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  1. Yaw YH, Kandiah M, Shariff ZM, Mun CY, Hashim Z, Yusof RM, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(6):1535-40.
    PMID: 21338193
    This study describes weight changes experienced by Malaysian women with breast cancer. Women with breast cancer (n=368) were recruited from eight hospitals and four breast cancer support groups in Peninsular Malaysia. Current weight was measured and weight at the time of diagnosis and a year preceding diagnosis were based on self-reports. Change in weight was determined from the year preceding breast cancer diagnosis to study entry (time 1), at the time of diagnosis to study entry (time 2) and from a year preceding breast cancer diagnosis to the time of diagnosis (time 3). Current body mass index, at a year preceding diagnosis and at the time of diagnosis were determined. Waist circumference was also measured. The sample comprised 57% Malay, 34% Chinese and 9.8% Indian women. The mean age of the women was 54 ∓ 9.04 years and over 80% were post-menopausal. Majority of the women were in stage I and stage II breast cancer at the time of diagnosis. The most common treatments received by these women were chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy and mastectomy. Overweight and obesity were prevalent in over 40% of the survivors at all three periods. Significant weight changes were observed during time 1 (-0.74 ∓ 4.78kg, p< 0.001), time 2 (2.73 ∓ 8.06kg, p< 0.001) and time 3 (3.47 ∓ 7.53kg, p< 0.001). At time 1, almost 50% showed no changes in their weight. At time 2, nearly two-thirds had gained weight and at time 3, 69% had gained weight, abdominal obesity was observed in nearly two-thirds of the women at study entry. A significant difference in weight change among age groups was observed in time 2 and time 3. All ethnic groups had significant weight change in time 1 and time 2. Significant weight gain was observed in relation to body mass index prior to diagnosis, at diagnosis and at study entry. However, no significant difference in weight change by educational level, family history of cancer and cancer stages were observed in all 3 periods. In conclusion, significant weight gain was evident in this sample of women after diagnosis of breast cancer and treatment. Women with breast cancer should be encouraged to maintain normal body mass index and waist circumference through appropriate diet and regular physical activity which may help to reduce their risk of recurrence, secondary cancer and metastasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy*
  2. Loh SY, Packer T, Yip CH, Low WY
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2007;19(3):52-7.
    PMID: 18333303 DOI: 10.1177/101053950701900309
    Naturalistic inquiry using focus group interviews was undertaken to explore experiences and perceived barriers to self management in women with breast cancer. The aim was to identify their perceived barriers to self management to aid the development of rehabilitation programmes. Successful programmes are strongly linked to patients' perceived needs. Four focus groups consisted of 39 women, were purposively recruited. Women's needs within the three areas of medical, emotional and role management of breast cancer were explored. The main barriers were unavailability of information, inability to access services-and-support, and socioeconomic-cultural issues (entrenched myths, low-socioeconomic status, and inadequate insurance-health legislative coverage). The findings provide the critically lacking 'expert-view' of survivors, who verified the importance of the medical, emotional and role management tasks, and highlighted barriers and structural solutions. With breast cancer becoming recognised as a form of chronic illness, this study is timely.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy*
  3. Jayaram G, Looi LM, Yip CH
    Malays J Pathol, 1997 Jun;19(1):69-73.
    PMID: 10879245
    A 39-year-old female presented with a mobile 1.5 cm nodule in the right breast. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears stained with May Grunwald Giemsa were highly cellular with a monotonous population of dissociated and clustered tumour cells that showed a bland cytological appearance with cytoplasmic vacuolation and occasional signet ring forms. Intracellular and extracellular mucus was present. Histological study of the excised breast mass showed a secretory carcinoma. This is a rare breast neoplasm in which cytological features are characteristic enough to permit a specific diagnosis on needle aspirates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy
  4. Forrest AP
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1996 Mar;51(1):163-73; quiz 174.
    PMID: 10968004
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy*
  5. Yeoh ZY, Jaganathan M, Rajaram N, Rawat S, Tajudeen NA, Rahim N, et al.
    J Glob Oncol, 2018 11;4:1-13.
    PMID: 30398950 DOI: 10.1200/JGO.17.00229
    PURPOSE: Late stage at presentation and poor adherence to treatment remain major contributors to poor survival in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Patient navigation (PN) programs in the United States have led to improvement in diagnostic or treatment timeliness, particularly for women in lower socioeconomic classes or minority groups. To date, studies of PN in Asia have been limited. We aimed to assess the feasibility of PN in a state-run hospital in an LMIC and to report the impact on diagnostic and treatment timeliness for patients in its first year of implementation.

