Displaying all 12 publications

  1. Kong KW, Khoo HE, Prasad KN, Ismail A, Tan CP, Rajab NF
    Molecules, 2010 Feb 23;15(2):959-87.
    PMID: 20335956 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15020959
    By-products derived from food processing are attractive source for their valuable bioactive components and color pigments. These by-products are useful for development as functional foods, nutraceuticals, food ingredients, additives, and also as cosmetic products. Lycopene is a bioactive red colored pigment naturally occurring in plants. Industrial by-products obtained from the plants are the good sources of lycopene. Interest in lycopene is increasing due to increasing evidence proving its preventive properties toward numerous diseases. In vitro, in vivo and ex vivo studies have demonstrated that lycopene-rich foods are inversely associated to diseases such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and others. This paper also reviews the properties, absorption, transportation, and distribution of lycopene and its by-products in human body. The mechanism of action and interaction of lycopene with other bioactive compounds are also discussed, because these are the crucial features for beneficial role of lycopene. However, information on the effect of food processing on lycopene stability and availability was discussed for better understanding of its characteristics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carotenoids/chemistry
  2. Gannasin SP, Adzahan NM, Hamzah MY, Mustafa S, Muhammad K
    Food Chem, 2015 Sep 1;182:292-301.
    PMID: 25842340 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.010
    Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) is an underutilised fruit in Malaysia. The fruit, however, contains good proportions of soluble fibre, protein, starch, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Amongst the fruits, only tamarillo mesocarp contains both polar (anthocyanins) and non-polar (carotenoids) pigments. The ability to retain both polar and non-polar pigments in the mesocarp could be related to the unique properties of its hydrocolloids. To understand the pigment-hydrocolloid interaction in the fruit, information on the physicochemical characteristics of the hydrocolloids is required. Therefore, hydrocolloids from the anthocyanin-rich seed mucilage fraction of the tamarillo and its carotenoid-rich pulp fraction were extracted and characterised. Water and 1% citric acid were used to extract the seed mucilage hydrocolloid while 72% ethanol and 20mM HEPES buffer were used for pulp hydrocolloid extraction. Seed mucilage hydrocolloid was primarily composed of arabinogalactan protein-associated pectin whereas pulp hydrocolloid was composed of hemicellulosic polysaccharides with some naturally interacting proteins and neutral polysaccharides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carotenoids/chemistry
  3. Khoo HE, Prasad KN, Kong KW, Jiang Y, Ismail A
    Molecules, 2011;16(2):1710-38.
    PMID: 21336241 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16021710
    Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as 'functional food ingredients'. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids extensively studied in this regard include β-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Coloration of fruits and vegetables depends on their growth maturity, concentration of carotenoid isomers, and food processing methods. This article focuses more on several carotenoids and their isomers present in different fruits and vegetables along with their concentrations. Carotenoids and their geometric isomers also play an important role in protecting cells from oxidation and cellular damages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carotenoids/chemistry*
  4. Choo YM, Ng MH, Ma AN, Chuah CH, Hashim MA
    Lipids, 2005 Apr;40(4):429-32.
    PMID: 16028723
    The application of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) coupled with a UV variable-wavelength detector to isolate the minor components (carotenes, vitamin E, sterols, and squalene) in crude palm oil (CPO) and the residual oil from palm-pressed fiber is reported. SFC is a good technique for the isolation and analysis of these compounds from the sources mentioned. The carotenes, vitamin E, sterols, and squalene were isolated in less than 20 min. The individual vitamin E isomers present in palm oil were also isolated into their respective components, alpha-tocopherol, alpha-tocotrienol, gamma-tocopherol, gamma-tocotrienol, and delta-tocotrienol. Calibration of all the minor components of palm as well as the individual components of palm vitamin E was carried out and was found to be comparable to those analyzed by other established analytical methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carotenoids/chemistry
  5. Nazarudin MF, Alias NH, Balakrishnan S, Wan Hasnan WNI, Noor Mazli NAI, Ahmad MI, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Aug 27;26(17).
