Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are carcinogenic food toxicants formed in cooked meats, which may increase the risk of cancer development in humans. Therefore, in this study, the effect of stingless bee honey from different botanical origins on the formation of HCAs in grilled beef satay was investigated. HCAs concentration in grilled beef satay was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In total, six of the most toxigenic HCAs representing aminoimidazo-azaarenes (AIAs) (MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, and PhIP) and amino carbolines (norharman, harman, and AαC) groups were identified in all the beef samples investigated. A significant reduction in HCAs was observed in grilled beef marinated in honey as compared to beef samples marinated in table sugar (control), in which the reduction of 95.14%, 88.45%, 85.65%, and 57.22% was observed in gelam, starfruit, acacia, and Apis honey marinades, respectively. According to the partial least squares regression (PLS) model, the inhibition of HCAs in grilled beef was shown to be significantly correlated to the antioxidant activity (IC50) of the honey samples. Therefore, the results of this study revealed that the addition of stingless bee honey could play an important role in reducing HCAs in grilled beef.
Scombroid fish poisoning is usually associated with consumption of fish containing high levels of histamine. However, reports indicate that some cases have responded to antihistamine therapy while ingested histamine levels in these cases were low. Potentiation of histamine toxicity by some biogenic amines, and release of endogenous histamine by other compounds such as cis-urocanic acid (UCA) are some hypotheses that have been put forth to explain this anomaly. Very little is known about the effects of storage conditions on the production of both UCA isomers and biogenic amines in tuna. Thus, the production of trans- and cis-UCA, histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine in tuna during 15 d of storage at 0, 3, and 10 °C and 2 d storage at ambient temperature were monitored. The initial trans- and cis-UCA contents in fresh tuna were 2.90 and 1.47 mg/kg, respectively, whereas the levels of putrescine and cadaverine were less than 2 mg/kg, and histamine was not detected. The highest levels of trans- and cis-UCA were obtained during 15 d storage at 3 °C (23.74 and 21.79 mg/kg, respectively) while the highest concentrations of histamine (2796 mg/kg), putrescine (220.32 mg/kg) and cadaverine (1045.20 mg/kg) were obtained during storage at room temperature, 10 and 10 °C, respectively. Histamine content increased considerably during storage at 10 °C whereas trans- and cis-UCA contents changed slightly. The initial trans-UCA content decreased during storage at ambient temperature. Thus, unlike histamine, concentrations of trans- and cis-UCA did not result in elevated levels during storage of tuna.
The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between lung cancer mortality rates, carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions, and smoking on a global scale, as well as for different socioeconomic country groups. The estimated lung cancer deaths per 100,000 people (ED100000) and age standardized lung cancer death rate per 100,000 people (ASDR100000) in 2004 were regressed on PAH emissions in benzo[a]pyrene equivalence (BaPeq), smoking prevalence, cigarette price, gross domestic product per capita, percentage of people with diabetes, and average body mass index using simple and multiple linear regression for 136 countries. Using stepwise multiple linear regression, a statistically significant positive linear relationship was found between loge(ED100000) and loge(BaPeq) emissions for high (p-value <0.01) and for the combination of upper-middle and high (p-value <0.05) socioeconomic country groups. A similar relationship was found between loge(ASDR100000) and loge(BaPeq) emissions for the combination of upper-middle and high (p-value <0.01) socioeconomic country groups. Conversely, for loge(ED100000) and loge(ASDR100000), smoking prevalence was the only significant independent variable in the low socioeconomic country group (p-value <0.001). These results suggest that reducing BaPeq emissions in the U.S., Canada, Australia, France, Germany, Brazil, South Africa, Poland, Mexico, and Malaysia could reduce ED100000, while reducing smoking prevalence in Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Nepal, Mongolia, Cambodia, and Bangladesh could significantly reduce the ED100000 and ASDR100000.