    METHODS: We established PN in a dedicated breast clinic of a Malaysian state-run hospital. We compared diagnostic and treatment timeliness between navigated patients (n = 135) and patients diagnosed in the prior year (n = 148), and described factors associated with timeliness.

    RESULTS: Women with PN received timely mammography compared with patients in the prior year (96.4% v 74.4%; P < .001), biopsy (92.5% v 76.1%; P = .003), and communication of news (80.0% v 58.5%; P < .001). PN reduced treatment default rates (4.4% v 11.5%; P = .048). Among navigated patients, late stage at presentation was independently associated with having emotional and language barriers ( P = .01). Finally, the main reason reported for delay, default, or refusal of treatment was the preference for alternative therapy.

    CONCLUSION: PN is feasible for addressing barriers to cancer care when integrated with a state-run breast clinic of an LMIC. Its implementation resulted in improved diagnostic timeliness and reduced treatment default. Wider adoption of PN could be a key element of cancer control in LMICs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy*
  6. Ong WL, Schouwenburg MG, van Bommel ACM, Stowell C, Allison KH, Benn KE, et al.
    JAMA Oncol, 2017 May 01;3(5):677-685.
    PMID: 28033439 DOI: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.4851
    A major challenge in value-based health care is the lack of standardized health outcomes measurements, hindering optimal monitoring and comparison of the quality of health care across different settings globally. The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) assembled a multidisciplinary international working group, comprised of 26 health care providers and patient advocates, to develop a standard set of value-based patient-centered outcomes for breast cancer (BC). The working group convened via 8 teleconferences and completed a follow-up survey after each meeting. A modified 2-round Delphi method was used to achieve consensus on the outcomes and case-mix variables to be included. Patient focus group meetings (8 early or metastatic BC patients) and online anonymized surveys of 1225 multinational BC patients and survivors were also conducted to obtain patients' input. The standard set encompasses survival and cancer control, and disutility of care (eg, acute treatment complications) outcomes, to be collected through administrative data and/or clinical records. A combination of multiple patient-reported outcomes measurement (PROM) tools is recommended to capture long-term degree of health outcomes. Selected case-mix factors were recommended to be collected at baseline. The ICHOM will endeavor to achieve wide buy-in of this set and facilitate its implementation in routine clinical practice in various settings and institutions worldwide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy*
  7. Hanis TM, Yaacob NM, Hairon SM, Abdullah S, Nordin N, Abdullah NH, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2019 Dec 30;19(1):1754.
    PMID: 31888561 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-8113-2
    BACKGROUND: Measurement of breast cancer burden and identification of its influencing factors help in the development of public health policy and strategy against the disease. This study aimed to examine the variability of the excess mortality of female breast cancer patients in the North East Region of Peninsular Malaysia.

    METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using breast cancer data from the Kelantan Cancer Registry between 2007 and 2011, and Kelantan general population mortality data. The breast cancer cases were followed up for 5 years until 2016. Out of 598 cases, 549 cases met the study criteria and were included in the analysis. Modelling of excess mortality was conducted using Poisson regression.

    RESULTS: Excess mortality of breast cancer varied according to age group (50 years old and below vs above 50 years old, Adj. EHR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.31, 4.09; P = 0.004), ethnicity (Malay vs non-Malay, Adj. EHR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.96; P = 0.008), and stage (stage III and IV vs. stage I and II, Adj. EHR: 5.75; 95% CI: 4.24, 7.81; P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy
  8. Khan TM, Leong JP, Ming LC, Khan AH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(13):5349-57.
    PMID: 26225677
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer mortality among women of all ethnic and age groups in Malaysia. Delay in seeking help for breast cancer symptoms is preventable and by identifying possible factors for delayed diagnosis, patient prognosis and survival rates could be improved.

    OBJECTIVES: This narrative review aimed to understand and evaluate the level of in-depth breast cancer knowledge in terms of clinical breast examination and breast self-examination, and other important aspects such as side-effects and risk factors in Malaysian females. Since Malaysia is multicultural, this review assessed social perceptions, cultural beliefs and help-seeking behaviour in respect to breast cancer among different ethnic groups, since these may impinge on efforts to 'avoid' the disease.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of seven databases was performed from December 2015 to January 2015. Screening of relevant published journals was also undertaken to identify available information related to the knowledge, perception and help-seeking behaviour of Malaysian women in relation to breast cancer.

