Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 77 in total

  1. Taher M, Abdul Majid FA, Sarmidi MR
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:97-8.
    PMID: 15468836
    In attempt to discover a small active compound that could promote adipogenesis, we investigated the ability of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) extracts to stimulate 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, In this study, we designed an experiment by replacing insulin with cinnamon extracts. The differentiated of 3T3-L1 adipocytes were monitored using oil red O staining method. Induction of adipocyte formation by cinnamtannin B1 or water extract gave the similar effects to insulin activity in adipogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects*
  2. Susanti D, Amiroudine MZ, Rezali MF, Taher M
    Nat Prod Res, 2013 Mar;27(4-5):417-24.
    PMID: 22988818 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2012.725399
    Friedelin and lanosterol have been isolated from twigs of Garcinia prainiana. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were examined for their effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the MTT assay, it was found that the compounds had no cytotoxic effects up to 25 µM. Adipocyte differentiation analysis was carried out by Oil Red O staining method. In the presence of adipogenic cocktail (MDI), it was found that friedelin and lanosterol enhanced intracellular fat accumulation by 2.02 and 2.18-fold, respectively, compared with the vehicle-treated cells. Deoxyglucose uptake assay was used to examine the insulin sensitivity of adipocytes in the presence of the compounds. It was found that friedelin was able to stimulate glucose uptake up to 1.8-fold compared with insulin-treated cells. It was suggested that friedelin and lanosterol may be beneficial to mimic insulin action that would be useful in the treatment of diabetes type 2 patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects
  3. Ubaidah MA, Chua KH, Ami M, Zainal A, Saim A, Saim L, et al.
    J Int Adv Otol, 2015 Apr;11(1):23-9.
    PMID: 26223713 DOI: 10.5152/iao.2015.539
    Loss of auditory hair cells is a major cause of deafness. The presence of auditory progenitor cells in the inner ear raises the hope for mammalian inner ear cell regeneration. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of growth factor supplementations, namely a combination of epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and beta (β)-fibroblast growth factor (βFGF), on the expression of hair cell-specific markers by cells harvested from the cochlear membrane. This would provide an insight into the capability of these cells to differentiate into hair cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects
  4. Dong J, Tao L, Abourehab MAS, Hussain Z
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Sep;116:1268-1281.
    PMID: 29782984 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.05.116
    Osteoporosis is a medical condition of fragile bones with an increased susceptibility to fracture. Despite having availability of a wide range of pharmacological agents, prevalence of osteoporosis is continuously escalating. Owing to excellent biomedical achievements of nanomedicines in the last few decades, we aimed combo-delivery of bone anti-resorptive agent, alendronate (ALN), and bone density enhancing drug, curcumin (CUR) in the form of polymeric nanoparticles. To further optimize the therapeutic efficacy, the prepared ALN/CUR nanoparticles (NPs) were decorated with hyaluronic acid (HA) which is a well-documented biomacromolecule having exceptional bone regenerating potential. The optimized nanoformulation was then evaluated for bone regeneration efficacy by assessing time-mannered modulation in the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells, a pre-osteoblastic model. Moreover, the time-mannered expression of various bone-forming protein biomarkers such as bone morphogenetic protein, runt related transcription factor 2, and osteocalcin were assessed in the cell lysates. Results revealed that HA-ALN/CUR NPs provoke remarkable increase in the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization in the ECM of MC3T3-E1 cells which ultimately leads to enhanced bone formation. This new strategy of employing simultaneous delivery of anti-resorptive and bone forming agents would open new horizons for scientists as an efficient alternative pharmacotherapy for the management of osteoporosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects
  5. Vimalraj S, Rajalakshmi S, Raj Preeth D, Vinoth Kumar S, Deepak T, Gopinath V, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2018 Feb 01;83:187-194.
