapid tumour proliferation and progression. The vascular network that surrounds the tumour develops an intermittent hypoxic condition and stimulates hypoxia-inducing factors. Baeckea frutescens is used in traditional medicine and known to possess antibacterial and cytoprotective properties. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of B. frutescens leaves and branches extracts against hypoxic human breast cancer (MCF-7) was investigated.

    METHOD: The extracts were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus for ethanol and hexane extracts while the water extracts were freeze-dried. In vitro cytotoxic activities of B. frutescens extracts of various concentrations (20 to 160 μg/mL) at 24, 48, and 72 hours time points were studied using MTT in chemically induced hypoxic condition and in 3-dimensional in vitro cell culture system. An initial characterisation of B. frutescens extracts was carried out using Fourier-transform Infrared- Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) to determine the presence of functional groups.

    RESULTS: All leaf extracts except for water showed IC50 values ranging from 23 -158 μg/mL. Hexane extract showed the lowest IC50 value (23 μg/mL), indicating its potent cytotoxic activity. Among the branch extracts, only the 70% ethanolic extract (B70) showed an IC50 value. The hexane leaf extract tested on 3- dimensional cultured cells showed an IC50 value of 17.2 μg/mL. The FTIR-ATR spectroscopy analysis identified various characteristic peak values with different functional groups such as alcohol, alkenes, alkynes, carbonyl, aromatic rings, ethers, ester, and carboxylic acids. Interestingly, the FTIR-ATR spectra report a complex and unique profile of the hexane extract, which warrants further investigation.

    CONCLUSION: Adaptation of tumour cells to hypoxia significantly contributes to the aggressiveness and chemoresistance of different tumours. The identification of B. frutescens and its possible role in eliminating breast cancer cells in hypoxic conditions defines a new role of natural product that can be utilised as an effective agent that regulates metabolic reprogramming in breast cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*
  8. Hasanpourghadi M, Pandurangan AK, Mustafa MR
    Pharmacol Res, 2018 02;128:376-388.
    PMID: 28923544 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2017.09.009
    Carcinogenesis, a multi-step phenomenon, characterized by alterations at genetic level and affecting the main intracellular pathways controlling cell growth and development. There are growing number of evidences linking oncogenes to the induction of malignancies, especially breast cancer. Modulations of oncogenes lead to gain-of-function signals in the cells and contribute to the tumorigenic phenotype. These signals yield a large number of proteins that cause cell growth and inhibit apoptosis. Transcription factors such as STAT, p53, NF-κB, c-JUN and FOXM1, are proteins that are conserved among species, accumulate in the nucleus, bind to DNA and regulate the specific genes targets. Oncogenic transcription factors resulting from the mutation or overexpression following aberrant gene expression relay the signals in the nucleus and disrupt the transcription pattern. Activation of oncogenic transcription factors is associated with control of cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and cell differentiation. Among different cancer types, breast cancer is one of top ten cancers worldwide. There are different subtypes of breast cancer cell-lines such as non-aggressive MCF-7 and aggressive and metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells, which are identified with distinct molecular profile and different levels of oncogenic transcription factor. For instance, MDA-MB-231 carries mutated and overexpressed p53 with its abnormal, uncontrolled downstream signalling pathway that account for resistance to several anticancer drugs compared to MCF-7 cells with wild-type p53. Appropriate enough, inhibition of oncogenic transcription factors has become a potential target in discovery and development of anti-tumour drugs against breast cancer. Plants produce diverse amount of organic metabolites. Universally, these metabolites with biological activities are known as "natural products". The chemical structure and function of natural products have been studied since 1850s. Investigating these properties leaded to recognition of their molecular effects as anticancer drugs. Numerous natural products extracted from plants, fruits, mushrooms and mycelia, show potential inhibitory effects against several oncogenic transcription factors in breast cancer. Natural compounds that target oncogenic transcription factors have increased the number of candidate therapeutic agents. This review summarizes the current findings of natural products in targeting specific oncogenic transcription factors in breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy
  9. Ramdas P, Radhakrishnan AK, Abdu Sani AA, Abdul-Rahman PS
    Nutr Cancer, 2019;71(8):1263-1271.
    PMID: 31084432 DOI: 10.1080/01635581.2019.1607407
    Tocotrienols (T3), a family of vitamin E, are reported to possess potent anti-cancer effects but the molecular mechanisms behind these effects still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate how T3 exert anti-cancer effects on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. The MDA-MB-231 cells were chosen for this study as they are triple-negative and highly metastatic cells, which form aggressive tumors in experimental models. The MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with varying concentrations (0-20 µg mL-1) of gamma (γ) or delta (δ) T3 and the secretome profiles of these cells treated with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of γT3 (5.8 µg mL-1) or δT3 (4.0 µg mL-1) were determined using label-free quantitative proteomic strategy. A total of 103, 174 and 141 proteins were identified with ProteinLynx Global Server (PLGS) score of more than 200 and above 25% sequence coverage in the untreated control and T3-treated cell culture supernatant respectively. A total of 18 proteins were dysregulated between untreated control and T3 (δT3 or γT3) treated conditions. The results showed that T3 treatment downregulated the exogenous Cathepsin D and Serpine1 proteins but upregulated Profilin-1 protein, which play a key role in breast cancer in the MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings strongly suggest that T3 may induce differential expression of secreted proteins involved in the cytoskeletal regulation of RHO GTPase signaling pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy
  10. Chui PL, Abdullah KL, Wong LP, Taib NA
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2014 Oct 30;14:425.
    PMID: 25358688 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-425
    BACKGROUND: The inclusion of prayer-for-health (PFH) in the definition of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) has resulted in higher levels of CAM use. The objective of this study was to assess PFH and CAM use among breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed at two chemotherapy providers. Patients were questioned about use of three categories of CAM, mind-body practices (MBPs), natural products (NPs) and traditional medicine (TM). PFH was also examined separately from CAM to better characterise the patterns of CAM and PFH used during chemotherapy.