    RESULTS: A total of 42 articles were appraised and included in this review. Generally, women in Malaysia had good awareness of breast cancer and its screening tools, particularly breast self-examination, but only superficial in-depth knowledge about the disease. Women in rural areas had lower levels of knowledge than those in urban areas. It was also shown that books, magazines, brochures and television were among the most common sources of breast cancer information. Delay in presentation was attributed mainly to a negative social perception of the disease, poverty, cultural and religion practices, and a strong influence of complementary and alternative medicine, rather than a lack of knowledge.

    CONCLUSIONS: This review highlighted the need for an intensive and in-depth breast cancer education campaigns using media and community health programmes, even with the existing good awareness of breast cancer. This is essential in order to avoid misconceptions and to frame the correct mind-set about breast cancer among women in Malaysia. Socio-cultural differences and religious practices should be taken into account by health care professionals when advising on breast cancer. Women need to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of breast cancer so that early diagnosis can take place and the chances of survival improved.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy*
  9. Wong HS, Subramaniam S, Alias Z, Taib NA, Ho GF, Ng CH, et al.
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2015 Feb;94(8):e593.
    PMID: 25715267 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000000593
    Web-based prognostication tools may provide a simple and economically feasible option to aid prognostication and selection of chemotherapy in early breast cancers. We validated PREDICT, a free online breast cancer prognostication and treatment benefit tool, in a resource-limited setting. All 1480 patients who underwent complete surgical treatment for stages I to III breast cancer from 1998 to 2006 were identified from the prospective breast cancer registry of University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Calibration was evaluated by comparing the model-predicted overall survival (OS) with patients' actual OS. Model discrimination was tested using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Median age at diagnosis was 50 years. The median tumor size at presentation was 3 cm and 54% of patients had lymph node-negative disease. About 55% of women had estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Overall, the model-predicted 5 and 10-year OS was 86.3% and 77.5%, respectively, whereas the observed 5 and 10-year OS was 87.6% (difference: -1.3%) and 74.2% (difference: 3.3%), respectively; P values for goodness-of-fit test were 0.18 and 0.12, respectively. The program was accurate in most subgroups of patients, but significantly overestimated survival in patients aged <40 years, and in those receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PREDICT performed well in terms of discrimination; areas under ROC curve were 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-0.81) and 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68-0.78) for 5 and 10-year OS, respectively. Based on its accurate performance in this study, PREDICT may be clinically useful in prognosticating women with breast cancer and personalizing breast cancer treatment in resource-limited settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy
  10. Chui PL, Abdullah KL, Wong LP, Taib NA
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(10):e0139952.
    PMID: 26451732 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139952
    BACKGROUND: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use has become increasingly popular among patients with cancer. The purposes of this study were to compare the QOL in CAM users and non-CAM users and to determine whether CAM use influences QOL among breast cancer patients during chemotherapy.

    METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at two outpatient chemotherapy centers. A total of 546 patients completed the questionnaires on CAM use. QOL was evaluated based on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) core quality of life (QLQ-C30) and breast cancer-specific quality of life (QLQ-BR23) questionnaires.

    RESULTS: A total of 70.7% of patients were identified as CAM users. There was no significant difference in global health status scores and in all five subscales of the QLQ C30 functional scales between CAM users and non-CAM users. On the QLQ-C30 symptom scales, CAM users (44.96±3.89) had significantly (p = 0.01) higher mean scores for financial difficulties than non-CAM users (36.29±4.81). On the QLQ-BR23 functional scales, CAM users reported significantly higher mean scores for sexual enjoyment (6.01±12.84 vs. 4.64±12.76, p = 0.04) than non-CAM users. On the QLQ-BR23 symptom scales, CAM users reported higher systemic therapy side effects (41.34±2.01 vs. 37.22±2.48, p = 0.04) and breast symptoms (15.76±2.13 vs. 11.08±2.62, p = 0.02) than non-CAM users. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the use of CAM modality was not significantly associated with higher global health status scores (p = 0.71).

