Displaying all 15 publications

  1. Salgado-Montejo A, Alvarado JA, Velasco C, Salgado CJ, Hasse K, Spence C
    Front Psychol, 2015;6:1382.
    PMID: 26441757 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01382
    A within-participants experiment was conducted in two countries (the UK and Colombia) in order to investigate the matching of shapes to taste words. Comparing the two countries allowed us to explore some of the cultural differences that have been reported thus far solely in terms of people's visual preferences. In particular, we addressed the question of whether properties other than angularity influence shape-valence and shape-taste matching (crossmodal correspondences). The participants in the present study repeatedly matched eight shapes, varying in terms of their angularity, symmetry, and number of elements to one of two words-pleasant or unpleasant and sweet or sour. Participants' choices, as well as the latency of their responses, and their hand movements, were evaluated. The participants were more likely to judge those shapes that were rounder, symmetrical, and those shapes that had fewer elements as both pleasant and sweet. Those shapes that were more angular, asymmetrical, and that had a greater number of elements, were more likely to be judged as both unpleasant and sour instead. The evidence presented here therefore suggests that aside from angularity and roundness, both symmetry/asymmetry and the number of elements present in a shape also influence valence and taste categorizations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Candy
  2. Velasco C, Woods AT, Marks LE, Cheok AD, Spence C
    PeerJ, 2016;4:e1644.
    PMID: 26966646 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1644
    Previous research shows that people systematically match tastes with shapes. Here, we assess the extent to which matched taste and shape stimuli share a common semantic space and whether semantically congruent versus incongruent taste/shape associations can influence the speed with which people respond to both shapes and taste words. In Experiment 1, semantic differentiation was used to assess the semantic space of both taste words and shapes. The results suggest a common semantic space containing two principal components (seemingly, intensity and hedonics) and two principal clusters, one including round shapes and the taste word "sweet," and the other including angular shapes and the taste words "salty," "sour," and "bitter." The former cluster appears more positively-valenced whilst less potent than the latter. In Experiment 2, two speeded classification tasks assessed whether congruent versus incongruent mappings of stimuli and responses (e.g., sweet with round versus sweet with angular) would influence the speed of participants' responding, to both shapes and taste words. The results revealed an overall effect of congruence with congruent trials yielding faster responses than their incongruent counterparts. These results are consistent with previous evidence suggesting a close relation (or crossmodal correspondence) between tastes and shape curvature that may derive from common semantic coding, perhaps along the intensity and hedonic dimensions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Candy
  3. Ali A, Selamat J, Man YB, Suria AM
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2001 May;52(3):251-61.
    PMID: 11400474
    The characterization and fat migration of palm kernel stearin (PKS) and desiccated coconut, used as base filling centre in dark chocolate were studied. C36 and C38 triglycerides of PKS decreased by 11% and 9.6% respectively, whereas C32 and C34 increased by 97% and 48% respectively. The change in the triglycerides composition of PKS shift the melting point of PKS from 33.2 to 31.4 degrees C. Solid fat content (SFC) of PK reduced by 40% at 30 degrees C. The rate of fat migration was very slow at 18 degrees C storage compared to 30 degrees C. The rate of change of C36 in the chocolate layer was 0.1% week-1 and 1.2% week-1 at 18 and 30 degrees C respectively. Chocolate stored at 18 degrees C showed post hardening during storage period and withstood bloom during the storage period, whereas that stored at 30 degrees C became soft and bloomed faster after 3 weeks of storage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Candy*
  4. Cheah YK, Azahadi M, Mohamad Nor NS, Phang SN, Abd Manaf NH
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2020 08 09;14(5):428-436.
