Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 53 in total

  1. Tariq U, Hussain R, Tufail K, Haider Z, Tariq R, Ali J
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Oct;103:109863.
    PMID: 31349467 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.109863
    Quick setting and poor injectability due to liquid-solid phase separation have limited the clinical use of brushite and monetite cements. The presence of certain ions in the cement during the setting reaction moderate the setting time and properties of the cement. This study reports the preparation of injectable bone cement by using biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) extracted from femur lamb bone by calcination at 1450 °C. EDX analysis infers the presence of Mg and Na ions as trace elements in BCP. X-ray diffraction patterns of the prepared cement confirmed the formation of brushite (DCPD) along with monetite (DCPA) as a minor phase. DCPA phase diminished gradually with a decrease in powder to liquid ratio (PLR). Initial and final setting time of 5.3 ± 0.5 and 14.67 ± 0.5 min respectively are obtained and within the acceptable recommended range for orthopedic applications. Exceptional injectability of ≈90% is achieved for all prepared bone cement samples. A decrease in compressive strength was observed with increase in the liquid phase of the cement, which is attributed to the higher degree of porosity in the set cement. Immersion of bone cement in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 7 days resulted in the formation of apatite layer on the surface of cement with Ca/P ratio 1.71, which enhanced the compressive strength from 2.88 to 9.15 MPa. The results demonstrate that bone cement produced from BCP extracted from femur lamb bone can be considered as potential bone substitute for regeneration and repair of bone defects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemistry*
  2. Cik Rohaida, C.H., Idris, B., Rusnah, M., Mohd Reusmaazran, Y., Narimah, A.B.
    Phase composition of calcium phosphate ceramic is a characteristic directly related to the biological response of implants due to the differences in mechanical and biochemical properties of these compounds. The biodegradation rate of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) can be controlled by altering the HA to β-TCP ratios. In this study the crystalline phase evolution of BCP synthesized via precipitation from aqueous solution of (NH4)2PO4 titrated into heated solution of Ca (NO3)2 was evaluated. The resulting powder was fabricated into porous scaffold using polyurethane foam method. Bulk powders were sintered from 700 - 1400°C to determine the most significant sintering temperature to obtain a stable and well crystallize BCP phases. The porous scaffolds were then sintered at selected temperature and the effects of various sintering times from 5,7,9,11,13 and 15 h were investigated. Bulk powders were characterized by dilatometer, IR analysis and XRD and porous scaffolds were analyzed by XRD and SEMEdx. RIR method was performed to show that the HA to β-TCP ratios were increased with increasing of sintering time and reached the maximum HA value at 11h. It is found that, the possibilities to manipulate the HA to β-TCP ratios in BCP porous scaffold by just controlling the sintering time of the scaffold without controlling the starting powder characteristics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates
  3. Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman, Masliana Muslimin
    A process to produce calcium phosphate biomaterial was done using an organic based diethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) as its starting material. The gel obtained from this reaction was used to study calcium phosphate transformation using in-situ XRD with temperature ranges from room temperature to 1300 o C. The results obtained from this analysis show the following phase transformation sequence gel > β-Ca2P2O7 > β-TCP + HA > α-TCP + HA. β-Ca2P2O7 was formed at 400 o C and the sample when heated up to 1000 o C, peaks of β- TCP and HA appeared showing the transformation of the β-Ca2P2O7 phase. When the sample was heated up further to 1200 o C, β-TCP transformed into α-TCP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates
  4. Trache D, Hussin MH, Haafiz MK, Thakur VK
    Nanoscale, 2017 Feb 02;9(5):1763-1786.
    PMID: 28116390 DOI: 10.1039/c6nr09494e
    Cellulose nanocrystals, a class of fascinating bio-based nanoscale materials, have received a tremendous amount of interest both in industry and academia owing to its unique structural features and impressive physicochemical properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, renewability, low density, adaptable surface chemistry, optical transparency, and improved mechanical properties. This nanomaterial is a promising candidate for applications in fields such as biomedical, pharmaceuticals, electronics, barrier films, nanocomposites, membranes, supercapacitors, etc. New resources, new extraction procedures, and new treatments are currently under development to satisfy the increasing demand of manufacturing new types of cellulose nanocrystals-based materials on an industrial scale. Therefore, this review addresses the recent progress in the production methodologies of cellulose nanocrystals, covering principal cellulose resources and the main processes used for its isolation. A critical and analytical examination of the shortcomings of various approaches employed so far is made. Additionally, structural organization of cellulose and nomenclature of cellulose nanomaterials have also been discussed for beginners in this field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates
  5. Taha A, Akram M, Jawad Z, Alshemary AZ, Hussain R
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Nov 01;80:93-101.