    CONCLUSION: While the findings indicated that there was no significant difference between users and non-users of CAM in terms of QOL, CAM may be used by health professionals as a surrogate to monitor patients with higher systemic therapy side effects and breast symptoms. Furthermore, given that CAM users reported higher financial burdens (which may have contributed to increased distress), patients should be encouraged to discuss the potential benefits and/or disadvantages of using CAM with their healthcare providers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy*
  11. Kaboli PJ, Rahmat A, Ismail P, Ling KH
    Pharmacol. Res., 2015 Jul;97:104-21.
    PMID: 25958353 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2015.04.015
    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are 21-23 nucleotide molecules not translated into proteins that bind and target the 3' untranslated regions of mRNA. These characteristics make them a possible tool for inhibiting protein translation. Different cellular pathways involved in cancer development, such as cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and migration, are regulated by miRNAs. The objective of this review is to discuss various miRNAs involved in breast cancer in detail as well as different therapeutic strategies from the clinic to industry. A comprehensive discussion is provided on various miRNAs involved in breast cancer development, progression, and metastasis as well as the roles, targets, and related therapeutic strategies of different miRNAs associated with breast cancer. miRNAs known to be clinically useful for the diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer are also discussed. Different strategies and challenges, including nucleic acid-based (miRNA mimics, antagomiRs, and miRNA sponges) and drug-based (drug resistance, drugs/miRNA interaction, nanodelivery, and sensing systems) approaches to suppress specific oncogenes and/or activate target tumor suppressors are discussed. In contrast to other articles written on the same topic, this review focuses on the therapeutic and clinical value of miRNAs as well as their corresponding targets in order to explore how these strategies can overcome breast cancer, which is the second most frequent type of cancer worldwide. This review focuses on promising and validated miRNAs involved in breast cancer. In particular, two miRNAs, miR-21 and miR-34, are discussed as the most promising targets for RNA-based therapy in non-invasive and invasive breast cancer, respectively. Finally, relevant and commercialized therapeutic strategies are highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy*
  12. Yip CH, Rhodes A
    Future Oncol, 2014 Nov;10(14):2293-301.
    PMID: 25471040 DOI: 10.2217/fon.14.110
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. The majority of breast cancers show overexpression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs). The development of drugs to target these hormone receptors, such as tamoxifen, has brought about significant improvement in survival for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancers. Since information about ER and PR is vital for patient management, quality assurance is important to ensure accurate testing. In recent guidelines, the recommended definition of ER and PR positivity is 1% or more of cells that stain positive. Semiquantitative assessment of ER and PR is important for prognosis and, hence, management. Even with the development of genomic tests, hormone receptor status remains the most significant predictive and prognostic biomarker.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy
  13. Chui PL, Abdullah KL, Wong LP, Taib NA
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2014 Oct 30;14:425.
    PMID: 25358688 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-425
    BACKGROUND: The inclusion of prayer-for-health (PFH) in the definition of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) has resulted in higher levels of CAM use. The objective of this study was to assess PFH and CAM use among breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed at two chemotherapy providers. Patients were questioned about use of three categories of CAM, mind-body practices (MBPs), natural products (NPs) and traditional medicine (TM). PFH was also examined separately from CAM to better characterise the patterns of CAM and PFH used during chemotherapy.

    RESULTS: A total of 546 eligible patients participated in the study; 70.7% (n = 386) reported using some form of CAM, and 29.3% (n = 160) were non-CAM users. When PFH was excluded as a CAM, fewer patients reported the use of CAM (66.1%; n = 361). The total number of patients who used MBPs decreased from 342 to 183. The most common CAM use category was NPs (82.8%), followed by MBPs (50.7%), and TM (35.7%). CAM users were more likely to have a tertiary education (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.15-3.89 vs. primary/lower), have household incomes > RM 3,000 (≈944 USD) per month (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.40-3.84 vs. ≤RM 3,000 (≈944 USD)), and have advanced cancer (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.18-2.59 vs. early stage cancer), compared with non-CAM users. The CAM users were less likely to have their chemotherapy on schedule (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10-0.58 vs. chemotherapy postponed) than non-CAM users. Most MBPs were perceived to be more helpful by their users, compared with the users of NPs and TM.

