Displaying all 11 publications

  1. Moo EK, Han SK, Federico S, Sibole SC, Jinha A, Abu Osman NA, et al.
    J Biomech, 2014 Mar 21;47(5):1004-13.
    PMID: 24480705 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.01.003
    Cartilage lesions change the microenvironment of cells and may accelerate cartilage degradation through catabolic responses from chondrocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of structural integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) on chondrocytes by comparing the mechanics of cells surrounded by an intact ECM with cells close to a cartilage lesion using experimental and numerical methods. Experimentally, 15% nominal compression was applied to bovine cartilage tissues using a light-transmissible compression system. Target cells in the intact ECM and near lesions were imaged by dual-photon microscopy. Changes in cell morphology (N(cell)=32 for both ECM conditions) were quantified. A two-scale (tissue level and cell level) Finite Element (FE) model was also developed. A 15% nominal compression was applied to a non-linear, biphasic tissue model with the corresponding cell level models studied at different radial locations from the centre of the sample in the transient phase and at steady state. We studied the Green-Lagrange strains in the tissue and cells. Experimental and theoretical results indicated that cells near lesions deform less axially than chondrocytes in the intact ECM at steady state. However, cells near lesions experienced large tensile strains in the principal height direction, which are likely associated with non-uniform tissue radial bulging. Previous experiments showed that tensile strains of high magnitude cause an up-regulation of digestive enzyme gene expressions. Therefore, we propose that cartilage degradation near tissue lesions may be due to the large tensile strains in the principal height direction applied to cells, thus leading to an up-regulation of catabolic factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/injuries*
  2. Samsudin OC, Aminuddin BS, Munirah S, Chua KH, Fuzina NH, Isa MR, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:15-6.
    PMID: 15468796
    Treatment of articular cartilage lesions remains a clinical challenge. The uses of prosthetic joint replace allograft and/or autograft transplant carry a risk of complications due to infection, loosening of its component, immunological rejection and morbidity at the donor site. There has been an increasing interest in the management of cartilage damages, owing to the introduction of new therapeutic options. Tissue engineering as a method for tissue restoration begins to provide a potential alternative therapy for autologous grafts transplantations. We aimed to evaluate how well a tissue engineered neocartilage implant, consist of human articular chondrocytes cultured with the presence of autologous serum and mixed in a fresh fibrin derived from patient, would perform in subcutaneous implantation in athymic mice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/injuries
  3. Samsudin EZ, Kamarul T
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2016 Dec;24(12):3912-3926.
    PMID: 26003481
    PURPOSE: This paper aims to review the current evidence for autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) generations relative to other treatment modalities, different cell delivery methods and different cell source application.

    METHODS: Literature search was performed to identify all level I and II studies reporting the clinical and structural outcome of any ACI generation in human knees using the following medical electronic databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and NICE healthcare database. The level of evidence, sample size calculation and risk of bias were determined for all included studies to enable quality assessment.

    RESULTS: Twenty studies were included in the analysis, reporting on a total of 1094 patients. Of the 20 studies, 13 compared ACI with other treatment modalities, seven compared different ACI cell delivery methods, and one compared different cell source for implantation. Studies included were heterogeneous in baseline design, preventing meta-analysis. Data showed a trend towards similar outcomes when comparing ACI generations with other repair techniques and when comparing different cell delivery methods and cell source selection. Majority of the studies (80 %) were level II evidence, and overall the quality of studies can be rated as average to low, with the absence of power analysis in 65 % studies.

    CONCLUSION: At present, there are insufficient data to conclude any superiority of ACI techniques. Considering its two-stage operation and cost, it may be appropriate to reserve ACI for patients with larger defects or those who have had inadequate response to other repair procedures until hard evidence enables specific clinical recommendations be made.


