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  1. Kow FP, Adlina B, Sivasangari S, Punithavathi N, Ng KK, Ang AH, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2018 08;73(4):233-238.
    PMID: 30121686 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: As pharmacological treatment of hypertension has become a burden worldwide, the study looked into nonpharmacological ways of reducing blood pressure. The objective was to determine if music guided, slow and deep breathing will reduce the blood pressure among patients with hypertension in eight weeks.

    METHODS: A participant blinded, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial was conducted in which the participants in the intervention group (IG) practiced deep breathing exercise guided by sound cues and those in the control group (CG) listened to the music. The primary end point was reduction in blood pressure at eight weeks.

    RESULTS: 87 patients, 46 males and 41 females with mean age of 61.1 years were recruited and 93.1% of them successfully completed the study. There was significant reduction in systolic and diastolic Blood Pressure from baseline by 8 weeks in both groups. The reduction in Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the control arm was 10.5mmHg compared to 8.3mmHg (p<0.001) in intervention group. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) reduction in control and intervention groups were 5.2 mmHg (p<0.001) and 5.6 mmHg (p<0.001) respectively. The absolute difference in SBP reduction from baseline in IG & CG was -2.2 (95%CI: -7.8 to 3.5) and DBP was -0.4 (95%CI: -2.9 to 3.6). However, blood pressure reduction between the two groups was not significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both listening to music and deep breathing exercise were associated with a clinically significant reduction in SBP and DBP. However, deep breathing exercise did not augment the benefit of music in reducing BP.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breathing Exercises/methods*
  2. Jahan I, Begum M, Akhter S, Islam Z, Haque M, Jahan N
    J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol, 2020 06 11;27(2):e68-e77.
    PMID: 32543162 DOI: 10.15586/jptcp.v27i2.675
    Alternate nostril breathing (ANB) is one of the best and easiest breathing exercises. ANB exercise has beneficial effects on cardiac function in healthy and diseased people. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of ANB exercise on cardiac physiology among healthy medical students. This was a prospective interventional study that was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Chittagong Medical College (CMC), Chattogram, Bangladesh, from July 2017 to June 2018. A total of 100 research participants (RPs) aged 18-20 years, Year-I medical students of CMC, were selected. A simple random sampling method was adopted. The selection was done after the inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The age and body mass index (BMI) of the RPs were analogous in both the control and experimental groups. Cardiac parameters, like pulse and blood pressure (BP), were measured. The initial baseline data were recorded for both groups and after 4 weeks. The research respondents of the experimental group performed ANB exercise for 4 weeks. The mean value pulse and BP were significantly (p < 0.001) changed after breathing exercise, compared to the values before the breathing exercise. The results of this study suggest that cardiac function significantly improves after the breathing exercise. Therefore, ANB can be recommended for increasing cardiac efficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breathing Exercises/methods*
  3. Jahan I, Begum M, Akhter S, Islam MZ, Jahan N, Haque M
    J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol, 2020 03 19;27(1):e104-e114.
    PMID: 32320171 DOI: 10.15586/jptcp.v27i1.668
    Alternate nostril breathing (ANB) is one of the best and easiest breathing exercises (pranayama) of yoga that are good for health and physical fitness. ANB exercise has beneficial and therapeutic effects on respiratory function in both normal as well as diseased humans. This study was conducted with the objective of assessing the physiological effects of short-term ANB exercise on respiratory function in healthy adult individuals leading a stressful life. This prospective interventional study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Chittagong Medical College (CMC), Chattogram, Bangladesh from July 2017 to June 2018. A total of 100 participants aged 18-20 years, studying in the first year in CMC, were included by using a simple random sampling method. Among them, 50 participants were enrolled in the experimental group. Age- and BMI-matched 50 participants constituted the control group. Height, weight were measured, and BMI was calculated. The participants of the experimental group performed ANB exercise over 4 weeks for 10 min/day. The control participants were neither trained nor allowed to practice nostril breathing during the whole study period. Respiratory parameters like forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were measured by using a digital spirometer (Chest graph HI-101, Japan). Readings were taken in a healthy upright sitting posture in the control and experimental group initially and after 4 weeks. Student's t-test was conducted by using SPSS for windows version-23. The mean value of FVC, FEV1, PEFR were significantly (P < 0.001) changed after the ANB exercise when compared to the values before breathing exercise. The results of this study suggest that respiratory function is significantly improved after the ANB exercise. Therefore, ANB can be recommended for increasing respiratory efficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breathing Exercises/methods*
  4. Jahan I, Begum M, Akhter S, Islam MZ, Jahan N, Samad N, et al.
    Ann Afr Med, 2021 7 3;20(2):69-77.
    PMID: 34213471 DOI: 10.4103/aam.aam_114_20
    Introduction: Alternate nostril breathing (ANB) is an effective breathing exercise with therapeutic benefits on cardiorespiratory functions for healthy and diseased individuals. This study was conducted to assess the effects of ANB exercise on cardiorespiratory tasks in healthy adults.

    Materials and Methods: This randomized experimental study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram, from July 2017 to June 2018. A total of 100 1st-year students, aged between 18 and 20 years, were included by a random sampling method. Fifty participants (25 males and 25 females) were enrolled in the experimental group, while age- and body mass index-matched another 50 participants (25 males and 25 females) served as the control group. Experimental group participants performed ANB exercise for 4 weeks. Cardiorespiratory parameters (pulse rate, blood pressure, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1st s [FEV1], and peak expiratory flow rate [PEFR] were measured. Data were taken at the start and after 4 weeks in both groups.

    Results: Independent t-test showed no significant differences in the cardiorespiratory functions between the experimental and control groups among the male and female participants, except for the females' PEFR which showed small differences. On the other hand, repeated measure ANOVA shows significant improvement in the experimental groups among males (P < 0.001-0.028) and females (P < 0.001-0.001) in all the cardiorespiratory functions measured, except for the FEV1 and PEFR among males.

    Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that cardiorespiratory functions were improved after breathing exercise, and therefore, ANB can be recommended for increasing cardiorespiratory efficiency.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breathing Exercises/methods*
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