AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review deals with the survey, performed through different electronic databases, regarding various challenges and their solutions attained by fabricating delivery systems like nanoparticles, micelle, nanocapsules, nanochannels, and liposomes. It also covers the synthesis of novel LAPA-conjugates for diagnostic purpose.
EXPERT OPINION: Unfortunately, clinical use of LAPA is restricted because of its extensive albumin binding capacity, poor oral bioavailability, and poor aqueous solubility. LAPA is marketed as the oral tablet only. Therefore, it becomes imperative to formulate alternate efficient multiparticulate or nano-delivery systems for administration through non-oral routes, for active/passive targeting, and to scale-up by pharmaceutical scientists followed by their clinical trials by clinical experts. LAPA combinations with capecitabine and letrozole should also be tried for breast cancer treatment.
METHOD: All newly diagnosed breast cancer patients with node-negative and hormone receptor negative tumors measuring≤2cm at the University Malaya Medical Centre (Malaysia) from 1993 to 2013 were included. Mortality of patients with and without adjuvant chemotherapy were compared and adjusted for possible confounders using propensity score.
RESULTS: Of 6732 breast cancer patients, 341 (5.1%) had small (≤2cm), node-negative and hormone receptor negative tumors at diagnosis. Among them, only 214 (62.8%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Five-year overall survival was 88.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 82.0%-94.2%) for patients receiving chemotherapy and 89.6% (95% CI: 85.1%-94.1%) for patients without chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was not associated with survival following adjustment for age, ethnicity, tumor size, tumor grade, HER2 status, lympho-vascular invasion, type of surgery and radiotherapy administration. However, chemotherapy was associated with a significant survival advantage (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.14-0.91) in a subgroup of women with high-grade tumors.
CONCLUSION: Adjuvant chemotherapy does not appear to be associated with a survival benefit in women with T1N0M0, hormone receptor negative breast cancer except in those with high-grade tumors.
METHOD: The extracts were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus for ethanol and hexane extracts while the water extracts were freeze-dried. In vitro cytotoxic activities of B. frutescens extracts of various concentrations (20 to 160 μg/mL) at 24, 48, and 72 hours time points were studied using MTT in chemically induced hypoxic condition and in 3-dimensional in vitro cell culture system. An initial characterisation of B. frutescens extracts was carried out using Fourier-transform Infrared- Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) to determine the presence of functional groups.
RESULTS: All leaf extracts except for water showed IC50 values ranging from 23 -158 μg/mL. Hexane extract showed the lowest IC50 value (23 μg/mL), indicating its potent cytotoxic activity. Among the branch extracts, only the 70% ethanolic extract (B70) showed an IC50 value. The hexane leaf extract tested on 3- dimensional cultured cells showed an IC50 value of 17.2 μg/mL. The FTIR-ATR spectroscopy analysis identified various characteristic peak values with different functional groups such as alcohol, alkenes, alkynes, carbonyl, aromatic rings, ethers, ester, and carboxylic acids. Interestingly, the FTIR-ATR spectra report a complex and unique profile of the hexane extract, which warrants further investigation.
CONCLUSION: Adaptation of tumour cells to hypoxia significantly contributes to the aggressiveness and chemoresistance of different tumours. The identification of B. frutescens and its possible role in eliminating breast cancer cells in hypoxic conditions defines a new role of natural product that can be utilised as an effective agent that regulates metabolic reprogramming in breast cancer.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed at two chemotherapy providers. Patients were questioned about use of three categories of CAM, mind-body practices (MBPs), natural products (NPs) and traditional medicine (TM). PFH was also examined separately from CAM to better characterise the patterns of CAM and PFH used during chemotherapy.
RESULTS: A total of 546 eligible patients participated in the study; 70.7% (n = 386) reported using some form of CAM, and 29.3% (n = 160) were non-CAM users. When PFH was excluded as a CAM, fewer patients reported the use of CAM (66.1%; n = 361). The total number of patients who used MBPs decreased from 342 to 183. The most common CAM use category was NPs (82.8%), followed by MBPs (50.7%), and TM (35.7%). CAM users were more likely to have a tertiary education (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.15-3.89 vs. primary/lower), have household incomes > RM 3,000 (≈944 USD) per month (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.40-3.84 vs. ≤RM 3,000 (≈944 USD)), and have advanced cancer (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.18-2.59 vs. early stage cancer), compared with non-CAM users. The CAM users were less likely to have their chemotherapy on schedule (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10-0.58 vs. chemotherapy postponed) than non-CAM users. Most MBPs were perceived to be more helpful by their users, compared with the users of NPs and TM.
CONCLUSION: CAM use was prevalent among breast cancer patients. Excluding PFH from the definition of CAM reduced the prevalence of overall CAM use. Overall, CAM use was associated with higher education levels and household incomes, advanced cancer and lower chemotherapy schedule compliance. Many patients perceived MBP to be beneficial for improving overall well-being during chemotherapy. These findings, while preliminary, clearly indicate the differences in CAM use when PFH is included in, and excluded from, the definition of CAM.
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