Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 26 in total

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  1. Samaram S, Mirhosseini H, Tan CP, Ghazali HM
    Molecules, 2013 Oct 10;18(10):12474-87.
    PMID: 24152670 DOI: 10.3390/molecules181012474
    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry*
  2. Chong CH, Law CL, Figiel A, Wojdyło A, Oziembłowski M
    Food Chem, 2013 Dec 15;141(4):3889-96.
    PMID: 23993562 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.06.042
    The objective of this study was to improve product quality of dehydrated fruits (apple, pear, papaya, mango) using combined drying techniques. This involved investigation of bioactivity, colour, and sensory assessment on colour of the dried products as well as the retention of the bio-active ingredients. The attributes of quality were compared in regard to the quality of dehydrated samples obtained from continuous heat pump (HP) drying technique. It was found that for apple, pear and mango the total colour change (ΔE) of samples dried using continuous heat pump (HP) or heat pump vacuum-microwave (HP/VM) methods was lower than of samples dried by other combined methods. However, for papaya, the lowest colour change exhibited by samples dried using hot air-cold air (HHC) method and the highest colour change was found for heat pump (HP) dehydrated samples. Sensory evaluation revealed that dehydrated pear with higher total colour change (ΔE) is more desirable because of its golden yellow appearance. In most cases the highest phenol content was found from fruits dried by HP/VM method. Judging from the quality findings on two important areas namely colour and bioactivity, it was found that combined drying method consisted of HP pre-drying followed by VM finish drying gave the best results for most dehydrated fruits studied in this work as the fruits contain first group of polyphenol compounds, which preferably requires low temperature followed by rapid drying strategy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry
  3. Ali A, Ong MK, Forney CF
    Food Chem, 2014 Jan 1;142:19-26.
    PMID: 24001808 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.07.039
    The objective of this study was to compare the physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of ozone-treated papaya fruit and untreated fruit. Freshly harvested papaya fruit were exposed continuously to ozone fumigation (0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5ppm) for 96h prior to ambient storage at 25±3°C and 70±5% relative humidity (RH) for up to 14days. The fruit exposed to 2.5ppm ozone had higher levels of total soluble solids (25.0%), ascorbic acid content (12.4%), β-carotene content (19.6%), lycopene content (52.1%), and antioxidant activity (30.9%), and also reduced weight loss (11.5%) at day 10 compared to the control. The sensory attributes of papaya treated with 2.5ppm ozone was superior in sweetness and overall acceptability. These results support the application of ozone as a non-thermal and safe food preservation technique for papaya which can benefit both the producers and consumers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry*
  4. Afzan A, Abdullah NR, Halim SZ, Rashid BA, Semail RH, Abdullah N, et al.
    Molecules, 2012 Apr 10;17(4):4326-42.
    PMID: 22491681 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17044326
    Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry*
  5. Samaram S, Mirhosseini H, Tan CP, Ghazali HM, Bordbar S, Serjouie A
    Food Chem, 2015 Apr 1;172:7-17.
    PMID: 25442517 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.068
    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) condition on the yield, antioxidant activity and stability of the oil from papaya seed. The studied ultrasound variables were time, temperature, ultrasound power and solvent to sample ratio. The main goal was to optimise UAE condition providing the highest recovery of papaya seed oil with the most desirable antioxidant activity and stability. The interaction of ultrasound variables had the most and least significant effects on the antioxidant activity and stability, respectively. Ultrasound-assisted extraction provided a relatively high oil recovery (∼ 73%) from papaya seed. The strongest antioxidant activity was achieved by the extraction at the elevated temperature using low solvent to sample ratio. The optimum ultrasound extraction was set at the elevated temperature (62.5 °C) for 38.5 min at high ultrasound power (700 W) using medium solvent to sample ratio (∼ 7:1 v/w). The optimum point was practically validated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry*
  6. Sathasivam K, Ramanathan S, Mansor SM, Haris MR, Wernsdorfer WH
    Wien. Klin. Wochenschr., 2009 Oct;121 Suppl 3:19-22.
    PMID: 19915811 DOI: 10.1007/s00508-009-1229-0
    Following up a popular use of crude leaf preparations from Carica papaya for the treatment of dengue infections, a suspension of powdered Carica papaya leaves in palm oil has been investigated for its effect on thrombocyte counts in mice, administering by gavage 15 mg of powdered leaves per kg body weight to 5 mice. Equal numbers of animals received corresponding volumes of either palm oil alone or physiological saline solution. Thrombocyte counts before and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after dosing revealed significantly higher mean counts at 1, 2, 4, 8, 10 and 12 after dosing with the C. papaya leaf formulation as compared to the mean count at hour 0. There was only a non-significant rise of thrombocyte counts in the group having received saline solution, possibly the expression of a normal circadian rhythm in mice. The group having received palm oil only showed a protracted increase of platelet counts that was significant at hours 8 and 48 and obviously the result of a hitherto unknown stimulation of thrombocyte release. The results call for a dose-response investigation and for extending the studies to the isolation and identification of the C. papaya substances responsible for the release and/or production of thrombocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry*
  7. Rajapakse S, de Silva NL, Weeratunga P, Rodrigo C, Sigera C, Fernando SD
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Oct 11;19(1):265.
    PMID: 31601215 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2678-2
    BACKGROUND: Carica papaya (CP) extract is becoming popular as an unlicensed herbal remedy purported to hasten recovery in dengue infection, mostly based on observations that it may increase platelet counts. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to critically analyze the evidence from controlled clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of CP extract in the treatment of dengue infection.

