Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 23 in total

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  1. Wong RR, Kong C, Lee SH, Nathan S
    Sci Rep, 2016 06 07;6:27475.
    PMID: 27273550 DOI: 10.1038/srep27475
    Toxins are believed to play a crucial role in Burkholderia pseudomallei pathogenicity, however to date, only a few have been identified. The discovery of additional toxic molecules is limited by the lack of a sensitive indicator of B. pseudomallei toxicity. Previously, from a whole genome transcriptome analysis of B. pseudomallei-infected Caenorhabditis elegans, we noted significant overexpression of a number of worm genes encoding detoxification enzymes, indicating the host's attempt to clear bacterial toxic molecules. One of these genes, ugt-29, a family member of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, was the most robustly induced phase II detoxification gene. In this study, we show that strong induction of ugt-29 is restricted to infections by the most virulent species among the pathogens tested. We also noted that ugt-29 is activated upon disruption of host protein synthesis. Hence, we propose that UGT-29 could be a promising biosensor to detect B. pseudomallei toxins that compromise host protein synthesis. The identification of bactobolin, a polyketide-peptide hybrid molecule, as a toxic molecule of B. pseudomallei further verifies the utilization of this surveillance system to search for bacterial toxins. Hence, a ugt-29 based reporter should be useful in screening for other molecules that inhibit host protein synthesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity*
  2. Puah SM, Puthucheary SD, Wang JT, Pan YJ, Chua KH
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:590803.
    PMID: 25215325 DOI: 10.1155/2014/590803
    The Gram-negative saprophyte Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an infectious disease which is endemic in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. This bacterium possesses many virulence factors which are thought to contribute to its survival and pathogenicity. Using a virulent clinical isolate of B. pseudomallei and an attenuated strain of the same B. pseudomallei isolate, 6 genes BPSL2033, BP1026B_I2784, BP1026B_I2780, BURPS1106A_A0094, BURPS1106A_1131, and BURPS1710A_1419 were identified earlier by PCR-based subtractive hybridization. These genes were extensively characterized at the molecular level, together with an additional gene BPSL3147 that had been identified by other investigators. Through a reverse genetic approach, single-gene knockout mutants were successfully constructed by using site-specific insertion mutagenesis and were confirmed by PCR. BPSL2033::Km and BURPS1710A_1419::Km mutants showed reduced rates of survival inside macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and also low levels of virulence in the nematode infection model. BPSL2033::Km demonstrated weak statistical significance (P = 0.049) at 8 hours after infection in macrophage infection study but this was not seen in BURPS1710A_1419::Km. Nevertheless, complemented strains of both genes were able to partially restore the gene defects in both in vitro and in vivo studies, thus suggesting that they individually play a minor role in the virulence of B. pseudomallei.
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity*
  3. Puthucheary SD, Puah SM, Chai HC, Thong KL, Chua KH
    J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2012;22(3):198-204.
    PMID: 22846664 DOI: 10.1159/000338985
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis. We initiated this investigation with a virulent and an attenuated strain of B. pseudomallei. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was carried out initially for macrogenomic comparison of both strains of B. pseudomallei. However, the pulsotypes obtained were identical and therefore we applied a subtractive hybridization technique to distinguish and determine the possible differences between the two strains. Six virulence strain-specific DNA fragments were obtained and the encoding homolog proteins were identified as a xenobiotic-responsive element family of transcriptional regulator, a hypothetical protein, an unknown protein, a plasmid recombination enzyme, a regulatory protein and a putative hemolysin activator protein. A combination of at least three of these determinants was identified in 45 clinical isolates when screening was carried out with self-designed multiplex PCR targeting the six putative virulent determinants. Our data demonstrated that different combinations of the six putative virulence genes were present in the clinical isolates indicating their probable role in the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity*
  4. Lee SH, Ooi SK, Mahadi NM, Tan MW, Nathan S
    PLoS One, 2011;6(3):e16707.