    PMID: 29208278 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.09.005
    Copper(II) complex of quercetin Cu+Q, mixed ligand complexes, quercetin-Cu(II)-phenanthroline [Cu+Q(PHt)] and quercetin-Cu(II)-neocuproine [Cu+Q(Neo)] have been synthesized and characterized. From the FT-IR spectroscopic studies, it was evident that C-ring of quercetin is involved in the metal chelation in all the three copper complexes. C-ring chelation was further proven by UV-Visible spectra and the presence of Cu(II) from EPR spectroscopic investigations. These complexes were found to have osteogenic and angiogenic properties, observed through in vitro osteoblast differentiation and chick embryo angiogenesis assay. In osteoblast differentiation, quercetin-Cu(II) complexes treatment increased calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) activity at the cellular level and stimulated Runx2 mRNA and protein, ALP mRNA and type 1 collagen mRNA expression at the molecular level. Among the complexes, Q+Cu(PHt) showed more effects on osteoblast differentiation when compared to that of other two copper complexes. Additionally, Q+Cu(Neo) showed more effect compared to Q+Cu. Furthermore, the effect of these complexes on osteoblast differentiation was confirmed by the expression of osteoblast specific microRNA, pre-mir-15b. The chick embryo angiogenesis assay showed that angiogenic parameters such as blood vessel length, size and junctions were stimulated by these complexes. Thus, the present study demonstrated that quercetin copper(II) complexes exhibit as a pharmacological agent for the orthopedic application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects
  6. Moshiri A, Sharifi AM, Oryan A
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol, 2016 Jul;43(7):659-84.
    PMID: 27061579 DOI: 10.1111/1440-1681.12577
    Simvastatin is a lipid lowering drug whose beneficial role on bone metabolism was discovered in 1999. Several in vivo studies evaluated its role on osteoporosis and fracture healing, however, controversial results are seen in the literature. For this reason, Simvastatin has not been the focus of any clinical trials as yet. This systematic review clears the mechanisms of action of Simvastatin on bone metabolism and focuses on in vivo investigations that have evaluated its role on osteoporosis and fracture repair to find out (i) whether Simvastatin is effective on treatment of osteoporosis and fracture repair, and (ii) which of the many available protocols may have the ability to be translated in the clinical setting. Simvastatin induces osteoinduction by increasing osteoblast activity and differentiation and inhibiting their apoptosis. It also reduces osteoclastogenesis by decreasing both the number and activity of osteoclasts and their differentiation. Controversial results between the in vivo studies are mostly due to the differences in the route of administration, dose, dosage and carrier type. Local delivery of Simvastatin through controlled drug delivery systems with much lower doses and dosages than the systemic route seems to be the most valuable option in fracture healing. However, systemic delivery of Simvastatin with much higher doses and dosages than the clinical ones seems to be effective in managing osteoporosis. Simvastatin, in a particular range of doses and dosages, may be beneficial in managing osteoporosis and fracture injuries. This review showed that Simvastatin is effective in the treatment of osteoporosis and fracture healing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects
  7. Khalilpourfarshbafi M, Devi Murugan D, Abdul Sattar MZ, Sucedaram Y, Abdullah NA
    PLoS One, 2019;14(6):e0218792.
    PMID: 31226166 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0218792
    The increased prevalence of obesity and associated insulin resistance calls for effective therapeutic treatment of metabolic diseases. The current PPARγ-targeting antidiabetic drugs have undesirable side effects. The present study investigated the anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of withaferin A (WFA) in diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice and also the anti-adipogenic effect of WFA in differentiating 3T3- F442A cells. DIO mice were treated with WFA (6 mg/kg) or rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, metabolic profile, liver function and inflammatory parameters were obtained. Expression of selective genes controlling insulin signaling, inflammation, adipogenesis, energy expenditure and PPARγ phosphorylation-regulated genes in epididymal fats were analyzed. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenic effect of WFA was evaluated in 3T3- F442A cell line. WFA treatment prevented weight gain without affecting food or caloric intake in DIO mice. WFA-treated group also exhibited lower epididymal and mesenteric fat pad mass, an improvement in lipid profile and hepatic steatosis and a reduction in serum inflammatory cytokines. Insulin resistance was reduced as shown by an improvement in glucose and insulin tolerance and serum adiponectin. WFA treatment upregulated selective insulin signaling (insr, irs1, slc2a4 and pi3k) and PPARγ phosphorylation-regulated (car3, selenbp1, aplp2, txnip, and adipoq) genes, downregulated inflammatory (tnf-α and il-6) genes and altered energy expenditure controlling (tph2 and adrb3) genes. In 3T3- F442A cell line, withaferin A inhibited adipogenesis as indicated by a decrease in lipid accumulation in differentiating adipocytes and protein expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα. The effect of rosiglitazone on physiological and lipid profiles, insulin resistance, some genes expression and differentiating adipocytes were markedly different. Our data suggest that WFA is a promising therapeutic agent for both diabetes and obesity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects
  8. Yap WH, Cheah TY, Yong LC, Chowdhury SR, Ng MH, Kwan Z, et al.
    J Biosci, 2021;46.
    PMID: 34475316
    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by thickening and disorganization of the skin's protective barrier. Although current models replicate some aspects of the disease, development of therapeutic strategies have been hindered by absence of more relevant models. This study aimed to develop and characterize an in vitro psoriatic human skin equivalent (HSE) using human keratinocytes HaCat cell line grown on fibroblasts-derived matrices (FDM). The constructed HSEs were treated with cytokines (IL-1α, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL22) to allow controlled induction of psoriasis-associated features. Histological stainings showed that FDMHSE composed of a fully differentiated epidermis and fibroblast-populated dermis comparable to native skin and rat tail collagen-HSE. Hyperproliferation (CK16 and Ki67) and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6) expression were significantly enhanced in the cytokine-induced FDM- and rat tail collagen HSEs compared to non-treated HSE counterparts. The characteristics were in line with those observed in psoriasis punch biopsies. Treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has shown to suppress these effects, where HSE models treated with both ATRA and cytokines exhibit histological characteristics, hyperproliferation and differentiation markers expression like non-treated control HSEs. Cytokine-induced FDM-HSE, constructed entirely from human cell lines, provides an excellent opportunity for psoriasis research and testing new therapeutics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects*
  9. Shi X, Xu L, Le TB, Zhou G, Zheng C, Tsuru K, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Feb;59:542-548.
    PMID: 26652406 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.10.024
    Dental implants made of pure titanium suffer from abrasion and scratch during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results in an irreversible surface damage, facilitates bacteria adhesion and increases risk of peri-implantitis. To overcome these problems, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was introduced to increase surface hardness of pure titanium. However, the osteoconductivity of TiN is considered to be similar or superior to that of titanium and its alloys and therefore surface modification is necessary. In this study, TiN coating prepared through gas nitriding was partially oxidized by hydrothermal (HT) treatment and ozone (O3) treatment in pure water to improve its osteoconductivity. The effects of HT treatment and O3 treatment on surface properties of TiN were investigated and the osteoconductivity after undergoing treatment was assessed in vitro using osteoblast evaluation. The results showed that the critical temperature for HT treatment was 100°C since higher temperatures would impair the hardness of TiN coating. By contrast, O3 treatment was more effective in oxidizing TiN surfaces, improving its wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Osteoblast attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and mineralization were improved on oxidized specimens, especially on O3 treated specimens, compared with untreated ones. These effects seemed to be consequences of partial oxidation, as well as improved hydrophilicity and surface decontamination. Finally, it was concluded that, partially oxidized TiN is a promising coating to be used for dental implant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects
  10. Kumar SS, Alarfaj AA, Munusamy MA, Singh AJ, Peng IC, Priya SP, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(12):23418-47.