Urban environmental quality is vital to be investigated as the majority of people live in cities. However, given the continuous urbanization and industrialization in urban areas, heavy metals are continuously emitted into the terrestrial environment and pose a great threat to human. In this study, a total of 76 urban surface soil samples were collected in the Klang district (Malaysia), and analyzed for total and bioavailable heavy metal concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Results showed that the concentrations of bioavailable heavy metals declined in the order of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Cd, Pb, and Cr, and the concentrations of total heavy metals declined in the order of Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Co, and Cd. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that heavy metals could be grouped into three principal components, with PC1 containing Al and Fe, PC2 comprising Cd, Co, Cr, and Cu, and PC3 with only Zn. PCA results showed that PC1 may originate from natural sources, whereas PC2 and PC3 most likely originated from anthropogenic sources. Health risk assessment indicated that heavy metal contamination in the Klang district was below the acceptable threshold for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks in adults, but above the acceptable threshold for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks in children.
Burning mosquito coils indoors generates smoke that can control mosquitoes effectively. This practice is currently used in numerous households in Asia, Africa, and South America. However, the smoke may contain pollutants of health concern. We conducted the present study to characterize the emissions from four common brands of mosquito coils from China and two common brands from Malaysia. We used mass balance equations to determine emission rates of fine particles (particulate matter < 2.5 microm in diameter; PM(2.5)), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aldehydes, and ketones. Having applied these measured emission rates to predict indoor concentrations under realistic room conditions, we found that pollutant concentrations resulting from burning mosquito coils could substantially exceed health-based air quality standards or guidelines. Under the same combustion conditions, the tested Malaysian mosquito coils generated more measured pollutants than did the tested Chinese mosquito coils. We also identified a large suite of volatile organic compounds, including carcinogens and suspected carcinogens, in the coil smoke. In a set of experiments conducted in a room, we examined the size distribution of particulate matter contained in the coil smoke and found that the particles were ultrafine and fine. The findings from the present study suggest that exposure to the smoke of mosquito coils similar to the tested ones can pose significant acute and chronic health risks. For example, burning one mosquito coil would release the same amount of PM(2.5) mass as burning 75-137 cigarettes. The emission of formaldehyde from burning one coil can be as high as that released from burning 51 cigarettes.
This study aims to determine the composition of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) and assess the risk to health at different sites in Malaysia. Continuous monitoring of BTEX in Kuala Lumpur City Centre, Kuala Terengganu, Kota Kinabalu and Fraser Hill were conducted using Online Gas Chromatograph. For comparison, BTEX at selected hotspot locations were determined by active sampling method using sorbent tubes and Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. The hazard quotient (HQ) for non-carcinogenic and the life-time cancer risk (LTCR) of BTEX were calculated using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) health risk assessment (HRA) methods. The results showed that the highest total BTEX concentrations using continuous monitoring were recorded in the Kuala Lumpur City Centre (49.56 ± 23.71 μg/m3). Toluene was the most dominant among the BTEX compounds. The average concentrations of benzene ranged from 0.69 ± 0.45 μg/m3 to 6.20 ± 3.51 μg/m3. Measurements using active sampling showed that BTEX concentrations dominated at the roadside (193.11 ± 114.57 μg/m3) in comparison to petrol station (73.08 ± 30.41 μg/m3), petrochemical industry (32.10 ± 13.13 μg/m3) and airport (25.30 ± 6.17 μg/m3). Strong correlations among BTEX compounds (p<0.01, r>0.7) at Kuala Lumpur City Centre showed that BTEX compounds originated from similar sources. The values of HQ at all stations were <1 indicating the non-carcinogenic risk are negligible and do not pose threats to human health. The LTCR value based on benzene inhalation (1.59 × 10-5) at Kuala Lumpur City Centre were between 1 × 10-4 and 1 × 10-5, representing a probable carcinogenic risk.
Quantifiable levels of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) were found in domestically manufactured soy-based sauces. Selected commercial foods in the Malaysian market (n = 43) were analyzed for their 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP contents using a validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP contents of the analyzed food samples varied from not detectable levels to 0.1223 ± 0.0419 mg kg-1 and not detectable levels to 0.025 ± 0.0041 mg kg-1, respectively. High concentrations of 3-MCPD, exceeding Malaysia's maximum tolerable limit of 0.02 mg kg-1, were found in chicken seasoning cubes (mean = 0.0898 ± 0.0378 mg kg-1). Monte Carlo simulation-based health risk assessment revealed that 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP intakes in the 50th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were lower than 4 µg kg-1 bw day-1, the limit recommended by JECFA in 2016. Hence, it was concluded that the exposure of Malaysian citizens to chloropropanols through soy sauce consumption does not present a health risk.