    PMID: 21408228 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016707
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a disease of significant morbidity and mortality in both human and animals in endemic areas. Much remains to be known about the contributions of genotypic variations within the bacteria and the host, and environmental factors that lead to the manifestation of the clinical symptoms of melioidosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity*
  5. Chong CE, Lim BS, Nathan S, Mohamed R
    In Silico Biol. (Gedrukt), 2006;6(4):341-6.
    PMID: 16922696
    Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have enabled elucidation of whole genome information from a plethora of organisms. In parallel with this technology, various bioinformatics tools have driven the comparative analysis of the genome sequences between species and within isolates. While drawing meaningful conclusions from a large amount of raw material, computer-aided identification of suitable targets for further experimental analysis and characterization, has also led to the prediction of non-human homologous essential genes in bacteria as promising candidates for novel drug discovery. Here, we present a comparative genomic analysis to identify essential genes in Burkholderia pseudomallei. Our in silico prediction has identified 312 essential genes which could also be potential drug candidates. These genes encode essential proteins to support the survival of B. pseudomallei including outer-inner membrane and surface structures, regulators, proteins involved in pathogenenicity, adaptation, chaperones as well as degradation of small and macromolecules, energy metabolism, information transfer, central/intermediate/miscellaneous metabolism pathways and some conserved hypothetical proteins of unknown function. Therefore, our in silico approach has enabled rapid screening and identification of potential drug targets for further characterization in the laboratory.
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity
  6. Raja NS, Ahmed MZ, Singh NN
    J Postgrad Med, 2005 Apr-Jun;51(2):140-5.
    PMID: 16006713
    Infectious diseases account for a third of all the deaths in the developing world. Achievements in understanding the basic microbiology, pathogenesis, host defenses and expanded epidemiology of infectious diseases have resulted in better management and reduced mortality. However, an emerging infectious disease, melioidosis, is becoming endemic in the tropical regions of the world and is spreading to non-endemic areas. This article highlights the current understanding of melioidosis including advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Better understanding of melioidosis is essential, as it is life-threatening and if untreated, patients can succumb to it. Our sources include a literature review, information from international consensus meetings on melioidosis and ongoing discussions within the medical and scientific community.
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity
  7. Mariappan V, Thimma J, Vellasamy KM, Shankar EM, Vadivelu J
    Environ Microbiol Rep, 2018 04;10(2):217-225.
    PMID: 29393577 DOI: 10.1111/1758-2229.12624
    Physiological constituents in airway surface liquids (ASL) appear to impact the adherence and invasion potentials of Burkholderia pseudomallei contributing to recrudescent melioidosis. Here, we investigated the factors present in ASL that is likely to influence bacterial adhesion and invasion leading to improved understanding of bacterial pathogenesis. Six B. pseudomallei clinical isolates from different origins were used to investigate the ability of the bacteria to adhere and invade A549 human lung epithelial cells using a system that mimics the physiological ASL with different pH, NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and glucose concentrations. These parameters resulted in markedly differential adherence and invasion abilities of B. pseudomallei to the lung epithelial cells. The concentration of 20 mM glucose dramatically increased adherence and invasion by increasing the rate of pili formation in depiliated bacteria. Glucose significantly increased adherence and invasion of B. pseudomallei to A549 cells, and presence of NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 markedly ablated the effect despite the presence of glucose. Our data established a link between glucose, enhanced adhesion and invasion potentials of B. pseudomallei, hinting increased susceptibility of individuals with diabetes mellitus to clinical melioidosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity
  8. Al-Maleki AR, Mariappan V, Vellasamy KM, Shankar EM, Tay ST, Vadivelu J
    J Proteomics, 2014 Jun 25;106:205-20.