    PMID: 32782176 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2020.07.008
    The objective of the present study is to examine sociodemographic factors associated with consumption of confectionery among obese and non-obese adults in Malaysia. Secondary analysis of the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) 2014 was performed. The survey was conducted in urban and rural areas in the 14 states of Malaysia, including the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. Adults aged 18 years and above (n = 2696) were interviewed. The dependent variable was the total servings of confectionery consumed per week. An ordered logistic regression model was used to examine the associated sociodemographic factors in the decision of people to consume 0, 1-2, 3-5 and ≥6 servings of confectionery. Marginal effects of sociodemographic variables on confectionery consumption were calculated. Analyses stratified by bodyweight group were conducted. The results showed that income, education, gender, ethnicity, and employment status were significantly associated with consumption of confectionery. In particular, income, education, gender, ethnicity and employment status affected confectionery consumption, but not the other way around. However, no relationship was evidenced between age, marital status, household location and confectionery consumption. In conclusion, sociodemographic factors were related to consumption of confectionery. Policies aimed at discouraging consumption of confectionery should focus primarily on high income earners, well-educated individuals and Bumiputera.
    Matched MeSH terms: Candy*
  5. Habilla, C., Sim, S.Y., Nor Aziah, Cheng, L.H.
    In this study, acid-thinned starch was blended with konjac glucomannan or psyllium husk powder at a concentration of 3% w/w (starch basis). The blends were characterized by pasting analysis and rheological
    properties evaluation. Jelly candy was made from the blends and textural characteristics were studied. Pasting analysis showed that both gums were found to significantly increase some of the pasting parameters, such as peak viscosity, trough, breakdown, final viscosity and setback values. From the frequency sweep, it was found that addition of konjac glucomanan or psyllium husk powder increased the storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G’’) values, with psyllium added sample showing more prominent effect than konjac added ones, when compared to the control samples. All samples were found to demonstrate thixotropic flow behaviour. Jelly candy texture profile analysis revealed that konjac glucomannan or psyllium husk powder addition, although decreasing chewability, but rendered the jelly candy less sticky.
    Matched MeSH terms: Candy
  6. Zzaman, W., Issara, U., Easa, A.M., Yang, T.A.
    Fat content and macroscopic properties of fat network formulation result in final products in chocolate industry. The knowledge of physical properties is required in regard to stability of final food products resulting to quality. The study was carried out to investigate the thermal behavior, solid fat content and hardness of Rambutan fat (RF), cocoa butter and mixtures between two fats. The results found that the mixtures can be compatibility; the cocoa butter indicated the higher of solid fat content at room temperature more than RF and other mixtures. The RF had the highest melting point in both non-stabilized and stabilized form among cocoa butter and their mixtures. The hardness behavior showed lower in the mixture 1 and RF. For the phase behavior of crystallization exhibited the similar for all samples whereas the time of crystallization and temperatures were different. Therefore, the RF might be possible source of cocoa butter substitute with suitable proportion in the manufacturing chocolate and confectionery products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Candy
  7. Wan Aida, W.M., Ho, C.W., Maskat, M.Y., Osman, H.
    Sensory attributes of four different palm sugars were related to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis using partial least squares regression (PLS). The sweet caramel and burnt-like sensory attributes were strongly associated with 2-furfural and 2-furan methanol volatile compounds. The sensory scores for roasty and nutty were also associated with the GC/MS ratings for roasty and nutty-like aroma by its highest scores obtained from 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine, 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine and 2,3-dimethyl pyrazine volatile compounds along the PC1 dimension. PLS analysis did not show correlation for the character impact compound furaneol, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl pyrazine (EDMP) and 2,3-diethyl-5-methyl pyrazine (DEMP), which are perceived to be responsible for the sweet caramel-like and roasty/nutty attributes of palm sugars, respectively. This lack of relationship could partially be explained by covariance among the sensory ratings for the samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Candy
  8. Wibisono Y, Fadila CR, Saiful S, Bilad MR
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Oct 28;12(11).
    PMID: 33126730 DOI: 10.3390/polym12112516
    Since the widespread of severe acute respiratory syndrome of coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease, the utilization of face masks has become omnipresent all over the world. Face masks are believed to contribute to an adequate protection against respiratory infections spread through micro-droplets among the infected person to non-infected others. However, due to the very high demands of face masks, especially the N95-type mask typically worn by medical workers, the public faces a shortage of face masks. Many papers have been published recently that focus on developing new and facile techniques to reuse and reinforce commercially available face masks. For instance, the N95 mask uses a polymer-based (membrane) filter inside, and the filter membrane can be replaced if needed. Another polymer sputtering technique by using a simple cotton candy machine could provide a cheap and robust solution for face mask fabrication. This review discuss the novel approaches of face mask reuse and reinforcement specifically by using membrane-based technology. Tuning the polymeric properties of face masks to enhance filterability and virus inactivity is crucial for future investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Candy
  9. Jinap S, Ali AA, Man YB, Suria AM
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2000 Nov;51(6):489-99.