    PMID: 34500650 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26175216
    Recent increased interest in seaweed is motivated by attention generated in their bioactive components that have potential applications in the functional food and nutraceutical industries. In the present study, nutritional composition, metabolite profiles, phytochemical screening and physicochemical properties of freeze-dried brown seaweed, Sargassum polycystum were evaluated. Results showed that the S. polycystum had protein content of 8.65 ± 1.06%, lipid of 3.42 ± 0.01%, carbohydrate of 36.55 ± 1.09% and total dietary fibre content of 2.75 ± 0.58% on dry weight basis. The mineral content of S. polycystum including Na, K, Ca, Mg Fe, Se and Mn were 8876.45 ± 0.47, 1711.05 ± 0.07, 1079.75 ± 0.30, 213.85 ± 0.02, 277.6 ± 0.12, 4.70 ± 0.00 and 4.45 ± 0.00 mg 100/g DW, respectively. Total carotenoid, chlorophyll a and b content in S. polycystum were detected at 45.28 ± 1.77, 141.98 ± 1.18 and 111.29 µg/g respectively. The total amino acid content was 74.90 ± 1.45%. The study revealed various secondary metabolites and major constituents of S. polycystum fibre to include fucose, mannose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose. The metabolites extracted from the seaweeds comprised n-hexadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester, benzenepropanoic acid, 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxy- methyl ester, 1-dodecanol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, which were the most abundant. The physicochemical properties of S. polycystum such as water-holding and swelling capacity were comparable to several commercial fibre-rich products. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that S. polycystum is a potential candidate as functional food sources for human consumption and its cultivation needs to be encouraged.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carotenoids/chemistry
  6. Tan BL, Norhaizan ME
    Molecules, 2019 May 09;24(9).
    PMID: 31075966 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24091801
    Despite an increase in life expectancy that indicates positive human development, a new challenge is arising. Aging is positively associated with biological and cognitive degeneration, for instance cognitive decline, psychological impairment, and physical frailty. The elderly population is prone to oxidative stress due to the inefficiency of their endogenous antioxidant systems. As many studies showed an inverse relationship between carotenoids and age-related diseases (ARD) by reducing oxidative stress through interrupting the propagation of free radicals, carotenoid has been foreseen as a potential intervention for age-associated pathologies. Therefore, the role of carotenoids that counteract oxidative stress and promote healthy aging is worthy of further discussion. In this review, we discussed the underlying mechanisms of carotenoids involved in the prevention of ARD. Collectively, understanding the role of carotenoids in ARD would provide insights into a potential intervention that may affect the aging process, and subsequently promote healthy longevity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carotenoids/chemistry
  7. Tee ES
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 1992;31(1-2):103-63.
    PMID: 1734916
    Since the discovery of vitamin A as a fat-soluble growth factor in the early part of the century, research into carotenoids and retinoids has attracted the attention of many scientists. These two groups of compounds are still being actively studied all over the world since many gaps in knowledge exist and new frontiers are being pursued. Recent developments in studies into the possible roles of carotenoids and retinoids beyond their classical functions in vision have created a great deal of excitement in the biomedical community. This review covers a wide range of topics pertaining to these two closely related compounds. Particular emphasis is given to the functions of these compounds and their roles in human nutrition. Various aspects of vitamin A deficiency and studies on carotenoids and retinoids in cancer development and prevention are reviewed in some detail.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carotenoids/chemistry
  8. Markus A, Gbadamosi AO, Yusuff AS, Agi A, Oseh J
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Dec;25(35):35130-35142.