    PMID: 25526563 DOI: 10.3390/ijms151223418
    Human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), hold promise as novel therapeutic tools for diabetes treatment because of their self-renewal capacity and ability to differentiate into beta (β)-cells. Small and large molecules play important roles in each stage of β-cell differentiation from both hESCs and hiPSCs. The small and large molecules that are described in this review have significantly advanced efforts to cure diabetic disease. Lately, effective protocols have been implemented to induce hESCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to differentiate into functional β-cells. Several small molecules, proteins, and growth factors promote pancreatic differentiation from hESCs and hMSCs. These small molecules (e.g., cyclopamine, wortmannin, retinoic acid, and sodium butyrate) and large molecules (e.g. activin A, betacellulin, bone morphogentic protein (BMP4), epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), noggin, transforming growth factor (TGF-α), and WNT3A) are thought to contribute from the initial stages of definitive endoderm formation to the final stages of maturation of functional endocrine cells. We discuss the importance of such small and large molecules in uniquely optimized protocols of β-cell differentiation from stem cells. A global understanding of various small and large molecules and their functions will help to establish an efficient protocol for β-cell differentiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects*
  11. Abdullah M, Rahman FA, Gnanasegaran N, Govindasamy V, Abu Kasim NH, Musa S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:235941.
    PMID: 24616615 DOI: 10.1155/2014/235941
    Lead (Pb(2+)) exposure continues to be a significant public health problem. Therefore, it is vital to have a continuous epidemiological dataset for a better understanding of Pb(2+) toxicity. In the present study, we have exposed stem cells isolated from deciduous and permanent teeth, periodontal ligament, and bone marrow to five different types of Pb(2+) concentrations (160, 80, 40, 20, and 10 µM) for 24 hours to identify the adverse effects of Pb(2+) on the proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression on these cell lines. We found that Pb(2+) treatment altered the morphology and adhesion of the cells in a dose-dependent manner. There were no significant changes in terms of cell surface phenotypes. Cells exposed to Pb(2+) continued to differentiate into chondrogenesis and adipogenesis, and a severe downregulation was observed in osteogenesis. Gene expression studies revealed a constant expression of key markers associated with stemness (Oct 4, Rex 1) and DNA repair enzyme markers, but downregulation occurred with some ectoderm and endoderm markers, demonstrating an irregular and untimely differentiation trail. Our study revealed for the first time that Pb(2+) exposure not only affects the phenotypic characteristics but also induces significant alteration in the differentiation and gene expression in the cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects*
  12. Hadzir SN, Ibrahim SN, Abdul Wahab RM, Zainol Abidin IZ, Senafi S, Ariffin ZZ, et al.
    Cytotherapy, 2014 May;16(5):674-82.
    PMID: 24176546 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2013.07.013
    Suspension mononuclear cells (MNCs) can be differentiated into osteoblasts with the induction of ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of suspension MNCs to differentiate into osteoblasts using ascorbic acid only.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects*
  13. Mat MC, Mohamed AS, Hamid SS
    Lipids Health Dis, 2011;10:216.
    PMID: 22104447 DOI: 10.1186/1476-511X-10-216
    Oxidized low density lipoprotein plays an important role in development of foam cells in atherosclerosis. The study was focused on regulation of primary human monocyte growth and CD11b expression in presence of Nigella sativa oil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects*
  14. Fatimah SS, Tan GC, Chua K, Tan AE, Nur Azurah AG, Hayati AR
    Burns, 2013 Aug;39(5):905-15.