    RESULTS: A total of 546 eligible patients participated in the study; 70.7% (n = 386) reported using some form of CAM, and 29.3% (n = 160) were non-CAM users. When PFH was excluded as a CAM, fewer patients reported the use of CAM (66.1%; n = 361). The total number of patients who used MBPs decreased from 342 to 183. The most common CAM use category was NPs (82.8%), followed by MBPs (50.7%), and TM (35.7%). CAM users were more likely to have a tertiary education (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.15-3.89 vs. primary/lower), have household incomes > RM 3,000 (≈944 USD) per month (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.40-3.84 vs. ≤RM 3,000 (≈944 USD)), and have advanced cancer (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.18-2.59 vs. early stage cancer), compared with non-CAM users. The CAM users were less likely to have their chemotherapy on schedule (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10-0.58 vs. chemotherapy postponed) than non-CAM users. Most MBPs were perceived to be more helpful by their users, compared with the users of NPs and TM.

    CONCLUSION: CAM use was prevalent among breast cancer patients. Excluding PFH from the definition of CAM reduced the prevalence of overall CAM use. Overall, CAM use was associated with higher education levels and household incomes, advanced cancer and lower chemotherapy schedule compliance. Many patients perceived MBP to be beneficial for improving overall well-being during chemotherapy. These findings, while preliminary, clearly indicate the differences in CAM use when PFH is included in, and excluded from, the definition of CAM.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy
  11. Law KS, Azman N, Omar EA, Musa MY, Yusoff NM, Sulaiman SA, et al.
    Lipids Health Dis, 2014;13:139.
    PMID: 25163649 DOI: 10.1186/1476-511X-13-139
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer amongst Malaysian women. Both the disease and its treatment can disrupt the lives of the woman and adversely affect all aspects of life and thus can alter a woman's quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on the quality of life (QOL) of patients diagnosed with breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*
  12. Marvibaigi M, Supriyanto E, Amini N, Abdul Majid FA, Jaganathan SK
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:785479.
    PMID: 25136622 DOI: 10.1155/2014/785479
    Breast cancer is among the most frequent types of cancer in women worldwide. Current conventional treatment options are accompanied by side effects. Mistletoe is amongst the important herbal medicines traditionally used as complementary remedies. An increasing number of studies have reported anticancer activity of mistletoe extracts on breast cancer cells and animal models. Some recent evidence suggests that cytotoxic activity of mistletoe may be mediated through different mechanisms. These findings provide a good base for clinical trials. Various studies on mistletoe therapy for breast cancer patients revealed similar findings concerning possible benefits on survival time, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), remission rate, and alleviating adverse reactions to conventional therapy. This review provides an overview of the recent findings on preclinical experiments and clinical trials of mistletoe for its cytotoxic and antitumor activity and its effect on HRQoL in breast cancer patients. Moreover, studies investigating molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying antitumor activity of mistletoe are discussed in this paper. The analyzed trials provided evidence that there might be a combination of pharmacological and motivational aspects mediated by the mistletoe extract application which may contribute to the clinical benefit and positive outcome such as improved HRQoL and self-regulation in breast cancer patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*
  13. Montoya JE, Luna HG, Morelos AB, Catedral MM, Lava AL, Amparo JR, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2013 Apr;68(2):153-6.
    PMID: 23629563
    Fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide protocol (FAC) is a commonly used regimen for breast cancer due to its proven efficacy, acceptable toxicity, high affordability. While hepatic insufficiency dosing for doxorubicin and fluorouracil have been set, there is paucity of data in the literature on how to reduce doses in renal insufficiency. We sought to determine whether there is an association with pre-chemotherapy creatinine clearance, and the occurrence of clinically significant grade 3 to 5 neutropenia during the course of FAC chemotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy
  14. Yusoff N, Taib NA, Ahmad A
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(10):2563-70.
    PMID: 22320956
    The aim of this study was to assess why women delay in getting treatment (i.e. surgery) for breast cancer, as well as to explore on what type of issues are involved in such delay cases. Basic interpretative of qualitative methodology was applied to construct the reality of delay phenomena, and its interaction with social worlds. Six themes were identified: new conception of breast cancer treatment, psychological defenses, health support system, symtomatology experience, model and barriers. The delay issue in breast cancer requires attention as a multidimensional problem as this will facilitate more comprehensive and effective intervention to reduce delay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy
  15. Kalyani A, Rohaizak M, Cheong SK, Nor Aini U, Balasundaram V, Norlia A
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Sep;65(3):227-8.
    PMID: 21939175
    We describe a patient with multiple myeloma, who initially responded to chemotherapy and went into remission. She presented 10 months later with a right breast lump which was confirmed by core biopsy to be a plasmacytoma. Further treatment with radiotherapy, thalidomide and later second line chemotherapy appeared unsuccessful and she showed rapid disease progression with rising paraproteins and new extramedullary plasmacytoma lesions in the forehead, supraclavicular region, nasopharynx, liver, spleen, pancreas and paraaortic lymph nodes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy
  16. Loh SY, Yip CH, Packer T, Quek KF
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2010;11(5):1293-9.
    PMID: 21198280
    OBJECTIVE: With increasing survival rates, breast cancer is now considered a chronic condition necessitating innovative care to meet the long-term needs of survivors. This paper presents the findings of a pilot study on self-management for women diagnosed with breast cancer and their implications for Asian health care providers.