    METHODS: PubMed, LILACS and Google Scholar were searched for randomized or non-randomized trials enrolling patients with suspected or confirmed dengue where CP extract was compared, as a treatment measure, against standard treatment. Recovery of platelet counts as well as other clinical indicators of favourable outcome (duration of hospital stay, prevention of plasma leakage, life threatening complications, and mortality) were assessed.

    RESULTS: Nine studies (India-6, Pakistan-1, Indonesia-1, Malaysia-1) met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies showed an increase in platelet counts in patients receiving CP extract, while one study showed no significant difference between the two groups, and direct comparison was not possible in the remaining study. Serious adverse events were not reported. CP extract may reduce the duration of hospital stay (mean difference - 1.98 days, 95% confidence interval - 1.83 to - 2.12, 3 studies, 580 participants, low quality evidence), and cause improvement in mean platelet counts between the first and fifth day of treatment (mean difference 35.45, 95% confidence interval 23.74 to 47.15, 3 studies, 129 participants, low quality evidence). No evidence was available regarding other clinical outcomes.

    CONCLUSIONS: The clinical value of improvement in platelet count or early discharge is unclear in the absence of more robust indicators of favourable clinical outcome. Current evidence is insufficient to comment on the role of CP extract in dengue. There is a need for further well designed clinical trials examining the effect of CP on platelet counts, plasma leakage, other serious manifestations of dengue, and mortality, with clearly defined outcome measures.