    PMID: 11271851
    Dark chocolates filled with palm mid-fraction (PMF) were stored at different temperatures to evaluate the physical and chemical changes. Storage at low temperature (18 degrees C) reduces the PMF migration to negligible extent. Higher storage temperatures (30 and 35 degrees C) increased the PMF migration from the filling centre into the chocolate coating. As a consequence of fat migration, fatty acid composition, triglyceride composition, hardness, solid fat content, melting point and polymorphic structure changed, leading to bloom formation, which started by fat migration and was influenced by recrystallization tendency within the chocolate coating.
    Matched MeSH terms: Candy/analysis*
  10. Mohd Hanim, A.B., Chin, N.L., Yusof, Y.A.
    Proximate, functional and pasting properties of a new variety of sweet potato, VitAto, flour, known for its high vitamin A contents, were compared with two other commercial sweet potatoes, Bukit Naga and Okinawan, flour available in Malaysia. The recoveries of each sweet potato from milling were not significantly different at about 20% but in proximate analysis, the VitAto presented the highest protein (5.7%) and dietary fiber (14.8%) contents with more energy 399.6 kcal/100 g produced. The VitAto flour has average particle size of 132.04 μm. The pasting temperature of the VitAto flour was 65oC, with highest setback and trough viscosity values of 530.90 and 197.20 mPa.s, respectively. The flour is classified as easy flowing and stable powders. This study provides information which helps in the handling, packing and storage of sweet potato flours. It also shows that the VitAto flour has an array of functional, pasting and proximate properties that can facilitate its uses in many areas with better nutritional properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Candy
  11. Leong HY, Su CA, Lee BS, Lan JC, Law CL, Chang JS, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2019 Jan;271:30-36.
    PMID: 30261334 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.09.093
    Microalgae biorefinery is presently receiving a lot of attention as driven by its production of high value-added products. In this study, an oleaginous microalga Aurantiochytrium limacinum SR21 was cultured for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production using 20% (w/v) of K2HPO4-waste feedstock to replace 0.005% (w/v) of KH2PO4 in the flask culture. DHA is an essential nutrient for human's brain functionalities. Collectively, the K2HPO4-waste feedstock with working concentration of 0.005% (w/v) in the cultivation prompted a higher lipid content (8.29%) and DHA production (128.81 mg.L-1). Moreover, natural plant pigment products containing stabilised betacyanins were utilised as natural red colourants for hard candy production. This study develops microalgal cultivation using salt-rich waste feedstock for a higher lipid and DHA content as well as application of natural colouring agents in food products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Candy
  12. Lim LS, Tang XH, Yang WY, Ong SH, Naumovski N, Jani R
    Pediatr Rep, 2021 May 18;13(2):245-256.
    PMID: 34069893 DOI: 10.3390/pediatric13020034
    The taste and food preferences in children can affect their food intake and body weight. Bitter and sweet taste sensitivities were identified as primary taste contributors to children's preference for consuming various foods. This pilot study aimed to determine the taste sensitivity and preference for bitter and sweet tastes in a sample of Malaysian children. A case-control study was conducted among 15 pairs of Malay children aged 7 to 12 years. Seven solutions at different concentrations of 6-n-propylthiouracil and sucrose were prepared for testing bitterness and sweet sensitivity, respectively. The intensity of both bitter and sweet sensitivity was measured using a 100 mm Labelled Magnitude Scale (LMS), while the taste preference was rated using a 5-point Likert scale. The participants were better at identifying bitter than sweet taste (median score 6/7 vs. 4/7). No significant differences were detected for both tastes between normal-weight and overweight groups (bitter: 350 vs. 413, p = 0.273; sweet: 154 vs. 263, p = 0.068), as well as in Likert readings (bitter 9 vs. 8: p = 0.490; sweet 22 vs. 22: p = 0.677). In this sample of Malay children, the participants were more sensitive to bitterness than sweetness, yet presented similar taste sensitivity and preference irrespective of their weight status. Future studies using whole food samples are warranted to better characterize potential taste sensitivity and preference in children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Candy