    PMID: 24742602 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2014.04.005
    Colony morphology variation is a characteristic of Burkholderia pseudomallei primary clinical isolates, associated with variations in expression of virulence factors. Here, we performed comparative investigations on adhesion, invasion, plaque-forming abilities and protein profiles of B. pseudomallei wild-type (WT) and a small colony variant (SCV). The percentage of SCV adherence to A549 cells was significantly higher (2.73%) than WT (1.91%). In contrast, WT was significantly more efficient (0.63%) than SCV (0.31%) in invasiveness and in inducing cellular damage. Using 2-DE and MALDI TOF/TOF, 263 and 258 protein spots were detected in WT and SCV, respectively. Comparatively, 49 proteins were differentially expressed in SCV when compared with WT. Of these, 31 proteins were up-regulated, namely, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk), phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk), thioredoxin (TrxA), putative ferritin DPS-family DNA-binding protein (DPS) and oxidoreductase (AhpC) that are known to be involved in adhesion, intracellular survival and persistence. However, among the 18 down-regulated proteins, enolase (Eno), elongation factor (EF-Tu) and universal stress-related proteins were associated with invasion and virulence. Differences observed in these protein profiles provide ample clues to their association with the morphotypic and phenotypic characteristics of colony variants, providing additional insights into the potential association of B. pseudomallei colony morphotypes with disease pathogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity
  9. Puah SM, Puthucheary SD, Chua KH
    Int J Med Sci, 2013;10(5):539-47.
    PMID: 23532805 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.5516
    The search for novel immunogenic polypeptides to improve the accuracy and reliability of serologic diagnostic methods for Burkholderia pseudomallei infection is ongoing. We employed a rapid and efficient approach to identify such polypeptides with sera from melioidosis patients using a small insert genomic expression library created from clinically confirmed local virulent isolates of B. pseudomallei. After 2 rounds of immunoscreening, 6 sero-positive clones expressing immunogenic peptides were sequenced and their identities were: benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit, a putative 200 kDa antigen p200, phosphotransferase enzyme family protein, short chain dehydrogenase and 2 hypothetical proteins. These immunogens were then transferred to an ELISA platform for further large scale screening. By combining shotgun expression library and ELISA assays, we identified 2 polypeptides BPSS1904 (benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit) and BPSL3130 (hypothetical protein), which had sensitivities of 78.9% and 79.4% and specificities of 88.1% and 94.8%, respectively in ELISA test, thus suggesting that both are potential candidate antigens for the serodiagnosis of infections caused by B. pseudomallei.
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity
  10. Zong Z, Wang X, Deng Y
    PMID: 27244959
    A previously healthy Chinese male working in Malaysia returned to China with high fever. A blood culture showed Burkholderia pseudomallei strain WCBP1. This isolate was sequenced, showing type, ST881, which appears to be present in Malaysia. WCP1 had unusual susceptibility to aminoglycosides and habored the Yersinia-like fimbrial gene cluster for virulence. The patient's condition deteriorated rapidly but he recovered after receiving meropenem and intensive care support. Melioidosis is a potential problem among Chinese imigrant workers with strains new to China being identified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity
  11. See JX, Chandramathi S, Abdulla MA, Vadivelu J, Shankar EM
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2017 Aug;11(8):e0005702.
    PMID: 28820897 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005702
    BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is a neglected tropical disease endemic across South East Asia and Northern Australia. The etiological agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei (B.pseudomallei), is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile bacterium residing in the soil and muddy water across endemic regions of the tropical world. The bacterium is known to cause persistent infections by remaining latent within host cells for prolonged duration. Reactivation of the recrudescent disease often occurs in elders whose immunity wanes. Moreover, recurrence rates in melioidosis patients can be up to ~13% despite appropriate antibiotic therapy, suggestive of bacterial persistence and inefficacy of antibiotic regimens. The mechanisms behind bacterial persistence in the host remain unclear, and hence understanding host immunity during persistent B. pseudomallei infections may help designing potential immunotherapy.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A persistent infection was generated using a small-colony variant (SCV) and a wild-type (WT) B. pseudomallei in BALB/c mice via intranasal administration. Infected mice that survived for >60 days were sacrificed. Lungs, livers, spleens, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were harvested for experimental investigations. Histopathological changes of organs were observed in the infected mice, suggestive of successful establishment of persistent infections. Moreover, natural killer (NK) cell frequency was increased in SCV- and WT-infected mice. We observed programmed death-1 (PD-1) upregulation on B cells of SCV- and WT-infected mice. Interestingly, PD-1 upregulation was only observed on NK cells and monocytes of SCV-infected mice. In contrast, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) downregulation was seen on NK cells of WT-infected mice, and on monocytes of SCV- and WT-infected mice.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The SCV and the WT of B. pseudomallei distinctly upregulated PD-1 expression on B cells, NK cells, and monocytes to dampen host immunity, which likely facilitates bacterial persistence. PD-1/PD-L1 pathway appears to play an important role in the persistence of B. pseudomallei in the host.