3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters (GE) are heat-induced contaminants which form during oil refining process, particularly at the high temperature deodorization stage. It is worth to investigate the content of 3-MCPD and GE in fries which also involved high temperature. The content of 3-MCPD esters and GE were monitored in fries. The factors that been chosen were temperature and duration of frying, and different concentration of salt (NaCl). The results in our study showed that the effect was in the order of concentration of sodium chloride
Human health is threatened by significant emissions of heavy metals into the urban environment due to various activities. Various studies describing health risk analyses on soil and dust have been conducted previously. However, there are limited studies that have been carried out regarding the potential health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban road dust of < 63-μm diameter, via incidental ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation exposure routes by children and adults in developing countries. Therefore, this study evaluated the health risks of heavy metal exposure via ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation of urban dust particles in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Heavy metals such as lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) were measured using dust samples obtained from industrial, high-traffic, commercial, and residential areas by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The principal component and hierarchical cluster analysis showed the dominance of these metal concentrations at sites associated with anthropogenic activities. This was suggestive of industrial, traffic emissions, atmospheric depositions, and wind as the significant contributors towards urban dust contamination in the study sites. Further exploratory analysis underlined Cr, Pb, Cu, and Zn as the most representative metals in the dust samples. In accommodating the uncertainties associated with health risk calculations and simulating the reasonable maximum exposure of these metals, the related health risks were estimated at the 75th and 95th percentiles. Furthermore, assessing the exposure to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic metals in the dust revealed that ingestion was the primary route of consumption. Children who ingested dust particles in Petaling Jaya could be more vulnerable to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks, but the exposure for both children and adults showed no potential health effects. Therefore, this study serves as an important premise for a review and reformation of the existing environmental quality standards for human health safety.
This study aimed to determine bioavailable heavy metal concentrations (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn) and their potential sources in classroom dust collected from children's hand palms in Rawang (Malaysia). This study also aimed to determine the association between bioavailable heavy metal concentration in classroom dust and children's respiratory symptoms. Health risk assessment (HRA) was applied to evaluate health risks (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic) due to heavy metals in classroom dust. The mean of bioavailable heavy metal concentrations in classroom dust found on children's hand palms was shown in the following order: Zn (1.25E + 01 μg/g) > Cu (9.59E-01 μg/g) > Ni (5.34E-01 μg/g) > Cr (4.72E-02 μg/g) > Co (2.34E-02 μg/g) > As (1.77E-02 μg/g) > Cd (9.60E-03 μg/g) > Pb (5.00E-03 μg/g). Hierarchical cluster analysis has clustered 17 sampling locations into three clusters, whereby cluster 1 (S3, S4, S6, S15) located in residential areas and near to roads exposed to vehicle emissions, cluster 2 (S10, S12, S9, S7) located near Rawang town and cluster 3 (S13, S16, S1, S2, S8, S14, S11, S17, S5) located near industrial, residential and plantation areas. Emissions from vehicles, plantations and industrial activities were found as the main sources of heavy metals in classroom dust in Rawang. There is no association found between bioavailable heavy metal concentrations and respiratory symptoms, except for Cu (OR = 0.03). Health risks (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks) indicated that there are no potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of heavy metals in classroom dust toward children health.
The intake of heterocyclic amines is influenced by the amount and type of meat and fish ingested, frequency of consumption, cooking methods, cooking temperature, and duration of cooking. In this study, the dietary intake of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia and their main sources were investigated. Forty-two samples of meat and fish were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector to determine the concentration of the six predominant heterocyclic amines, namely: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline(MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Dietary intake data were obtained using a food-frequency questionnaire when interviewing 600 Malaysian respondents. The level of total heterocyclic amines in food samples studies ranged from not detected to 38.7 ng g(-1). The average daily intake level of heterocyclic amine was 553.7 ng per capita day(-1). The intake of PhIP was the highest, followed by MeIQx and MeIQ. The results reveal that fried and grilled chicken were the major dietary source of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia. However, the heterocyclic amine intake by the Malaysian population was lower than those reported from other regions.