    PMID: 28866230 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.117
    Microwave assisted wet precipitation method was used to synthesize calcium deficient strontium doped β-tricalcium phosphate (Sr-βTCP) with a chemical formula of Ca2.96-xSrx(PO4)2. Sr-βTCP was reacted with monocalcium phosphate monohydrate [Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O, MCPM] in presence of water to furnish corresponding Sr containing brushite cement (Sr-Brc). The samples were characterized by using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Strontium content in the prepared samples was determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The effect of Sr2+ions on the structural, mechanical, setting properties and drug release of the cement is reported. Incorporation of Sr2+ions improved the injectability, setting time and mechanical properties of the Brc. The release profiles of antibiotics incorporated in Brc and Sr-Brc confirmed that the Sr incorporation into the Brc results in the efficient release of the antibiotics from the cement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates
  6. Udenni Gunathilake TMS, Ching YC, Ching KY, Chuah CH, Abdullah LC
    Polymers (Basel), 2017 Apr 29;9(5).
    PMID: 30970839 DOI: 10.3390/polym9050160
    Extensive employment of biomaterials in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications is considered to be of prime importance. As expected, oil based polymer materials were gradually replaced by natural or synthetic biopolymers due to their well-known intrinsic characteristics such as biodegradability, non-toxicity and biocompatibility. Literature on this subject was found to be expanding, especially in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications. Introduction of porosity into a biomaterial broadens the scope of applications. In addition, increased porosity can have a beneficial effect for the applications which exploit their exceptional ability of loading, retaining and releasing of fluids. Different applications require a unique set of pore characteristics in the biopolymer matrix. Various pore morphologies have different characteristics and contribute different performances to the biopolymer matrix. Fabrication methods for bio-based porous materials more related to the choice of material. By choosing the appropriate combination of fabrication technique and biomaterial employment, one can obtain tunable pore characteristic to fulfill the requirements of desired application. In our previous review, we described the literature related to biopolymers and fabrication techniques of porous materials. This paper we will focus on the biomedical and microbiological applications of bio-based porous materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates
  7. Lee CH, Khalina A, Nurazzi NM, Norli A, Harussani MM, Rafiqah SA, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Apr 25;13(9).
    PMID: 33922885 DOI: 10.3390/polym13091390
    In this review, the challenges faced by woven kenaf thermoset polymer composites in Malaysia were addressed with respect to three major aspects: woven kenaf reinforcement quality, Malaysian citizen awareness of woven kenaf thermoset composite products, and government supports. Kenaf plantations were introduced in Malaysia in the last two decades, but have generally not produced much kenaf composite product that has been widely accepted by the public. However, woven kenaf fiber enhances the thermoset composites to a similar degree or better than other natural fibers, especially with respect to impact resistance. Woven kenaf composites have been applied in automotive structural studies in Malaysia, yet they are still far from commercialization. Hence, this review discusses the kenaf fiber woven in Malaysia, thermoset and bio-based thermoset polymers, thermoset composite processing methods and, most importantly, the challenges faced in Malaysia. This review sets guidelines, provides an overview, and shares knowledge as to the potential challenges currently faced by woven kenaf reinforcements in thermoset polymer composites, allowing researchers to shift their interests and plans for conducting future studies on woven kenaf thermoset polymer composites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates
  8. Zhang K, Teng Z, Shao W, Wang Y, Li M, Lam SS
    J Hazard Mater, 2020 10 05;397:122754.