    PMID: 23273814 DOI: 10.1016/j.burns.2012.10.019
    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of KGF on the differentiation of cultured human amnion epithelial cells (HAECs) towards skin keratinocyte. HAECs at passage 1 were cultured in medium HAM's F12: Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (1:1) supplemented with different concentrations of KGF (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 ng/ml KGF). Dose-response of KGF on HAECs was determined by morphological assessment; growth kinetic evaluation; immunocytochemical analysis; stemness and epithelial gene expression quantification with two step real time RT-PCR. KGF promotes the proliferation of HAECs with maximal effect observed at 10 ng/ml KGF. However, KGF decreased the stemness genes expression: Oct-3/4, Sox-2, Nanog3, Rex-1, FGF-4, FZD-9 and BST-1. KGF also down-regulates epithelial genes expression: CK3, CK18, CK19, Integrin-β1, p63 and involucrin in cultured HAECs. No significant difference on the gene expression was detected for each Nestin, ABCG-2, CK1 and CK14 in KGF-treated HAECs. Immunocytochemical analysis for both control and KGF-treated HAECs demonstrated positive staining against CK14 and CK18 but negative staining against involucrin. The results suggested that KGF stimulates an early differentiation of HAECs towards epidermal cells. Differentiation of KGF-treated HAECs to corneal lineage is unfavourable. Therefore, further studies are needed to elucidate the roles of KGF in the differentiation of HAECs towards skin keratinocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects*
  15. Nouri F, Salehinejad P, Nematollahi-Mahani SN, Kamarul T, Zarrindast MR, Sharifi AM
    Cell Mol Neurobiol, 2016 Jul;36(5):689-700.
    PMID: 26242172 DOI: 10.1007/s10571-015-0249-8
    Transplantation of neural-like cells is considered as a promising therapeutic strategy developed for neurodegenerative disease in particular for ischemic stroke. Since cell survival is a major concern following cell implantation, a number of studies have underlined the protective effects of preconditioning with hypoxia or hypoxia mimetic pharmacological agents such as deferoxamine (DFO), induced by activation of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and its target genes. The present study has investigated the effects of DFO preconditioning on some factors involved in cell survival, angiogenesis, and neurogenesis of neural-like cells derived from human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (HWJ-MSCs) in presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). HWJ-MSCs were differentiated toward neural-like cells for 14 days and neural cell markers were identified using immunocytochemistry. HWJ-MSC-derived neural-like cells were then treated with 100 µM DFO, as a known hypoxia mimetic agent for 48 h. mRNA and protein expression of HIF-1 target genes including brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) significantly increased using RT-PCR and Western blotting which were reversed by HIF-1α inhibitor, while, gene expression of Akt-1, Bcl-2, and Bax did not change significantly but pAkt-1 was up-regulated as compared to poor DFO group. However, addition of H2O2 to DFO-treated cells resulted in higher resistance to H2O2-induced cell death. Western blotting analysis also showed significant up-regulation of HIF-1α, BDNF, VEGF, and pAkt-1, and decrease of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as compared to poor DFO. These results may suggest that DFO preconditioning of HWJ-MSC-derived neural-like cells improves their tolerance and therapeutic potential and might be considered as a valuable strategy to improve cell therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects*
  16. Abd Ghafar N, Ker-Woon C, Hui CK, Mohd Yusof YA, Wan Ngah WZ
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2016 Jul 29;16:259.
    PMID: 27473120 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-1248-0
    BACKGROUND: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of Acacia honey (AH) on the migration, differentiation and healing properties of the cultured rabbit corneal fibroblasts.

    METHODS: Stromal derived corneal fibroblasts from New Zealand White rabbit (n = 6) were isolated and cultured until passage 1. In vitro corneal ulcer was created using a 4 mm corneal trephine onto confluent cultures and treated with basal medium (FD), medium containing serum (FDS), with and without 0.025 % AH. Wound areas were recorded at day 0, 3 and 6 post wound creation. Genes and proteins associated with wound healing and differentiation such as aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen type I, lumican and matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) were evaluated using qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry respectively.

    RESULTS: Cells cultured with AH-enriched FDS media achieved complete wound closure at day 6 post wound creation. The cells cultured in AH-enriched FDS media increased the expression of vimentin, collagen type I and lumican genes and decreased the ALDH, α-SMA and MMP12 gene expressions. Protein expression of ALDH, vimentin and α-SMA were in accordance with the gene expression analyses.

    CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated AH accelerate corneal fibroblasts migration and differentiation of the in vitro corneal ulcer model while increasing the genes and proteins associated with stromal wound healing.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects
  17. Sebastian AA, Kannan TP, Norazmi MN, Nurul AA
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2018 08;12(8):1856-1866.