    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry*
  8. Aziz J, Abu Kassim NL, Abu Kasim NH, Haque N, Rahman MT
    PMID: 26152209 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0749-6
    Use of Carica papaya leaf extracts, reported to improve thrombocyte counts in dengue patients, demands further analysis on the underlying mechanism of its thrombopoietic cytokines induction
    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry*
  9. Sapaat A, Satrija F, Mahsol HH, Ahmad AH
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Dec;29(4):508-12.
    PMID: 23202594
    The purpose of this study is to see the anthelmintic activity potential of papaya seeds against Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the effectiveness of papaya seeds on helminths especially H. diminuta in rats and (2) to determine the effective dose level on helminths in rats. Thirty six male rats from strain Sprague-Dawley were chosen as samples in this experiment. Two types of dose level were used for papaya seeds treatments such as 0.6 g kg-1 and 1.2 g kg-1. The geometric mean (GEM) was used to calculate mean for eggs per gram (EPG) before and after the treatment to be included in the reduction percentage calculation. After 21 days post treatment, necropsies were done to get the worm count and the GEM was used to calculate the efficacy percentage for the treatment. Results from this study showed that the reduction percentages in EPG for papaya seeds treatment for both doses level were very high which is 96.8% for 0.6g kg-1 dose level and 96.2% for 1.2 g kg-1 dose level. Whereas the efficacy percentage based on the worm counts for both doses level were also very high that was 90.77% for 0.6 g kg-1 dose level and 93.85% for 1.2 g kg-1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry*
  10. Yanty NA, Marikkar JM, Nusantoro BP, Long K, Ghazali HM
    J Oleo Sci, 2014;63(9):885-92.
    PMID: 25174674
    A study was carried out to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the oil derived from papaya seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety. Proximate analysis showed that seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety contained considerable amount of oil (27.0%). The iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of freshly extracted papaya seed oil were 76.9 g I2/100g oil, 193.5 mg KOH/g oil, 1.52% and 0.91%, respectively. The oil had a Lovibond color index of 15.2Y + 5.2B. Papaya seed oil contained ten detectable fatty acids, of which 78.33% were unsaturated. Oleic (73.5%) acid was the dominant fatty acids followed by palmitic acid (15.8%). Based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, seven species of triacylglycerols (TAGs) were detected. The predominant TAGs of papaya seed oil were OOO (40.4%), POO (29.1%) and SOO (9.9%) where O, P, and S denote oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, respectively. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that papaya seed oil had its major melting and crystallization transitions at 12.4°C and -48.2°C, respectively. Analysis of the sample by Z-nose (electronic nose) instrument showed that the sample had a high level of volatile compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry*
  11. Robert SD, Ismail AA, Winn T, Wolever TM
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2008;17(1):35-9.
    PMID: 18364324
    The objective of the present study was to measure the glycemic index of durian, papaya, pineapple and water-melon grown in Malaysia. Ten (10) healthy volunteers (5 females, 5 males; body mass index 21.18+/-1.7 kg/m2) consumed 50 g of available carbohydrate portions of glucose (reference food) and four test foods (durian, papaya, pineapple and watermelon) in random order after an overnight fast. Glucose was tested on three separate occasions, and the test foods were each tested once. Postprandial plasma glucose was measured at intervals for two hours after intake of the test foods. Incremental areas under the curve were calculated, and the glycemic index was determined by expressing the area under the curve after the test foods as a percentage of the mean area under the curve after glucose. The results showed that the area under the curve after pineapple, 232+/-24 mmolxmin/L, was significantly greater than those after papaya, 147+/-14, watermelon, 139+/-8, and durian, 124+/-13 mmolxmin/L (p<0.05). Similarly, the glycemic index of pineapple, 82+/-4, was significantly greater than those of papaya, 58+/-6, watermelon, 55+/-3, and durian, 49+/-5 (p<0.05). The differences in area under the curve and glycemic index among papaya, watermelon and durian were not statistically significant. We conclude that pineapple has a high glycemic index, whereas papaya is intermediate and watermelon and durian are low glycemic index foods. The validity of these results depends on the accuracy of the data in the food tables upon which the portion sizes tested were based.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry
  12. Mansur F, Luoga W, Buttle DJ, Duce IR, Lowe A, Behnke JM
    Vet. Parasitol., 2014 Mar 17;201(1-2):48-58.
    PMID: 24462509 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.12.018
    Little is known about the efficacy of cysteine proteinases (CP) as anthelmintics for cestode infections. We examined the effects of CPs on two rodent cestodes, Hymenolepis diminuta and H. microstoma in vitro. Our data showed that naturally occurring mixtures of CPs, such as those found in papaya latex, and relatively pure preparations of fruit bromelain, papain and stem bromelain, were active in vitro against both juvenile, artificially excysted scoleces, as well as against adult worms of both rodent cestodes. Significant dose-dependent reduction in motility, ultimately leading to death of the worms, was observed with both species, and against both freshly excysted scoleces and 14-day old pre-adult worms. The most effective was fruit bromelain (after 30 min of incubation of juvenile H. diminuta and H. microstoma IC50=63 and 74 μM, respectively, and for pre-adult worms=199 and 260 μM, respectively). The least effective was stem bromelain (after 30 min of incubation of juvenile H. diminuta and H. microstoma IC50=2855 and 2772 μM, respectively, and for pre-adult worms=1374 and 1332 μM, respectively) and the efficacies of papaya latex supernatant and papain were between these extremes. In all cases these values are higher than those reported previously for efficacy of CPs against intestinal nematodes, and in contrast to nematodes, all CPs were effective against cestodes in the absence of exogenous cysteine in incubation media. The CPs appeared to attack the tegument resulting in generalised erosion mainly on the strobila. The scolex was more resistant to CP attack but nevertheless some damage to the tegument on the scolex was detected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry
  13. Jafari S, Goh YM, Rajion MA, Jahromi MF, Ahmad YH, Ebrahimi M
    Anim. Sci. J., 2017 Feb;88(2):267-276.
    PMID: 27345820 DOI: 10.1111/asj.12634
    Papaya leaf methanolic extract (PLE) at concentrations of 0 (CON), 5 (LLE), 10 (MLE) and 15 (HLE) mg/250 mg dry matter (DM) with 30 mL buffered rumen fluid were incubated for 24 h to identify its effect on in vitro ruminal methanogenesis and ruminal biohydrogenation (BH). Total gas production was not affected (P > 0.05) by addition of PLE compared to the CON at 24 h of incubation. Methane (CH4 ) production (mL/250 mg DM) decreased (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry*
  14. Norahmad NA, Mohd Abd Razak MR, Mohmad Misnan N, Md Jelas NH, Sastu UR, Muhammad A, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Feb 11;19(1):44.
    PMID: 30744623 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2438-3
    BACKGROUND: Carica papaya leaves have been used for traditional treatment of dengue fever and have been reported to exhibit an immunomodulatory activity by affecting the level of cytokine production in vitro and in vivo. Due to the lack of adequate in vivo evidence in dengue disease model, the present study was initiated to screen and identify the cytokines affected by freeze-dried C. papaya leaf juice (FCPLJ) treatment in AG129 mice infected with DEN-2 dengue virus.

