In this paper, single cells adhesion force was measured using a nanofork. The nanofork was used to pick up a single cell on a line array substrate inside an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The line array substrate was used to provide small gaps between the single cells and the substrate. Therefore, the nanofork could be inserted through these gaps in order to successfully pick up a single cell. Adhesion force was measured during the cell pick-up process from the deflection of the cantilever beam. The nanofork was fabricated using focused ion beam (FIB) etching process while the line array substrate was fabricated using nanoimprinting technology. As to investigate the effect of contact area on the strength of the adhesion force, two sizes of gap distance of line array substrate were used, i.e., 1 μm and 2 μm. Results showed that cells attached on the 1 μm gap line array substrate required more force to be released as compared to the cells attached on the 1 μm gap line array substrate.
Chitosan has similar structure to glycosaminoglycans in the tissue, thus may be a good candidates as tissue engineering scaffold. However, to improve their cell attachment ability, we try to incorporate this natural polymer with collagen by combining it via cross-linking process. In this preliminary study we evaluate the cell attachment ability of chitosan-collagen scaffold versus chitosan scaffold alone. Chitosan and collagen were dissolved in 1% acetic acid and then were frozen for 24 hours before the lyophilizing process. Human skin fibroblasts were seeded into both scaffold and were cultured in F12: DMEM (1:1). Metabolic activity assay were used to evaluate cell attachment ability of scaffold for a period of 1, 3, 7 and 14 days. Scanning electron micrographs shows good cell morphology on chitosan-collagen hybrid scaffold. In conclusion, the incorporation of collagen to chitosan will enhance its cell attachment ability and will be a potential scaffold in tissue engineering.
Selections of collagen available commercially were tested for their biocompatibility as scaffold to promote cell growth in vitro via simple collagen fast test and cultivation of mammalian cells on the selected type of collagen. It was found that collagen type C9791 promotes the highest degree of aggregation as well as cells growth. This preliminary study also indicated potential use of collagen as scaffold in engineered tissue.
Adhesion and fusion of epithelial sheets marks the completion of many morphogenetic events during embryogenesis. Neural tube closure involves an epithelial fusion sequence in which the apposing neural folds adhere initially via cellular protrusions, proceed to a more stable union, and subsequently undergo remodeling of the epithelial structures to yield a separate neural tube roof plate and overlying nonneural ectoderm. Cellular protrusions comprise lamellipodia and filopodia, and studies in several different systems emphasize the critical role of RhoGTPases in their regulation. How epithelia establish initial adhesion is poorly understood but, in neurulation, may involve interactions between EphA receptors and their ephrinA ligands. Epithelial remodeling is spatially and temporally correlated with apoptosis in the dorsal neural tube midline, but experimental inhibition of this cell death does not prevent fusion and remodeling. A variety of molecular signaling systems have been implicated in the late events of morphogenesis, but genetic redundancy, for example among the integrins and laminins, makes identification of the critical players challenging. An improved understanding of epithelial fusion can provide insights into normal developmental processes and may also indicate the mode of origin of clinically important birth defects.
Tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HA), hydroxyapatite (HA), chitosan and calcium sulphate (CaSO4) were studied and evaluated for possible bone tissue engineered construct acting as good support for osteogenic cells to proliferate, differentiate, and eventually spread and integrate into the scaffold. Surface morphology visualized by SEM showed that scaffold materials with additional fibrin had more cell densities attached than those without, depicting that the presence of fibrin and collagen fibers were truly a favourite choice of cells to attach. In comparison of various biomaterials used incorporated with fibrin, TCP/HA had the most cluster of cells attached.
In this study the surface properties of two particulate coral and polyhydroxybutrate (PHB) were studied in order to characterize them prior to use in composite production. Coral powder and PHB particle were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, to measure surface porosity and pores size. The results showed that coral powder has multiple pleomorphic micropores cross each others give appearance of micro-interconnectivity. Some pore reached to 18 microm with an average porosity of 70%. PHB revealed multiple different size pores extended to the depth, with an average some times reach 25 microm and porosity 45%. These findings demonstrate that both coral and PHB have excellent pores size and porosity that facilitate bone in growth, vascular invasion and bone development. We believe that incorporation of coral powder into PHB will make an excellent composite scaffold for tissue engineering.