    CONCLUSION: CAM use was prevalent among breast cancer patients. Excluding PFH from the definition of CAM reduced the prevalence of overall CAM use. Overall, CAM use was associated with higher education levels and household incomes, advanced cancer and lower chemotherapy schedule compliance. Many patients perceived MBP to be beneficial for improving overall well-being during chemotherapy. These findings, while preliminary, clearly indicate the differences in CAM use when PFH is included in, and excluded from, the definition of CAM.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy*
  14. Yip CH, Buccimazza I, Hartman M, Deo SV, Cheung PS
    World J Surg, 2015 Mar;39(3):686-92.
    PMID: 25398564 DOI: 10.1007/s00268-014-2859-6
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women world-wide. Incidence rates in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are lower than in high income countries; however, the rates are increasing very rapidly in LMICs due to social changes that increase the risk of breast cancer. Breast cancer mortality rates in LMICs remain high due to late presentation and inadequate access to optimal care. Breast Surgery International brought together a group of breast surgeons from different parts of the world to address strategies for improving outcomes in breast cancer for LMICs at a symposium during International Surgical Week in Helsinki, Finland in August 2013. A key strategy for early detection is public health education and breast awareness. Sociocultural barriers to early detection and treatment need to be addressed. Optimal management of breast cancer requires a multidisciplinary team. Surgical treatment is often the only modality of treatment available in low-resource settings where modified radical mastectomy is the most common operation performed. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy require more resources. Endocrine therapy is available but requires accurate assessment of estrogen receptors status. Targeted therapy with trastuzumab is generally unavailable due to cost. The Breast Health Global Initiative guidelines for the early detection and appropriate treatment of breast cancer in LMICs have been specifically designed to improve breast cancer outcomes in these regions. Closing the cancer divide between rich and poor countries is a moral imperative and there is an urgent need to prevent breast cancer deaths with early detection and optimal access to treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy*
  15. Mohammadi S, Sulaiman S, Koon PB, Amani R, Hosseini SM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(12):7749-55.
    PMID: 24460363
    Nutritional status and dietary intake play a significant role in the prognosis of breast cancer and may modify the progression of disease. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of nutritional status on the quality of life of Iranian breast cancer survivors. Cross-sectional data were collected for 100 Iranian breast cancer survivors, aged 32 to 61 years, attending the oncology outpatient clinic at Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran. Nutritional status of subjects was assessed by anthropometric measurements, Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) and three non-consecutive 24-hour diet recalls. The European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life form (EORTC QLQ-C30) was used to assess quality of life. Ninety-four percent of the survivors were well-nourished, 6% were moderately malnourished or suspected of being malnourished while none were severely malnourished. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 86%. Overall, participants had an inadequate intake of vitamin D, E, iron and magnesium according to dietary reference intake (DRI) recommendations. Survivors with better nutritional status had better functioning scales and experienced fewer clinical symptoms. It appears important to provide educational and nutritional screening programs to improve cancer survivor quality of life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy
  16. Abdullah A, Abdullah KL, Yip CH, Teo SH, Taib NA, Ng CJ
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(12):7143-7.
    PMID: 24460266
    BACKGROUND: The survival outcomes for women presenting with early breast cancer are influenced by treatment decisions. In Malaysia, survival outcome is generally poor due to late presentation. Of those who present early, many refuse treatment for complementary therapy.
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the decision making experiences of women with early breast cancer.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative study using individual in-depth interviews was conducted to capture the decision making process of women with early breast cancer in Malaysia. We used purposive sampling to recruit women yet to undergo surgical treatment. A total of eight participants consented and were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. These women were recruited from a period of one week after they were informed of their diagnoses. A topic guide, based on the Ottawa decision support framework (ODSF), was used to facilitate the interviews, which were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed using a thematic approach.
    RESULTS: We identified four phases in the decision-making process of women with early breast cancer: discovery (pre-diagnosis); confirmatory ('receiving bad news'); deliberation; and decision (making a decision). These phases ranged from when women first discovered abnormalities in their breasts to them making final surgical treatment decisions. Information was vital in guiding these women. Support from family members, friends, healthcare professionals as well as survivors also has an influencing role. However, the final say on treatment decision was from themselves.
    CONCLUSIONS: The treatment decision for women with early breast cancer in Malaysia is a result of information they gather on their decision making journey. This journey starts with diagnosis. The women's spouses, friends, family members and healthcare professionals play different roles as information providers and supporters at different stages of treatment decisions. However, the final treatment decision is influenced mainly by women's own experiences, knowledge and understanding.
    Study site: Breast surgical units, Klang Valley, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy
  17. Mujar M, Dahlui M, Yip CH, Taib NA
    Prev Med, 2013 Mar;56(3-4):222-4.
    PMID: 23234860 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.12.001
    OBJECTIVE: Treatment delays in breast cancer are generally thought to affect prognosis but the impact on survival remains unclear. Indicators for breast cancer care include time to primary treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether time to primary treatment (TPT) in breast cancer impacts survival.
    METHOD: A total of 648 breast cancer patients treated in the University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC), Malaysia between 2004 and 2005 were included in the study. TPT was calculated from the date of pathological diagnosis to the date of primary treatment. Mortality data was obtained from the National Registry of Births and Deaths. Last date of follow-up was November 2010.
    RESULTS: Median TPT was 18 days. Majority 508 (69.1%) of the patients received treatment within 30 days after diagnosis. The majority was surgically treated. Ethnicity (p=0.002) and stage at presentation (p=0.007) were significantly associated with delayed TPT. Malay ethnicity had delayed TPT compared to the Chinese; Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.9 (Confidence Interval (CI) 1.237, 2.987). Delayed TPT did not affect overall survival on univariate and multivariate analyses.
    CONCLUSION: Time to primary treatment after a diagnosis of breast cancer had no impact on overall survival. Further studies on care before diagnosis are important in drawing up meaningful quality indicators.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy*
  18. Bhoo-Pathy N, Yip CH, Hartman M, Saxena N, Taib NA, Ho GF, et al.
    Eur. J. Cancer, 2012 May;48(7):982-9.
    PMID: 22366561 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejca.2012.01.034
    Adjuvant! Online is a free web-based tool which predicts 10-year breast cancer outcomes and the efficacy of adjuvant therapy in patients with breast cancer. As its prognostic performance has only been validated in high income Caucasian populations, we validated the model in a middle income Asian setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy
  19. Miao H, Hartman M, Verkooijen HM, Taib NA, Wong HS, Subramaniam S, et al.
    BMC Cancer, 2016 10 21;16(1):820.
    PMID: 27769212
    BACKGROUND: CancerMath is a set of web-based prognostic tools which predict nodal status and survival up to 15 years after diagnosis of breast cancer. This study validated its performance in a Southeast Asian setting.