    PMID: 30328041 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-3402-3
    In this study, a new magnetic adsorbent based on magnetite-sporopollenin/graphene oxide (Fe3O4-SP/GO) was successfully developed. The adsorbent was applied for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of three selected polar organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), namely, dimethoate, phenthoate, and phosphamidon, prior to gas chromatography analysis with electron capture detection (GC-μECD). The Fe3O4-SP/GO adsorbent combines the advantages of superior adsorption capability of the modified sporopollenin (SP) with graphene oxide (GO) and magnetite (Fe3O4) for easy isolation from sample solution. Several MSPE parameters were optimized. Under optimized conditions, excellent linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9994) was achieved using matrix match calibration in the range of 0.1 to 500 ng mL-1. The limit of detection (LOD) method (S/N = 3) was from 0.02 to 0.05 ng mL-1. The developed Fe3O4-SP/GO MSPE method was successfully applied for the determination of these three polar OPPs in cucumber, long beans, bell pepper, and tomato samples. Good recoveries (81.0-120.0%) and good relative standard deviation (RSD) (1.4-7.8%, n = 3) were obtained for the spiked OPPs (1 ng mL-1) from real samples. This study is beneficial for adsorptive removal of toxic pesticide compounds from vegetable samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carotenoids/chemistry
  9. Abd Wahib SM, Wan Ibrahim WA, Sanagi MM, Kamboh MA, Abdul Keyon AS
    J Chromatogr A, 2018 Jan 12;1532:50-57.
    PMID: 29241956 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2017.11.059
    A facile dispersive-micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method coupled with HPLC for the analysis of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in water samples was developed using a newly prepared magnetic sporopollenin-cyanopropyltriethoxysilane (MS-CNPrTEOS) sorbent. Sporopollenin homogenous microparticles of Lycopodium clavatum spores possessed accessible functional groups that facilitated surface modification. Simple modification was performed by functionalization with 3-cyanopropyltriethoxysilane (CNPrTEOS) and magnetite was introduced onto the biopolymer to simplify the extraction process. MS-CNPrTEOS was identified by infrared spectrometrywhile the morphology and the magnetic property were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. To maximize the extraction performance of ketoprofen, ibuprofen, diclofenac and mefenamic acid using the proposed MS-CNPrTEOS, important D-μ-SPE parameters were comprehensively optimized. The optimum extraction conditions were sorbent amount, 40 mg; extraction time, 5 min; desorption time; 5 min; sample volume, 15 mL; sample pH 2.0; and salt addition, 2.5% (w/v). The feasibility of the developed method was evaluated using spiked tap water, lake water, river water and waste water samples. Results showed that ketoprofen and ibuprofen were linear in the range of 1.0-1000 μg L-1whilst diclofenac and mefenamic acid were linear in the range 0.8-500 μg L-1. The results also showed good detection limits for the studied NSAIDs in the range of 0.21-0.51 μg L-1and good recoveries for spiked water samples in the range of 85.1-106.4%. The MS-CNPrTEOS proved a promising dispersive sorbent and applicable to facile and rapid assay of NSAIDs in water samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carotenoids/chemistry
  10. Mohamad NV, Ima-Nirwana S, Chin KY
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2021 May;137:111368.
    PMID: 33582449 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111368
    Tocotrienol has been shown to prevent bone loss in animal models of postmenopausal osteoporosis, but the low oral bioavailability might limit its use. A self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) could increase the bioavailability of tocotrienol. However, evidence of this system in improving the skeletal effects of tocotrienol is scanty. This study aims to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of annatto tocotrienol with SEDDS in a rat model of postmenopausal bone loss. Ten-month-old female Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into six groups. The baseline group was euthanatized at the onset of the study. Four other groups underwent ovariectomy to induce estrogen deficiency. The sham underwent similar surgery procedure, but their ovaries were retained. Eight weeks after surgery, the ovariectomized rats received one of the four different regimens orally daily: (a) SEDDS, (b) annatto tocotrienol [60 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)] without SEDDS, (c) annatto-tocotrienol (60 mg/kg b.w.) with SEDDS, (d) raloxifene (1 mg/kg b.w.). After eight weeks of treatment, blood was collected for the measurement of delta-tocotrienol level and oxidative stress markers. The rats were euthanized and their bones were harvested for the evaluation of the bone microstructure, calcium content and strength. Circulating delta-tocotrienol level was significantly higher in rats receiving annatto tocotrienol with SEDDS compared to the group receiving unformulated annatto-tocotrienol (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Carotenoids/chemistry
  11. Jain A, Sharma G, Ghoshal G, Kesharwani P, Singh B, Shivhare US, et al.
    Int J Pharm, 2018 Jul 30;546(1-2):97-105.