    PMID: 32361140 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122754
    Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSBs) shows high potential to be used for lead passivation in sediments due to the abilities of releasing phosphate and the subsequent formation of insoluble Pb-phosphate compounds. In this research, microbial capsules implemented with sodium alginate and CaCl2, containing Leclercia adecarboxylata L15 (a lead resistant PSB) and Ca3(PO4)2, were developed and the performance on lead passivation under different conditions was examined. The optimal concentrations of sodium alginate and CaCl2 for formulating the capsules were determined to be 0.3% and 10%, respectively. The removal efficiency of Pb2+ by capsules containing L15 and Ca3(PO4)2 was up to 98% with a capsule dosage of 2%, initial Pb2+ concentration of 1mM and pH of 3.0, which was better than that of free L15 (18%) and capsules containing only L15 (34%). Lead was immobilized via the formation of Pb5(PO4)3Cl on the surface and Pb3(PO4)2 in the interior of the capsules. The simulated sediment remediation experiments showed that the acid soluble fraction of lead reduced from 28% to 14% and transformed into more stable fractions after 10 days. The experiment results indicated that PSBs capsules coupled with phosphate materials have a great promise for application in remediation of lead contaminated sediments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates
  9. Mel M, Sopyan I, Nor YA
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:18-20.
    PMID: 19024963
    Tricalcium phosphate ceramic microcarrier has been developed and introduced to a new possibility for the culture of anchorage dependent animal cells of DF1. It was observed that the number of attached cells was increased with shorter time for both spinner vessel and stirred tank (ST) bioreactor. For those bioreactors, the total viable cell number that had been obtained is about 1.2 x 10(5) cell/ml.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates*
  10. Saidu MF, Mashita M, Khadijah K, Fazan F, Khalid KA
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:85-6.
    PMID: 15468831
    Hydroxyapatite is a calcium phosphate bioceramic that has been shown by many authors to be biocompatible with bioactive properties. It is widely accepted as the best synthetic material available for surgical use as a bone graft substitute. HA granules produced by AMREC-SIRIM from local materials underwent 5 types of sterilisation techniques with different ageing periods. Samples were tested for chemical and phase composition and microbial contamination before and after being sterilised. From the microbiological tests done, none of the unsterilised positive control yielded a positive culture. Results from X-Ray diffraction studies found that all the sterilisation techniques did not chemically degrade or structurally change the HA granules significantly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/analysis*
  11. Muslim, Y.S., Knowles, J., Howlett, J.
    Ann Dent, 2005;12(1):-.
    Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been increasingly used in biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility with living tissues. However, its use is limited to low load bearing areas due to the poor mechanical properties compared to bone. The aim of this project is to improve the mechanical properties of synthetic HA by optimising the processing method and also by using a phosphate based glass as a sintering aid to develop Glass Reinforced Hydroxyapatite (GR-HA). A phosphate based glass containing CaO, P2O5 and CaF2 was incorporated into HA at 2.5wt% and 5wt% additions during the milling process prior to sintering at 1300°C. The flexural strength mean values for GR-HA ranged from 80MPa to 110MPa. Pure HA exhibited a much lower flexural strength mean value ranging from 66MPa to 79MPa. The improved mechanical properties were associated with the occurrence of residual stress as a result of decomposition of HA to b-Tricalcium Phosphate (TCP) and in 5wt% GRHA to a-Tricalcium Phosphate (TCP).
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates
  12. Yeong, Meng How, Shah Rizal Kasim, Hazizan Md Akil, Zainal Arifin Ahmad
    β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powders were synthesized by using various particles sizes (40 nm – 780 μm) calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) at room temperature (25 ˚C). The synthesized powders were characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) method. The purity of β-TCP powders were determined from XRD pattern while the crystallite size of β-TCP powders were calculated by using Scherrer equation. Results shows that the purity of β-TCP powders were ranged from 20.33 % to 81.94 % while the crystallite size of β- TCP powders were ranged from 0.04391 μm to 0.06751 μm. From this work, particle size of CaCO3 will influenced the purity but not the mean crystallite size of synthesized β-TCP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates
  13. Che Nor Zarida Che Seman, Zamzuri Zakaria, Zunariah Buyong, Mohd Shukrimi Awang, Ahmad Razali Md Ralib @ Md Raghib
    A novel injectable calcium phosphate bone cement (osteopaste) has been
    developed. Its potential application in orthopaedics as a filler of bone defects has been
    studied. The biomaterial was composed of tetra-calcium phosphate (TTCP) and tricalcium
    phosphate (TCP) powder. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the
    healing process of osteopaste in rabbit tibia.(Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates
  14. Low KL, Tan SH, Zein SH, Roether JA, Mouriño V, Boccaccini AR
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2010 Jul;94(1):273-86.