    METHODS: A pre-test/ post-test pilot study was conducted to gain preliminary insights into program feasibility and barriers to participation, and to provide justification for a larger trial.

    RESULTS: The study found the 4 week self-management program feasible and acceptable, with a favourable trend in quality of life. The recruitment barriers ranged from competing medical appointments, uncollaborative health providers, linguistic barriers and social-household concerns. Supporting facilitators identified were family, health professionals and fellow participants ("buddies"). Lessons from the study are discussed with regard to Asian health providers.

    CONCLUSION: There is preliminary evidence that self management is a workable and potentially useful model even in an Asians entrenched-hierarchical medical model of care. The initial challenge was breaking down barriers in acceptancee of a collaborative stance. A clinical trial is now warranted to gather more evidence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*
  17. Guure CB, Ibrahim NA, Adam MB
    Comput Math Methods Med, 2013;2013:849520.
    PMID: 23476718 DOI: 10.1155/2013/849520
    Interval-censored data consist of adjacent inspection times that surround an unknown failure time. We have in this paper reviewed the classical approach which is maximum likelihood in estimating the Weibull parameters with interval-censored data. We have also considered the Bayesian approach in estimating the Weibull parameters with interval-censored data under three loss functions. This study became necessary because of the limited discussion in the literature, if at all, with regard to estimating the Weibull parameters with interval-censored data using Bayesian. A simulation study is carried out to compare the performances of the methods. A real data application is also illustrated. It has been observed from the study that the Bayesian estimator is preferred to the classical maximum likelihood estimator for both the scale and shape parameters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy
  18. Joseph JK, Lim AKH
    Med J Malaysia, 1998 Mar;53(1):37-41.
    PMID: 10968135
    A pilot study of Formestane or 4-Hydroxyandrostenedione (Lentaron), a new endocrine agent, was conducted on 18 postmenopausal patients with locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer. 16 patients were evaluable for response and objective responses were seen in 4 patients (25%). Stabilisation of disease was seen in 5 patients (32%). Out of 17 patients evaluable for toxicity, 3 (18%) reported adverse effects including hot flushes, lethargy and myalgia. Adverse effects were mild, transient and no patient required discontinuation of drug. Our study confirms that Formestane is a well tolerated endocrine agent with low toxicity and reasonable efficacy in postmenopausal patients with locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*
  19. Omar SZ, Sivanesaratnam V
    Med J Malaysia, 1999 Jun;54(2):280-2.
    PMID: 10972045
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*
  20. Tan ML, Tan HK, Oon CE, Kuroyanagi M, Muhammad TS
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2012 Feb;50(2):431-44.
    PMID: 22101062 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2011.11.001
    14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide is one of the principle compounds of the medicinal plant, Andrographis paniculata Nees. This study explored the mechanisms of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide-induced toxicity and non-apoptotic cell death in T-47D breast carcinoma cells. Gene expression analysis revealed that 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide exerted its cytotoxic effects by regulating genes that inhibit the cell cycle or promote cell cycle arrest. This compound regulated genes that are known to reduce/inhibit cell proliferation, induce growth arrest and suppress cell growth. The growth suppression activities of this compound were demonstrated by a downregulation of several genes normally found to be over-expressed in cancers. Microscopic analysis revealed positive monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining at 8h, indicating possible autophagosomes. TEM analysis revealed that the treated cells were highly vacuolated, thereby suggesting that 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide may cause autophagic morphology in these cells. This morphology may be correlated with the concurrent expression of genes known to affect lysosomal activity, ion transport, protein degradation and vesicle transport. Interestingly, some apoptotic-like bodies were found, and these bodies contained multiple large vacuoles, suggesting that this compound is capable of eliciting a combination of apoptotic and autophagic-like morphological characteristics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links