    METHODS: Using Singapore Malaysia Hospital-Based Breast Cancer Registry, clinical information was retrieved from 7064 stage I to III breast cancer patients who were diagnosed between 1990 and 2011 and underwent surgery. Predicted and observed probabilities of positive nodes and survival were compared for each subgroup. Calibration was assessed by plotting observed value against predicted value for each decile of the predicted value. Discrimination was evaluated by area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with 95 % confidence interval (CI).

    RESULTS: The median predicted probability of positive lymph nodes is 40.6 % which was lower than the observed 43.6 % (95 % CI, 42.5 %-44.8 %). The calibration plot showed underestimation for most of the groups. The AUC was 0.71 (95 % CI, 0.70-0.72). Cancermath predicted and observed overall survival probabilities were 87.3 % vs 83.4 % at 5 years after diagnosis and 75.3 % vs 70.4 % at 10 years after diagnosis. The difference was smaller for patients from Singapore, patients diagnosed more recently and patients with favorable tumor characteristics. Calibration plot also illustrated overprediction of survival for patients with poor prognosis. The AUC for 5-year and 10-year overall survival was 0.77 (95 % CI: 0.75-0.79) and 0.74 (95 % CI: 0.71-0.76).

    CONCLUSIONS: The discrimination and calibration of CancerMath were modest. The results suggest that clinical application of CancerMath should be limited to patients with better prognostic profile.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy
  20. Pahlevan Sharif S, Ahadzadeh AS, Perdamen HK
    Appl Nurs Res, 2017 Dec;38:88-94.
    PMID: 29241526 DOI: 10.1016/j.apnr.2017.09.012
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between uncertainty in illness and quality of life, and examine the mediating role of coping strategies and mood states in this relationship among breast cancer patients.

    METHODS: A convenience sample of 135 Malaysian women with breast cancer completed questionnaires measuring uncertainty in illness, mood states (i.e. anxiety and depression), quality of life, and copying styles.

    RESULTS: The results showed an inverse correlation between uncertainty and quality of life after controlling for the effects of age, cancer stage and time since diagnosis. Moreover, the negative association between illness uncertainty and quality of life was mediated by coping strategies and mood states.

    CONCLUSION: The findings revealed that breast cancer patients experiencing a high level of uncertainty more likely use avoidant and less likely use active emotional coping strategies which in turn amplifies anxiety and depression and undermines their quality of life. While some interventions to reduce the adverse consequences of uncertainty are recommended, the findings indicated the need for targeted psychological interventions seeking to gradually shift cancer patients' coping strategies from avoidant to active emotional coping.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/therapy
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