    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity*
  12. Zueter AR, Rahman ZA, Abumarzouq M, Harun A
    BMC Infect Dis, 2018 01 02;18(1):5.
    PMID: 29291714 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2912-9
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the Burkholderia pseudomallei genetic diversity among clinical isolates from melioidosis-endemic areas have identified genetic factors contributing to differential virulence. Although it has been ruled out in Australian and Thai B. pseudomallei populations, it remains unclear whether B. pseudomallei sequence types (STs) correlate with disease in Malaysian patients with melioidosis.

    METHODS: In this study, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on clinical B. pseudomallei isolates collected from Kelantan state of Malaysia, patients' clinical data were reviewed and then genotype-risk correlations were investigated.

    RESULTS: Genotyping of 83 B. pseudomallei isolates revealed 32 different STs, of which 13(40%) were novel. The frequencies of the STs among the 83 isolates ranged from 1 to 12 observations, and ST54, ST371 and ST289 were predominant. All non-novel STs reported in this study have also been identified in other Asian countries. Based on the MLST data analysis, the phylogenetic tree showed clustering of the STs with each other, as well as with the STs from Southeast Asia and China. No evidence for associations between any of B. pseudomallei STs and clinical melioidosis presentation was detected. In addition, the bacterial genotype clusters in relation with each clinical outcome were statistically insignificant, and no risk estimate was reported. This study has expanded the data for B. pseudomallei on MLST database map and provided insights into the molecular epidemiology of melioidosis in Peninsular Malaysia.

    CONCLUSION: This study concurs with previous reports concluding that infecting strain type plays no role in determining disease presentation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity
  13. Al-Maleki AR, Vellasamy KM, Mariappan V, Venkatraman G, Tay ST, Vadivelu J
    Genomics, 2020 01;112(1):501-512.
    PMID: 30980902 DOI: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2019.04.002
    Differences in expression of potential virulence and survival genes were associated with B. pseudomallei colony morphology variants. Microarray was used to investigate B. pseudomallei transcriptome alterations among the wild type and small colony variant (SCV) pre- and post-exposed to A549 cells. SCV pre- and post-exposed have lower metabolic requirements and consume lesser energy than the wild type pre- and post-exposed to A549. However, both the wild type and SCV limit their metabolic activities post- infection of A549 cells and this is indicated by the down-regulation of genes implicated in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrate, lipid, and other amino acids. Many well-known virulence and survival factors, including T3SS, fimbriae, capsular polysaccharides and stress response were up-regulated in both the wild type and SCV pre- and post-exposed to A549 cells. Microarray analysis demonstrated essential differences in bacterial response associated with virulence and survival pre- and post-exposed to A549 cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity*
  14. Kang WT, Vellasamy KM, Chua EG, Vadivelu J
    J Infect Dis, 2015 Mar 1;211(5):827-34.
    PMID: 25165162 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiu492
    OBJECTIVES: The bsa locus of Burkholderia pseudomallei encodes several proteins that are components of the type III secretion system (TTSS). BipC was postulated as one of the TTSS-3 effector proteins, but its role in the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei infection is not well understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine its role(s) in the virulence of B. pseudomallei pathogenesis.
    METHODS: A bipC TTSS-3-deficient strain of B. pseudomallei and complemented strains were generated to assess the role of BipC as a type III translocation apparatus. Human cell lines and a mouse model of melioidosis were used for in vitro and in vivo assays, respectively.
    RESULTS: A significant 2-fold reduction was demonstrated in the percentage of adherence, invasion, intracellular survival, and phagosomal escape of the bipC mutant. Interestingly, microscopic studies have shown that BipC was capable of delayed B. pseudomallei actin-based motility. The virulence of the mutant strain in a murine model of melioidosis demonstrated that the bipC mutant was less virulent, compared with the wild type.