    PMID: 29715533 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.04.061
    The work entails a novel strategy of formulating the lycopene loaded whey protein isolate nanoparticles (LYC-WPI-NPs) solely using the rational blend of biomacromolecule without using equipment-intensive techniques. The LYC-WPI-NPs were fabricated as a substantial drug delivery platform, with maximum entrapment, spatial and controlled release manners, exceptional plasma concentration, and perspective for discrepancy delivery of therapeutics. Prepared nano-formulations were measured in ultra-fine size (100-350 nm) with sphere-shaped. The percent lycopene entrapment of prepared LYC-WPI-NPs was estimated in the range to 50 and 65%. In vitro percent cumulative release study demonstrated deaden and extended release i.e. approximately 75% following 16th h. The in vitro percent cell survival (cytotoxicity study) of prepared nanoparticles was evaluated against MCF-7 breast cancer cells by MTT based colorimetric assay. Sub-cellular localization of lycopene when delivered by LYC-WPI-NPs was assessed by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). The WPI-NPs enhance the oral bioavailability of lycopene by controlling its release from nano-formulation and facilitating its absorption through lymphatic pathways. Prophylactic anticancer efficacy of LYC-WPI-NPs was evaluated thereafter on experimentally induced breast cancer animal model. Conclusively, it may quite reasonable that lycopene loaded protein nanoparticles are competent to improve the biopharmaceutical attributes of lycopene and demonstrated prophylactic anticancer activity, decrease tumor proliferation and increase the survival rate of treated animals, thus signifying their feasible usefulness in cancer therapeutic and intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carotenoids/chemistry
  12. Mohamad NV, Ima-Nirwana S, Chin KY
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2018;12:555-564.
    PMID: 29588572 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S158410
    Background: Patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy experience secondary hypogonadism, associated bone loss, and increased fracture risk. It has been shown that tocotrienol from Bixa orellana (annatto) prevents skeletal microstructural changes in rats experiencing primary hypogonadism. However, its potential in preventing bone loss due to androgen deprivation therapy has not been tested. This study aimed to evaluate the skeletal protective effects of annatto tocotrienol using a buserelin-induced osteoporotic rat model.

    Methods: Forty-six male Sprague Dawley rats aged 3 months were randomized into six groups. The baseline control (n=6) was sacrificed at the onset of the study. The normal control (n=8) received corn oil (the vehicle of tocotrienol) orally daily and normal saline (the vehicle of buserelin) subcutaneously daily. The buserelin control (n=8) received corn oil orally daily and subcutaneous buserelin injection (75 µg/kg) daily. The calcium control (n=8) was supplemented with 1% calcium in drinking water and daily subcutaneous buserelin injection (75 µg/kg). The remaining rats were given daily oral annatto tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg (n=8) or 100 mg/kg (n=8) plus daily subcutaneous buserelin injection (75 µg/kg) (n=8). At the end of the experiment, the rats were euthanized and their blood, tibia, and femur were harvested. Structural changes of the tibial trabecular and cortical bone were examined using X-ray micro-computed tomography. Femoral bone calcium content and biomechanical strength were also evaluated.

    Results: Annatto tocotrienol at 60 and 100 mg/kg significantly prevented the deterioration of trabecular bone and cortical thickness in buserelin-treated rats (P<0.05). Both doses of annatto tocotrienol also improved femoral biomechanical strength and bone calcium content in buserelin-treated rats (P<0.05). The effects of annatto tocotrienol were comparable to calcium supplementation.

    Conclusion: Annatto tocotrienol supplementation is effective in preventing degeneration of the bone induced by buserelin. Therefore, it is a potential antiosteoporotic agent for men receiving androgen deprivation therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Carotenoids/chemistry
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