In-stent restenosis is caused by the proliferation of the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) following a host response towards the implanted device. However, the precise biochemical and cellular mechanisms are still not completely understood. In this paper, the behaviour of SMCs has been investigated by an in vitro model where the cells were stimulated by platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) on tissue-like substrates as well as on biomaterials such as stainless steel (St) and diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated St. The results demonstrated that SMCs have a completely different adhesion mode on St and become particularly prone to proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion under PDGF stimulus. This would suggest that restenosis may caused by the accidental contact of the SMC with the St substrate under an inflammatory insult.
This study was designed to evaluate the ability of natural coral implant to provide an environment for marrow cells to differentiate into osteoblasts and function suitable for mineralized tissue formation. DNA content, alkaline phosptatase (ALP) activity, calcium (Ca) content and mineralized nodules, were measured at day 3, day 7 and day 14, in rat bone marrow stromal cells cultured with coral discs glass discs, while cells alone and coral disc alone were cultured as control. DNA content, ALP activity, Ca content measurements showed no difference between coral, glass and cells groups at 3 day which were higher than control (coral disc alone), but there were higher measurement at day 7 and 14 in the cell cultured on coral than on glass discs, control cells and control coral discs. Mineralized nodules formation (both in area and number) was more predominant on the coral surface than in control groups. These results showed that natural coral implant provided excellent and favorable situation for marrow cell to differentiate to osteoblasts, lead to large amount of mineralized tissue formation on coral surface. This in vitro result could explain the rapid bone bonding of coral in vivo.
Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a cell surface protein that was discovered as a tumour marker of epithelial origins nearly four decades ago. EpCAM is expressed at basal levels in the basolateral membrane of normal epithelial cells. However, EpCAM expression is upregulated in solid epithelial cancers and stem cells. EpCAM can also be found in disseminated tumour cells and circulating tumour cells. Various OMICs studies have demonstrated that EpCAM plays roles in several key biological processes such as cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation. Additionally, EpCAM can be detected in the bodily fluid of cancer patients suggesting that EpCAM is a pathophysiologically relevant anti-tumour target as well as being utilized as a diagnostic/prognostic agent for a variety of cancers. This review will focus on the structure-features of EpCAM protein and discuss recent evidence on the pathological and physiological roles of EpCAM in modulating cell adhesion and signalling pathways in cancers as well as deliberating the clinical implication of EpCAM as a therapeutic target.
Ameloblastoma is a benign but locally infiltrative odontogenic epithelial neoplasm with a high risk for recurrence. Podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelium marker, putatively promotes collective cell migration and invasiveness in this neoplasm. However, its role in the recurrent ameloblastoma (RA) remains unclear. As morphological, signaling, and genetic differences may exist between primary and recurrent tumors, clarification of their distribution patterns is of relevance.
Cell-based therapy using autologous cells has been suggested as a potential approach for periodontal tissue regeneration. Spheroid systems are a form of three-dimensional cell culture that promotes cell matrix interaction, which could recapitulate the aspect of cell homeostasis in vivo. The aim of this study is to assess the interaction of periodontal fibroblast spheroids with synthetic and collagen-based membranes that have been used in guided tissue regeneration.
Studies of peri-implant soft tissue on in vivo models are commonly based on histological sections prepared using undecalcified or 'fracture' techniques. These techniques require the cutting or removal of implant during the specimen preparation process. The aim of this study is to explore a new impression technique that does not require any cutting or removal of implant for contour analysis of soft tissue around four types of titanium (Ti) surface roughness using an in vitro three-dimensional oral mucosal model (3D OMM).
Interconnected porous tricalcium phosphate ceramics are considered to be potential bone substitutes. However, insufficient mechanical properties when using tricalcium phosphate powders remain a challenge. To mitigate these issues, we have developed a new approach to produce an interconnected alpha-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) scaffold and to perform surface modification on the scaffold with a composite layer, which consists of hybrid carbonate apatite / poly-epsilon-caprolactone (CO3Ap/PCL) with enhanced mechanical properties and biological performance. Different CO3Ap combinations were tested to evaluate the optimal mechanical strength and in vitro cell response of the scaffold. The α-TCP scaffold coated with CO3Ap/PCL maintained a fully interconnected structure with a porosity of 80% to 86% and achieved an improved compressive strength mimicking that of cancellous bone. The addition of CO3Ap coupled with the fully interconnected microstructure of the α-TCP scaffolds coated with CO3Ap/PCL increased cell attachment, accelerated proliferation and resulted in greater alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Hence, our bone substitute exhibited promising potential for applications in cancellous bone-type replacement.