Mucoepidermoid tumours of the minor salivary glands of the tongue are rarely encountered. A case of a high-grade malignant type is reported here. Merits of subdivision of the mucoepidermoid tumour on the basis of its malignant potential are outlined, and variations of histological presentation of the present tumour at its primary and nodal sites are discussed.
Recent reports have dispelled the previously held concept that head and neck cancer rarely metastases beyond the cervical lymph nodes. Nasopharyngeal cancer has been reported to have a higher incidence of distant metastases compared to other head and neck cancers, the common sites being bone, lung and liver. A case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma presenting as obstructive jaundice because of secondaries at the porta hepatis is presented here.
As many as 31% of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma present with intracranial extension. Despite this high percentage, extension to the cerebellopontine angle is rare. The mechanism of tumor spread to the cerebellopontine angle is not completely understood. The most likely mechanism is direct extension to the skull base with involvement of the petrous apex and further extension posteriorly via the medial tentorial edge. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who had been treated initially with chemoradiation and subsequently with stereotactic radiosurgery for residual tumor. One year later, she presented with an intracranial recurrence of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the cerebellopontine angle; the recurrence mimicked a benign tumor on magnetic resonance imaging. The tumor was ultimately diagnosed as an undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal origin. She was treated with palliative chemotherapy.
Follicular dendritic cell sarcomas (FDCS) are rare neoplasms that involve lymph nodes or extranodal sites. They show varied histological features and thus can be mistaken for carcinoma or sarcoma. Correct identification is important for further management. A 43-year-old Indian female presented with a three-month history of progressive swelling at the right inguinal region. It was excised completely and was reported as lymph node with metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma based on Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain findings. Computerized tomography (CT) scans of thorax, abdomen and pelvis were normal and did not reveal a primary site. Following this, the case was referred to one of the authors. The slides were reviewed and a variety of immunocytochemical markers were done. The tumour cells were negative for epithelial, melanocytic, neural, leucocyte and soft tissue tumour markers. They were immunopositive for CD21, CD35 and negative for CD68. Based on the immunocytochemical findings, a final diagnosis of FDCS was made. This case highlights the histological and immunophenotypical profile of a rare tumour which requires a high index of suspicion for diagnosis.
Direct tumour extension into the internal jugular veins (IJV) and right atrium in thyroid cancer is extremely uncommon. We report three cases of advanced thyroid cancer invading into the IJV and right atrium. All three patients had well-differentiated thyroid cancer and presented with typical clinical picture of the superior cava syndrome coupled with significant compressive symptoms. Two patients had obvious tumour thrombus extending to the superior vena cava (SVC) and right atrium, whilst in one patient, the thrombus extended to the SVC close to the edge of the right atrium. In all three patients, the intraluminal tumour thrombus was clinically palpable. Involvement of the IJV, SVC and right atrium was confirmed with computed tomography (CT) scan and echocardiography. The decision to extract the thrombus transcervically was made on the basis of the positive "ring sign", which is a thin rim of contrast surrounding the tumour thrombus documented on CT. All three patients underwent total thyroidectomy with segmental resection and ligation of the IJV. The tumour thrombus was successfully extracted transcervically. The histopathology report confirmed follicular carcinoma in all three patients. Two patients had radioiodine ablation therapy postoperatively, and were well 18 months after operation. One patient who had lung metastases documented on chest CT succumbed to the disease due to massive haemoptysis 3 weeks after operation.
A patient who presented with acute intestinal obstruction had a right hemicolectomy for a caecal tumour. The histopathology report confirmed metastatic carcinoma in the caecum from the cervical carcinoma. Caecum is a very rare site of metastasis from cervical carcinoma. From our literature review, there have been no such cases reported.
A 56-year-old man presented with lower urinary tract obstructive symptoms, hemoptysis and progressive dyspnoea. Digital rectal examination showed an enlarged nodular prostate and a tru-cut biopsy confirmed carcinoma prostate. Chest x-ray showed multiple bilateral cannon ball opacities suggestive of metastases. He underwent bilateral orchidectomy and follow up assessment showed significant clearing of the cannon-ball lesions in the lungs. He remained asymptomatic at follow up that has extended to 8 years.