    METHODS: The AG129 mice were fed orally with FCPLJ for 3 consecutive days after 24 h of dengue virus inoculation. Plasma cytokines were screened by using ProcartaPlex immunoassay. The gene expression in the liver was analyzed by using RT2 Profiler PCR Array.

    RESULTS: The results showed that FCPLJ treatment has increased the plasma CCL2/MCP-1 level during peak of viremia. Gene expression study has identified 8 inflammatory cytokine genes which were downregulated in the liver of infected AG129 mice treated with FCPLJ. The downregulated inflammatory cytokine genes were CCL6/MRP-1, CCL8/MCP-2, CCL12/MCP-5, CCL17/TARC, IL1R1, IL1RN/IL1Ra, NAMPT/PBEF1 and PF4/CXCL4.

    CONCLUSION: The findings indicated the possible immunomodulatory role of FCPLJ during dengue virus infection in AG129 mice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry*
  15. Mohd Abd Razak MR, Mohmad Misnan N, Md Jelas NH, Norahmad NA, Muhammad A, Ho TCD, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 Dec 05;18(1):320.
    PMID: 30518360 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2390-7
    BACKGROUND: Carica papaya leaf juice (CPLJ) was well known for its thrombocytosis activity in rodents and dengue patients. However, the effect of CPLJ treatment on other parameters that could contribute to dengue pathogenesis such as nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) production and viremia level have never been highlighted in any clinical and in vivo studies. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of freeze-dried CPLJ treatment on NS1 and viremia levels of dengue fever mouse model.

    METHODS: The dengue infection in mouse model was established by inoculation of non-mouse adapted New Guinea C strain dengue virus (DEN-2) in AG129 mice. The freeze-dried CPLJ compounds were identified by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography High Resolution Accurate Mass Spectrometry analysis. The infected AG129 mice were orally treated with 500 mg/kg/day and 1000 mg/kg/day of freeze-dried CPLJ, starting on day 1 post infection for 3 consecutive days. The blood samples were collected from submandibular vein for plasma NS1 assay and quantitation of viral RNA level by quantitative reverse transcription PCR.

    RESULTS: The AG129 mice infected with dengue virus showed marked increase in the production of plasma NS1, which was detectable on day 1 post infection, peaked on day 3 post-infection and started to decline from day 5 post infection. The infection also caused splenomegaly. Twenty-four compounds were identified in the freeze-dried CPLJ. Oral treatment with 500 mg/kg/day and 1000 mg/kg/day of freeze-dried CPLJ did not affect the plasma NS1 and dengue viral RNA levels. However, the morbidity level of infected AG129 mice were slightly decreased when treated with freeze-dried CPLJ.

