Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a sight threatening complication due to diabetes mellitus that affects the retina. At present, the classification of DR is based on the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Severity. In this paper, FAZ enlargement with DR progression is investigated to enable a new and an effective grading protocol DR severity in an observational clinical study. The performance of a computerised DR monitoring and grading system that digitally analyses colour fundus image to measure the enlargement of FAZ and grade DR is evaluated. The range of FAZ area is optimised to accurately determine DR severity stage and progression stages using a Gaussian Bayes classifier. The system achieves high accuracies of above 96%, sensitivities higher than 88% and specificities higher than 96%, in grading of DR severity. In particular, high sensitivity (100%), specificity (>98%) and accuracy (99%) values are obtained for No DR (normal) and Severe NPDR/PDR stages. The system performance indicates that the DR system is suitable for early detection of DR and for effective treatment of severe cases.
A 31-year-old Malay female presented with nephrotic syndrome without renal impairment. Renal biopsy features were in keeping with immunotactoid glomerulopathy (ITG). Non-Congophilic deposits were seen causing thickening of the glomerular capillary basement membrane with segmental accentuation, and widening of the mesangium. Immunofluorescence examination showed moderate amounts of IgG and C3 in the glomerular capillary walls with some in the mesangium. Ultrastructurally, 20-nm thick fibrils with microtubular organisation were present predominantly in the subendothelial region with similar fibrils in the mesangium. Although immunotactoid glomerulopathy and fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FG) have been recognised as entities with extracellular fibrillary material in the kidney, to date much remains to be clarified regarding these 2 conditions. While the renal biopsy findings in this patient are consistent with ITG, her clinical presentation is unlike that of usual ITG in that she is of a much younger age and has no associated haemopoietic disorder. Response to initial treatment of 8 weeks of prednisolone therapy was poor.
There is overwhelming evidence that the microangiopathic complications (retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) of diabetes can be minimised, prevented or improved by optimal blood glucose control. There is little evidence to show otherwise. This paper reviews evidences to demonstrate that poor diabetic control predisposes to diabetic microangiopathy. The only way to minimise diabetic microangiopathy is to avoid hyperglycaemia and achieve euglycaemia for most part of the day. In doing so the dangers of hypoglycaemia must be clearly recognized and avoided.
Dexamethasone has recently been shown to block the production of cachectin (implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria) if administered prior to endotoxin induction of mouse macrophages. Using the hamster cheek pouch-cerebral malaria model, we tested the hypothesis that dexamethasone is effective as a therapeutic agent in severe malaria if given before some yet undefined trigger point in the disease. Infected hamsters were treated with dexamethasone (0.7 mg/kg) daily on days 7-12, 4-12, or 1-12 post-challenge. When treatment was started on day 1, whole body oxygen consumption (used as a measure of erythrocyte transport to sites of diffusion) on day 12 was greater than (P less than 0.05) that of infected control animals, though the degree of anemia was no different in treated and untreated groups. Furthermore, treatment produced a reduction in monocyte accumulation, capillary malfunction, and monocyte/red blood cell aggregate formation observable in the cheek pouch in vivo and a similar reduction in monocyte presence, capillary pathologic change, and multifocal hemorrhage in the brain on postmortem. These data suggest that mediator(s), whose production can be blocked by pretreatment with dexamethasone, are involved in the pathogenesis of disease leading to death of the Plasmodium berghei infected hamster.