Anaplastic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) metastatic to the thyroid gland is rare. We report the first such case in a 54-year-old Malaysian Chinese woman. The correct diagnosis should be made so that thyroidectomy may be avoided and an appropriate chemoradiotherapeutic regimen instituted.
BACKGROUND: Extraskeletal (soft tissue) chondromas are rare neoplasms. They are seen most frequently in the soft tissues of hands and feet. A chondroma occurring in the breast is exceedingly uncommon. We present a case of pure chondroma of the breast in a young woman in whom fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic features suggested a cartilaginous neoplasm.
CASE: A 28-year-old woman presented with a mobile lump in the left breast. Mammography showed a high-density nodule without microcalcifications. A clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made. A differential diagnosis was obtained on FNA. Excisional biopsy of the lump showed the histopathologic features of chondroma. There was no recurrence or appearance of new lesion during 13 months of follow-up.
CONCLUSION: Chondroma of the breast shows FNA cytologic features of cartilaginous tumor, but specific tumor typing may not be possible. This case highlights the difficulties that may arise in FNA diagnosis of cartilaginous tumor especially when it occurs at an unusual site. Awareness of the cytologic features combined with clinical and radiologic findings should guide the cytopathologist to make correct diagnosis of this neoplasm.
Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) commonly metastasizes to distant organs. However, metastasis to the pancreas is not a common event. Moreover, obstructive jaundice as a first clinical presentation of SCLC is extremely unusual. This case reports a 51-year-old male with SCLC, manifesting with obstructive jaundice as the initial clinical presentation. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatograghy (ERCP) and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed a mass at the head of the pancreas. The patient underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure). Histopathology revealed a chromogranin- A-positive poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. No imaging study of the lung was performed before surgery. A few months later, a follow-up CT revealed unilateral lung nodules with ipsilateral hilar nodes. A lung biopsy was done and histopathology reported a TTF- 1-positive, chromogranin A-positive, small cell carcinoma of the lung. On review, the pancreatic tumour was also TTF-1-positive. He was then treated with combination chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide). These findings highlight that presentation of a mass at the head of pancreas could be a manifestation of a metastatic tumour from elsewhere such as the lung, and thorough investigations should be performed before metastases can be ruled out.
Matched MeSH terms: Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/secondary*
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recently an increasing number of young colorectal carcinoma patients attending the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur were noted. This report represents our experience with patients suffering from colorectal cancer aged 30 years or younger.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases of primary carcinoma of the colon and rectum admitted to the University Hospital during 1990 to 1994 were respectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria was that the patient had been 30 years or younger. Data collected included age, gender, race, site of tumour, presenting symptomatology, duration of symptoms, histology, extension of tumour and nodal involvement predisposing factors, treatment and follow-up.
RESULTS: 21 patients were included, 5 patients (24%) were 30 years old at diagnosis, 12 (57%) patients were aged 20-29 years and 4 patients (19%) were less than 20 years old. Thirteen of the 21 patients were female, and 8 (38%) were male, 6 of the 21 patients (29%) were Malaysian, while 1 was Indian (4%). The remainder were Chinese, 14 patients (67%). Six patients (29%) had their primary tumour located in the rectosigmoid, 4 (19%) in the left colon, 1 (4%) in the splenic flexure, 2 in the transverse colon (9%), 1 in the hepatic flexure (4%) and 5 in the caecum 24(%). One patient had a tumour too diffuse to detect a primary site at the time of operation. One patient with a family history of polyps had his entire colon removed at age 14. He had 3 separate foci of tumour. The 5-year survival rate was 25%.
DISCUSSION: Most patients with extensive disease and mucinous histology. Lesions are commonly seen beyond the transverse colon (57%). Presentation included most commonly abdominal pain, haematochezia or haemoccult positive stools.
CONCLUSION: The symptoms above should alert surgeons to colorectal carcinoma as a differential diagnosis