    CONCLUSION: Oral treatment of 500 mg/kg/day and 1000 mg/kg/day of freeze-dried CPLJ at the onset of viremia did not affect the plasma NS1 and viral RNA levels in AG129 mice infected with non-mouse adapted New Guinea C strain dengue virus.

    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry*
  16. Jafari S, Meng GY, Rajion MA, Jahromi MF, Ebrahimi M
    J. Agric. Food Chem., 2016 Jun 08;64(22):4522-30.
    PMID: 27192629 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b00846
    Different solvents (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water) were used to identify the effect of papaya leaf (PL) fractions (PLFs) on ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) and ruminal methanogenesis in an in vitro study. PLFs at a concentration of 0 (control, CON) and 15 mg/250 mg dry matter (DM) were mixed with 30 mL of buffered rumen fluid and were incubated for 24 h. Methane (CH4) production (mL/250 mg DM) was the highest (P < 0.05) for CON (7.65) and lowest for the chloroform fraction (5.41) compared to those of other PLFs at 24 h of incubation. Acetate to propionate ratio was the lowest for PLFs compared to that of CON. Supplementation of the diet with PLFs significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the rate of BH of C18:1n-9 (oleic acid; OA), C18:2n-6 (linoleic acid; LA), and C18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid; LNA) compared to that of CON after 24 h of incubation. Real time PCR indicated that total protozoa and total methanogen population in PLFs decreased (P < 0.05) compared to those of CON.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry*
  17. Lim PN, Wu TY, Sim EY, Lim SL
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2011 Nov;91(14):2637-42.
    PMID: 21725978 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4504
    Soybean (Glycine max L.) is one the most commonly consumed legumes worldwide, with 200 million metric tons produced per year. However, the inedible soy husk would usually be removed during the process and the continuous generation of soybean husk may represent a major disposal problem for soybean processing industries. Thus, the main aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility to convert soybean husk (S) amended with market-rejected papaya (P) into vermicompost using Eudrilus eugeniae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry
  18. Indran M, Mahmood AA, Kuppusamy UR
    West Indian Med J, 2008 Sep;57(4):323-6.
    PMID: 19566009
    The effects of Carica papaya leaf (CPL) aqueous extract on alcohol induced acute gastric damage and the immediate blood oxidative stress level were studied in rats. The results showed that gastric ulcer index was significantly reduced in rats pretreated with CPL extract as compared with alcohol treated controls. The in vitro studies using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picryl-Hydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed strong antioxidant nature of CPL extract. Biochemical analysis indicated that the acute alcohol induced damage is reflected in the alterations of blood oxidative indices and CPL extract offered some protection with reduction in plasma lipid peroxidation level and increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity. Carica papaya leaf may potentially serve as a good therapeutic agent for protection against gastric ulcer and oxidative stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry*
  19. Anuar NS, Zahari SS, Taib IA, Rahman MT
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2008 Jul;46(7):2384-9.
    PMID: 18468758 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.03.025
    The traditional use of papaya to treat many diseases, especially skin conditions and its prohibition for consumption during pregnancy has prompted us to determine whether papaya extracts both from green and ripe fruits improve wound healing and also produce foetal toxicity. Aqueous extracts of green papaya epicarp (GPE) and ripe papaya epicarp (RPE) were applied on induced wounds on mice. GPE treatment induced complete healing in shorter periods (13 days) than that required while using RPE (17 days), sterile water (18 days) and Solcoseryl ointment (21 days). Extracts were administered orally (1 mg/g body weight/day) to pregnant mice from day 10 and onwards after conception. 3 (n=7) mice and 1 (n=6) mice given RPE and misoprostol, an abortive drug, respectively experienced embryonic resorption while this effect was observed in none of the mice given GPE (n=5) and water (n=5). The average body weight of live pups delivered by mice given GPE (1.12+/-0.04 g) was significantly lower than those delivered by mice given water (1.38+/-0.02 g). In SDS-PAGE, proteins were distributed in three bands (Mr range approximately 8-29 kDa). Band intensity at Mr approximately 28-29 kDa was higher in GPE than in RPE. In contrast, band intensity at low Mr (approximately 8 kDa) was found to be higher in RPE than in GPE. Notably, the band corresponding to Mr approximately 23-25 kDa was absent in RPE. These differences in composition may have contributed to the different wound healing and abortive effects of green and ripe papaya.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carica/chemistry*
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