    CONCLUSION: The results suggested that BipC possesses virulence determinants that play significant roles in host cell invasion and immune evasion.
    KEYWORDS: BipC; Burkholderia pseudomallei; host cell invasion; type III secretion system; type III translocation apparatus; virulence
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity*
  15. Lee SH, Wong RR, Chin CY, Lim TY, Eng SA, Kong C, et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2013 Sep 10;110(37):15067-72.
    PMID: 23980181 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1311725110
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that infects both humans and animals. Although cell culture studies have revealed significant insights into factors contributing to virulence and host defense, the interactions between this pathogen and its intact host remain to be elucidated. To gain insights into the host defense responses to B. pseudomallei infection within an intact host, we analyzed the genome-wide transcriptome of infected Caenorhabditis elegans and identified ∼6% of the nematode genes that were significantly altered over a 12-h course of infection. An unexpected feature of the transcriptional response to B. pseudomallei was a progressive increase in the proportion of down-regulated genes, of which ELT-2 transcriptional targets were significantly enriched. ELT-2 is an intestinal GATA transcription factor with a conserved role in immune responses. We demonstrate that B. pseudomallei down-regulation of ELT-2 targets is associated with degradation of ELT-2 protein by the host ubiquitin-proteasome system. Degradation of ELT-2 requires the B. pseudomallei type III secretion system. Together, our studies using an intact host provide evidence for pathogen-mediated host immune suppression through the destruction of a host transcription factor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity*
  16. Chin CY, Monack DM, Nathan S
    Immunology, 2012 Apr;135(4):312-32.
    PMID: 22136109 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2011.03544.x
    Diabetes mellitus is a predisposing factor of melioidosis, contributing to higher mortality rates in diabetics infected with Burkholderia pseudomallei. To investigate how diabetes alters the inflammatory response, we established a streptozotocin (STZ) -induced diabetic murine acute-phase melioidosis model. Viable B. pseudomallei cells were consistently detected in the blood, liver and spleen during the 42-hr course of infection but the hyperglycaemic environment did not increase the bacterial burden. However, after 24 hr, granulocyte counts increased in response to infection, whereas blood glucose concentrations decreased over the course of infection. A genome-wide expression analysis of the STZ-diabetic murine acute melioidosis liver identified ~1000 genes whose expression was altered in the STZ-diabetic mice. The STZ-diabetic host transcriptional response was compared with the normoglycaemic host transcriptional response recently reported by our group. The microarray data suggest that the presence of elevated glucose levels impairs the host innate immune system by delaying the identification and recognition of B. pseudomallei surface structures. Consequently, the host is unable to activate the appropriate innate immune response over time, which may explain the increased susceptibility to melioidosis in the STZ-diabetic host. Nevertheless, a general 'alarm signal' of infection as well as defence programmes are still triggered by the STZ-diabetic host, although only 24 hr after infection. In summary, this study demonstrates that in the face of a B. pseudomallei acute infection, poor glycaemic control impaired innate responses during the early stages of B. pseudomallei infection, contributing to the increased susceptibility of STZ-induced diabetics to this fatal disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity*
  17. Vellasamy KM, Vasu C, Puthucheary SD, Vadivelu J
    Microb Pathog, 2009 Sep;47(3):111-7.
    PMID: 19524661 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2009.06.003
    To evaluate the potential role of extracellular proteins in the pathogenicity and virulence of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the activities of several enzymes in the culture filtrates of nine clinical and six environmental isolates were investigated in vitro and in vivo in ICR strain of mice. The production of protease, phosphatase, phospholipase C, superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase were detected in the culture filtrates of all the 15 isolates at different time points of growth 4-24h. Over time, activity of each enzyme at each time point varied. Profile of secretion was similar among the 15 isolates irrespective of source, that is clinical or environmental. Catalase, phosphatase and phospholipase C were found to be increased in 60-100% of the isolates post-passage in mice. In vivo inoculation studies in ICR mice demonstrated a wide difference in their ability to cause bacteraemia, splenic or external abscesses and mortality rate ranged from few days to several weeks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity*
  18. Su YC, Wan KL, Mohamed R, Nathan S
    Microbes Infect., 2008 Oct;10(12-13):1335-45.