    PMID: 20336722 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.31619
    A major weakness of current orthopedic implant materials, for instance sintered hydroxyapatite (HA), is that they exist as a hardened form, requiring the surgeon to fit the surgical site around an implant to the desired shape. This can cause an increase in bone loss, trauma to the surrounding tissue, and longer surgical time. A convenient alternative to harden bone filling materials are injectable bone substitutes (IBS). In this article, recent progress in the development and application of calcium phosphate (CP)-based composites use as IBS is reviewed. CP materials have been used widely for bone replacement because of their similarity to the mineral component of bone. The main limitation of bulk CP materials is their brittle nature and poor mechanical properties. There is significant effort to reinforce or improve the mechanical properties and injectability of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and this review resumes different alternatives presented in this specialized literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/metabolism; Calcium Phosphates/chemistry*
  15. Baradaran S, Moghaddam E, Nasiri-Tabrizi B, Basirun WJ, Mehrali M, Sookhakian M, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Apr;49:656-668.
    PMID: 25686995 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.01.050
    The effect of the addition of an ionic dopant to calcium phosphates for biomedical applications requires specific research due to the essential roles played in such processes. In the present study, the mechanical and biological properties of Ni-doped hydroxyapatite (HA) and Ni-doped HA mixed with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were evaluated. Ni (3wt.% and 6wt.%)-doped HA was synthesized using a continuous precipitation method and calcined at 900°C for 1h. The GNP (0.5-2wt.%)-reinforced 6% Ni-doped HA (Ni6) composite was prepared using rotary ball milling for 15h. The sintering process was performed using hot isostatic pressing at processing conditions of 1150°C and 160MPa with a 1-h holding time. The results indicated that the phase compositions and structural features of the products were noticeably affected by the Ni and GNPs. The mechanical properties of Ni6 and 1.5Ni6 were increased by 55% and 75% in hardness, 59% and 163% in fracture toughness and 120% and 85% in elastic modulus compared with monolithic HA, respectively. The in-vitro biological behavior was investigated using h-FOB osteoblast cells in 1, 3 and 5days of culture. Based on the osteoblast results, the cytotoxicity of the products was indeed affected by the Ni doping. In addition, the effect of GNPs on the growth and proliferation of osteoblast cells was investigated in Ni6 composites containing different ratios of GNPs, where 1.5wt.% was the optimum value.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/pharmacology; Calcium Phosphates/chemistry*
  16. Toibah AR, Sopyan I, Mel M
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:83-4.
    PMID: 19024995
    The incorporation of magnesium ions into the calcium phosphate structure is of great interest for the development of artificial bone implants. This paper investigates the preparation of magnesium-doped biphasic calcium phosphate (Mg-BCP) via sol gel method at various concentrations of added Mg. The effect of calcinations temperature (ranging from 500 degrees C to 900 degrees C) and concentrations of Mg incorporated into BCP has been studied by the aid of XRD, TGA and infrared spectroscopy (IR) in transmittance mode analysis. The study indicated that the powder was pure BCP and Mg-BCP with 100% purity and high crystallinity. The results also indicated that beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) phase can be observed when the powder was calcined at 800 degrees C and above.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemical synthesis; Calcium Phosphates/chemistry*
  17. Cik Rohaida CH, Idris B, Mohd Reusmaazran Y, Rusnah M, Fadzley Izwan AM
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:156-7.
    PMID: 15468865
    A mixture with different compositions of HA and TCP were synthesize in this work by precipitation method using Ca(NO3)2 4H2 and (NH4)2HPO4 as the starting materials. A mixture with HA and TCP phases in different ratios were produced. The powders were sintered from 1000 degrees C to 1250 degrees C. The phase compositions of the mixtures were then studied via XRD. This work shows that the pH value determines the different phase compositions of the HA-TCP mixture. Chemical analyses were carried out by FTIR. The microstructure was observed under SEM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/analysis; Calcium Phosphates/chemical synthesis*
  18. Abdullah AM, Rahim TNAT, Hamad WNFW, Mohamad D, Akil HM, Rajion ZA
    Dent Mater, 2018 11;34(11):e309-e316.