    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/injuries*
  4. Tay LX, Ahmad RE, Dashtdar H, Tay KW, Masjuddin T, Ab-Rahim S, et al.
    Am J Sports Med, 2012 Jan;40(1):83-90.
    PMID: 21917609 DOI: 10.1177/0363546511420819
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising alternative form of cell-based therapy for cartilage injury. However, the capacity of MSCs for chondrogenesis has not been fully explored. In particular, there is presently a lack of studies comparing the effectiveness of MSCs to conventional autologous chondrocyte (autoC) treatment for regeneration of full-thickness cartilage defects in vivo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/injuries*
  5. Sulaiman AR, Simbak N, Wan Ismail WF, Wan Z, Halim AS
    J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong), 2011 Aug;19(2):250-3.
    PMID: 21857057
    We report 2 patients with congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia who underwent intramedullary Rush rod transfixation through the ankle joint following refracture and nonunion of vascularised fibular grafting 6 and 8 months earlier. After 9 and 5 years, both Rush rods were broken at the level of the ankle joints, while the reconstructed area was solidly united. The growth of the distal tibia increased the distance of the tips of the broken rod and hence the ankle joint motion. The broken tips may damage the articular cartilage and result in valgus deformity of the ankle and limb length discrepancy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/injuries*
  6. Rasit AH, Sharaf I, Pan KL
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Dec;59 Suppl F:52-3.
    PMID: 15941163
    Sleeve fracture of the inferior pole of the patella is a rare and distinctive fracture in children with few published reports. These fractures are frequently misdiagnosed and neglected. We highlight a case of a neglected and misdiagnosed sleeve fracture of the patella in an eleven-year-old boy. This was initially diagnosed as an avulsion fracture of the tibial tubercle. A good outcome was achieved after open reduction and internal fixation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/injuries*
  7. Choi JR, Yong KW, Choi JY
    J Cell Physiol, 2018 Mar;233(3):1913-1928.
    PMID: 28542924 DOI: 10.1002/jcp.26018
    Today, articular cartilage damage is a major health problem, affecting people of all ages. The existing conventional articular cartilage repair techniques, such as autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), microfracture, and mosaicplasty, have many shortcomings which negatively affect their clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is essential to develop an alternative and efficient articular repair technique that can address those shortcomings. Cartilage tissue engineering, which aims to create a tissue-engineered cartilage derived from human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), shows great promise for improving articular cartilage defect therapy. However, the use of tissue-engineered cartilage for the clinical therapy of articular cartilage defect still remains challenging. Despite the importance of mechanical loading to create a functional cartilage has been well demonstrated, the specific type of mechanical loading and its optimal loading regime is still under investigation. This review summarizes the most recent advances in the effects of mechanical loading on human MSCs. First, the existing conventional articular repair techniques and their shortcomings are highlighted. The important parameters for the evaluation of the tissue-engineered cartilage, including chondrogenic and hypertrophic differentiation of human MSCs are briefly discussed. The influence of mechanical loading on human MSCs is subsequently reviewed and the possible mechanotransduction signaling is highlighted. The development of non-hypertrophic chondrogenesis in response to the changing mechanical microenvironment will aid in the establishment of a tissue-engineered cartilage for efficient articular cartilage repair.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/injuries*
  8. Dashtdar H, Murali MR, Abbas AA, Suhaeb AM, Selvaratnam L, Tay LX, et al.
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2015 May;23(5):1368-77.
    PMID: 24146054 DOI: 10.1007/s00167-013-2723-5
    PURPOSE: To investigate whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded in novel polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-chitosan composite hydrogel can provide comparable or even further improve cartilage repair outcomes as compared to previously established alginate-transplanted models.

    METHODS: Medial femoral condyle defect was created in both knees of twenty-four mature New Zealand white rabbits, and the animals were divided into four groups containing six animals each. After 3 weeks, the right knees were transplanted with PVA-chitosan-MSC, PVA-chitosan scaffold alone, alginate-MSC construct or alginate alone. The left knee was kept as untreated control. Animals were killed at the end of 6 months after transplantation, and the cartilage repair was assessed through Brittberg morphological score, histological grading by O'Driscoll score and quantitative glycosaminoglycan analysis.

    RESULTS: Morphological and histological analyses showed significant (p < 0.05) tissue repair when treated with PVA-chitosan-MSC or alginate MSC as compared to the scaffold only and untreated control. In addition, safranin O staining and the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in MSC treatment groups than in scaffold-only or untreated control group. No significant difference was observed between the PVA-chitosan-MSC- and alginate-MSC-treated groups.