    PMID: 18761419 DOI: 10.1016/j.micinf.2008.07.034
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis, a severe infectious disease of humans and animals. The role of the bacterium's proteins expressed in vivo during human melioidosis continues to remain an enigma. This study's aim was to identify B. pseudomallei target proteins that elicit the humoral immune response in infected humans. A small insert genomic expression library was constructed and immunoscreened to identify peptides that reacted exclusively with melioidosis patients' sera. Sero-positive clones expressing immunogenic peptides were sequenced and annotated, and shown to represent 109 proteins involved in bacterial cell envelope biogenesis, cell motility and secretion, transcription, amino acid, ion and protein metabolism, energy production, DNA repair and unknown hypothetical proteins. Western blot analysis of three randomly selected full-length immunogenic polypeptides with patients' sera verified the findings of the immunome screening. The patients' humoral immune response to the 109 proteins suggests the induction or significant upregulation of these proteins in vivo during human infection and thus may play a role in the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei. Identification of B. pseudomallei immunogens has shed new light on the elucidation of the bacterium's pathogenesis mechanism and disease severity. These immunogens can be further evaluated as prophylactic and serodiagnostic candidates as well as drug targets.
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity*
  19. Nathan S, Li H, Mohamed R, Embi N
    J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Biophys., 2002 Feb;6(1):45-53.
    PMID: 12186782
    We have used the phagemid pComb3H to construct recombinant phages displaying the single chain variable fragment (ScFv) towards exotoxin of Burkholderia pseudomallei. Variable heavy and light chain fragments were amplified from the hybridoma 6E6A8F3B line, with a wide spectrum of primers specific to mouse antibody genes. Through overlapping extension polymerase chain reaction, the heavy and light chain fragments were linked to form the ScFv which was subsequently cloned into the phage display vector and transformed into ER2537 cells to yield a complexity of 10(8) clones. The transformants were screened by four rounds of biopanning against the exotoxin and resulted in selective enrichment of exotoxin-binding antibodies by 301 fold. The phage pool from the final round of selection displayed antibodies of high-affinity to the exotoxin as demonstrated by ELISA. Several clones were selected randomly from this pool and analysed by restriction enzyme digestion, fingerprinting and sequencing. Restriction analysis confirmed that all clones carried a 700-800 bp insert whose sequences, in general, corresponded to that of mouse IgG. Fingerprinting profiles delineated the antibodies into two families with different CDR sequences.
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity
  20. Perumal Samy R, Stiles BG, Sethi G, Lim LHK
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2017 May;11(5):e0004738.
    PMID: 28493905 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004738
    This review briefly summarizes the geographical distribution and clinical impact of melioidosis, especially in the tropics. Burkholderia pseudomallei (a gram-negative bacterium) is the major causative agent for melioidosis, which is prevalent in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Northern Australia. Melioidosis patients are increasingly being recognized in other parts of the world. The bacteria are intrinsically resistant to many antimicrobial agents, but prolonged treatment, especially with combinations of antibiotics, may be effective. Despite therapy, the overall case fatality rate of septicemia in melioidosis remains significantly high. Intracellular survival of the bacteria within macrophages may progress to chronic infections, and about 10% of patients suffer relapses. In the coming decades, melioidosis will increasingly afflict travelers throughout many global regions. Clinicians managing travelers returning from the subtropics or tropics with severe pneumonia or septicemia should consider acute melioidosis as a differential diagnosis. Patients with open skin wounds, diabetes, or chronic renal disease are at higher risk for melioidosis and should avoid direct contact with soil and standing water in endemic regions. Furthermore, there are fears that B. pseudomallei may be used as a biological weapon. Technological advancements in molecular diagnostics and antibiotic therapy are improving the disease outcomes in endemic areas throughout Asia. Research and development efforts on vaccine candidates against melioidosis are ongoing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia pseudomallei/pathogenicity*
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