    PMID: 30268678 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2018.09.006
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the mechanical and biological properties of newly developed hybrid ceramics filled and unfilled polyamide 12 (PA 12) for craniofacial reconstruction via a fused deposition modelling (FDM) framework.

    METHODS: 15wt% of zirconia (ZrO2) as well as 30, 35, and 40wt% of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were compounded with PA 12, followed by the fabrication of filament feedstocks using a single screw extruder. The fabricated filament feedstocks were used to print the impact specimens. The melt flow rate, tensile properties of fabricated filament feedstocks, and 3D printed impact properties of the specimens were assessed using melt flow indexer, universal testing machine, and Izod pendulum tester, respectively. The microstructure of selected filament feedstocks and broken impact specimens were analysed using a field emission scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine. Human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells (HPdLF) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the materials by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromid) (MTT) assay.

    RESULTS: Hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 indicated sufficient flowability for FDM 3D printing. The tensile strength of hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 filament feedstocks slightly reduced as compared to unfilled PA 12. However, the tensile modulus and impact strength of hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 increased by 8%-31% and 98%-181%, respectively. A significant increase was also detected in the cell viability of the developed composites at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50 and 100mg/ml.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The newly developed hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 filament feedstock with improved properties is suitable for an FDM-based 3D printer, which enables the creation of patient-specific craniofacial implant at a lower cost to serve low-income patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/toxicity; Calcium Phosphates/chemistry
  19. A. Tang, S.K. Wong, O.H. Ahmed, N.M. Majid
    ASM Science Journal, 2013;7(1):23-26.
    Widespread deforestation has resulted in soil degradation that is often linked to environmental and ecological changes. Rehabilitation of degraded forest is essential to prevent further degradation of the soil. Abundance of soil microbiota could serve as an essential biological indicator of soil health for rehabilitation success. An investigation was conducted to study the relationship between cellulolytic, nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-solubilizing microbial counts and age of rehabilitated forest. A random sampling design was used to obtain four replicates of five composite soil of 0–10 cm depth soil samples of 4, 9, 14 and 19-year-old rehabilitated forest. Three selective media: Congo red cellulose, nitrogen-free malate and calcium phosphate media were used for the enumerations of cellulolytic, nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-solubilizing microbes, respectively. Cellulolytic and phosphate-solubilizing microbes were counted based on the formation of clearing zones, while nitrogen-fixing microbes were based on the formation of blue halo on the respective media. There was positive linear relationship between age of the rehabilitated forest and microbial count. These findings revealed that the potentials of cellulolytic, nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-solubilizing microbial populations could be used as biological indicators of forest soil rehabilitation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates
  20. Sofia Beagem Mohd Noal, Roslinda Shamsudin, Tan, Lee Phin, Wan Khartini Wan Abdul Khodir
    Hydroxyapatite (HA) powder was synthesized via wet method using calcium nitrate hydrate (Ca(NO3)2.H2O) and diammonium hydrogen phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4) as raw materials. Powder obtained was milled using various milling speed ranging from 250 to 400 r.p.m. and sintered at 1300°C for 2hrs. Due to the nature of HA powder that decomposed at high temperature, XRD technique have been used in this work to determine the phase composition of the HA powder and also the crystallite size. The unmilled sample was used as the control group. Results show that sufficient heat supply generated from the milling process, initiates the decomposition of HA phase into ȕ-tricalcium phosphate (ȕ-TCP). Decomposition of HA starts to occur at the milling speed of 300 rpm, i.e the formation of ȕ-TCP was occurred at lower sintering temperature. It was believed that the decomposition of HA was associated with the formation of an intermediate phase, oxyapatite. Moreover, the crystallinity and particle size of the produced powder is very much affected by the milling speed and the stability of the HA. All milled powders possess spherical shape particle.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates
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