  13. Siah, W.M., Aminah, A., Ishak, A.
    A new patent pending process is proposed in this study to produce edible film directly from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii). Seaweed together with other ingredients has been used to produce the film through casting technique. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on the edible films to examine the thickness, colour, transparency, solubility, tensile strength,
    elongation at break, water permeability rate, oxygen permeability rate and surface morphology. Produced film was transparent, stretchable, sealable and have basic properties as a film for food packaging. This study suggests that the edible film could be used as novel materials in food industry as sachet/pouch/bag for instant coffee, breakfast cereals drinks, seasoning powder,
    candies etc; as wrapper for seasoning cube and chocolate; as interleaf for frozen foods such as burger patties to avoid the patties from sticking together; and also as material for edible logo in bakeries products. Other than that, the edible film also could be used in pharmaceutical industry as functional strips such as oral freshener strips and drug strips. In cosmetic and toiletries industries, the edible film could be used to produce facial mask and bag for pre-portioned detergent. Compared with edible film developed earlier using alginate and carrageenan, film developed in this research used seaweed directly. The developed film reduced the need to extract the alginate and carrageenan, making material preparation easier and cheaper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Candy
  14. Suppiah TSS, Sundram TKM, Tan ESS, Lee CK, Bustami NA, Tan CK
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2018 10 3;27(5):1141-1145.
    PMID: 30272862 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.072018.01
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition among adolescents and young adults. Its relationship with the dietary intake is highly debatable and equivocal. This study aimed to identify the association between acne vulgaris and dietary intake among Malaysians.

    METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A case-control study was conducted involving 57 acne vulgaris patients and 57 age-, gender- and ethnicity-matched controls. All participants were aged 14 and above. The Comprehensive Acne Severity Scale (CASS) was used to categorise patients (grades 2 to 5) and controls (grades 0 to 1). Information such as the demographics, family history, smoking habits and dietary intake were collected using a self-administered questionnaire.

    RESULTS: In the patient arm, the gender ratio of male to female was 1.5:1. 43 patients (75.4%) had a family history of acne vulgaris. No significant association was found for acne in patients with a history of smoking. Milk consumption was significantly higher in patients (63.2%, n=36) versus controls (43.9%, n=25), (OR=2.19, p<0.05). In addition, chocolate consumption was also significantly higher in patients (43.9%, n=25) versus controls (24.6%, n=14), (OR=2.4, p<0.05). No significant association was found with the intakes of sweets, potatoes, chips, nuts, yoghurt, ice-cream or carbonated drinks.

    CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intake of milk and chocolate may play a role in acne vulgaris. Prospective cohort and intervention studies are recommended to explore whether a causal relationship might obtain.

    Matched MeSH terms: Candy
  15. Ahmad Zaimi Mohd Zawawi, Shazatul Izzati Sha’aree
    Termites encompass a various range of destruction of crops and capable of decomposing woods. The widely being used of hazardous chemical pesticides has develop many health problems to the users. Hence, the aim of this study was to substitute the use of hazardous chemical pesticides to herbs based pesticides as repellent agent against rubber termites (Coptotermes curvignathus), which is safer and easier to use. The selected herbs species for this study are lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), garlic (Allium sativum) and wild mint (Mentha arvensis). As for C.curvignathus, they were obtained from Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia. Khaya wood (Khaya senegalensis) (3cm x 2cm x 2cm) is the woods sample that being used. All woods samples were treated with all the selected herbs extract. The repellent testing was conducted for 21 days. The result obtained showed that the three herbs were effective to be used as repellent when compared to percentage weight loss of control, which is 23.58%. The percentages of weight loss of treated groups using aqueous extraction of herbs were 0.61% (lemongrass), 1.56% (mint), and 1.72% (garlic), whereas for methanol extraction of herbs were 0.52% (lemongrass), 1.13% (mint) and 1.55% (garlic). From Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), there is significant different in mean among group with F=275.49, p- value=0.000
    Matched MeSH terms: Candy
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