    CONCLUSION: PVA-chitosan hydrogel seeded with mesenchymal stem cells provides comparable treatment outcomes to that of previously established alginate-MSC construct implantation. This study supports the potential use of PVA-chitosan hydrogel seeded with MSCs for clinical use in cartilage repair such as traumatic injuries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/injuries*
  9. Saw KY, Anz A, Jee CS, Ng RC, Mohtarrudin N, Ragavanaidu K
    Arthroscopy, 2015 Oct;31(10):1909-20.
    PMID: 26008951 DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2015.03.038
    PURPOSE: To histologically evaluate the quality of articular cartilage regeneration from the medial compartment after arthroscopic subchondral drilling followed by postoperative intra-articular injections of autologous peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) and hyaluronic acid with concomitant medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) in patients with varus deformity of the knee joint.
    METHODS: Eight patients with varus deformity of the knee joint underwent arthroscopic subchondral drilling of International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade 4 bone-on-bone lesions of the medial compartment with concomitant HTO. These patients were part of a larger pilot study in which 18 patients underwent the same procedure. PBSCs were harvested and cryopreserved preoperatively. At 1 week after surgery, 8 mL of PBSCs was mixed with 2 mL of hyaluronic acid and injected intra-articularly into the knee joint; this was repeated once a week for 5 consecutive weeks. Three additional intra-articular injections were administered weekly at intervals of 6, 12, and 18 months postoperatively. Informed consent was obtained at the time of hardware removal for opportunistic second-look arthroscopy and chondral biopsy. Biopsy specimens were stained with H&E, safranin O, and immunohistochemical staining for type I and II collagen. Specimens were graded using the 14 components of the ICRS Visual Assessment Scale II, and a total score was obtained.
    RESULTS: Second-look arthroscopy showed satisfactory healing of the regenerated cartilage. Histologic analysis showed significant amounts of proteoglycan and type II collagen. The total ICRS Visual Assessment Scale II histologic scores comparing the regenerated articular cartilage (mean, 1,274) with normal articular cartilage (mean, 1,340) indicated that the repair cartilage score approached 95% of the normal articular cartilage score. There were no infections, delayed unions, or nonunions.
    CONCLUSIONS: Chondrogenesis with stem cells in combination with medial open-wedge HTO for varus deformity correction of the knee joint regenerates cartilage that closely resembles the native articular cartilage.
    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic case series.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/injuries
  10. Dashtdar H, Rothan HA, Tay T, Ahmad RE, Ali R, Tay LX, et al.
    J Orthop Res, 2011 Sep;29(9):1336-42.
    PMID: 21445989 DOI: 10.1002/jor.21413
    Chondrogenic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (CMSCs) have been shown to produce superior chondrogenic expression markers in vitro. However, the use of these cells in vivo has not been fully explored. In this study, in vivo assessment of cartilage repair potential between allogenic-derived chondrogenic pre-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells and undifferentiated MSCs (MSCs) were compared. Bilateral full thickness cartilage defects were created on the medial femoral condyles of 12 rabbits (n = 12). Rabbits were divided into two groups. In one group, the defects in the right knees were repaired using alginate encapsulated MSCs while in the second group, CMSCs were used. The animals were sacrificed and the repaired and control knees were assessed at 3 and 6 months after implantation. Quantitative analysis was performed by measuring the Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)/total protein content. The mean Brittberg score was higher in the transplanted knees as compared to the untreated knee at 6 months (p  0.05). This study demonstrates that the use of either MSC or CMSC produced superior healing when compared to cartilage defects that were untreated. However, both cells produced comparable treatment outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/injuries
  11. Saw KY, Anz A, Merican S, Tay YG, Ragavanaidu K, Jee CS, et al.
    Arthroscopy, 2011 Apr;27(4):493-506.
    PMID: 21334844 DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2010.11.054
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of articular cartilage regeneration after arthroscopic subchondral drilling followed by postoperative intraarticular injections of autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) in combination with hyaluronic acid (HA).
    METHODS: Five patients underwent second-look arthroscopy with chondral core biopsy. These 5 patients are part of a larger pilot study in which 180 patients with International Cartilage Repair Society grade III and IV lesions of the knee joint underwent arthroscopic subchondral drilling followed by postoperative intra-articular injections. Continuous passive motion was used on the operated knee 2 hours per day for 4 weeks. Partial weight bearing was observed for the first 6 to 8 weeks. Autologous PBPCs were harvested 1 week after surgery. One week after surgery, 8 mL of the harvested PBPCs in combination with 2 mL of HA was injected intra-articularly into the operated knee. The remaining PBPCs were divided into vials and cryopreserved. A total of 5 weekly intra-articular injections were given.
    RESULTS: Second-look arthroscopy confirmed articular cartilage regeneration, and histologic sections showed features of hyaline cartilage. Apart from the minimal discomfort of PBPC harvesting and localized pain associated with the intra-articular injections, there were no other notable adverse reactions.
    CONCLUSIONS: Articular hyaline cartilage regeneration is possible with arthroscopic subchondral drilling followed by postoperative intraarticular injections of autologous PBPCs in combination with HA.
    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic case series.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/injuries
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