    PMID: 29774992 DOI: 10.1002/term.2706
    Stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) represent a promising cell source for bone tissue regeneration. This study evaluated the effects of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) on the osteogenic differentiation of SHED. SHED were cultured in complete alpha minimum essential medium supplemented with osteoinducing reagents and treated with recombinant IL-17A. The cells were quantitatively analysed for proliferative activity by MTS assay, cell markers expression, and apoptotic activity by flow cytometry. For osteogenic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was quantified; mineralization assays were carried out using von Kossa and Alizarin red, and expression of osteogenic markers were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The results showed that treatment with IL-17A increased proliferative activity in a dose-dependent manner, but reduced the expression of stem cell markers (c-Myc and Nanog) as the days progressed. IL-17A induced osteogenic differentiation in SHED as evidenced by high ALP activity, increased matrix mineralization, and upregulation of the mRNA expression of the osteogenic markers ALP, alpha 1 type 1 collagen (Col1A1), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) but downregulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) as well as altering the OPG/RANKL ratio. Findings from our study indicate that IL-17A enhances proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of SHED by regulating OPG/RANKL mechanism thus suggests therapeutic potential of IL-17A in bone regeneration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects*
  18. Chin KY, Pang KL, Mark-Lee WF
    Int J Med Sci, 2018;15(10):1043-1050.
    PMID: 30013446 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.25634
    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor which can bind to the oestrogen receptor. It also possesses oestrogenic, antiandrogenic, inflammatory and oxidative properties. Since bone responds to changes in sex hormones, inflammatory and oxidative status, BPA exposure could influence bone health in humans. This review aimed to summarize the current evidence on the relationship between BPA and bone health derived from cellular, animal and human studies. Exposure to BPA (0.5-12.5 µM) decreased the proliferation of osteoblast and osteoclast precursor cells and induce their apoptosis. Bisphenol AF (10 nM) enhanced transforming growth factor beta signalling but bisphenol S (10 nM) inhibited Wnt signalling involved in osteoblast differentiation in vitro. In animals, BPA and its derivatives demonstrated distinct effects in different models. In prenatal/postnatal exposure, BPA increased femoral bone mineral content in male rats (at 25 ug/kg/day) but decreased femoral mechanical strength in female mice (at 10 µg/kg/day). In oestrogen deficiency models, BPA improved bone mineral density and microstructures in aromatase knockout mice (at very high dose, 0.1% or 1.0% w/w diet) but decreased trabecular density in ovariectomized rats (at 37 or 370 ug/kg/day). In contrast, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (30 mg/kg/day i.p.) improved bone health in normal male and female rodents and decreased trabecular separation in ovariectomized rodents. Two cross-sectional studies have been performed to examine the relationship between BPA level and bone mineral density in humans but they yielded negligible association. As a conclusion, BPA and its derivatives could influence bone health and a possible gender effect was observed in animal studies. However, its effects in humans await verification from more comprehensive longitudinal studies in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects*
  19. Thent ZC, Froemming GRA, Ismail ABM, Fuad SBSA, Muid S
    Life Sci, 2018 Oct 01;210:214-223.
    PMID: 30145154 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2018.08.057
    AIMS: Phytoestrogens and xenoestrogens act as agonists/antagonists in bone formation and differentiation. Strong bones are depending of the ability of osteoblasts to form new tissue and to mineralize the newly formed tissue. Dysfunctional or loss of mineralization leads to weak bone and increased fracture risk. In this study, we reported the effect of different types of phytoestrogens (daidzein, genistein and equol) on mineralization in hFOB 1.19 cells stimulated with bisphenol A (BPA).

    MAIN METHODS: Cell mineralization capacity of phytoestrogens was investigated by evaluating calcium, phosphate content and alkaline phosphatase activity. Bone related markers, osteocalcin and osteonectin, responsible in maintaining mineralization were also measured.

    KEY FINDINGS: BPA is significantly interfering with bone mineralization in hFOB 1.19 cells. However, the enhanced mineralization efficacy of daidzein and genistein (particularly at a dose of 5 and 40 μg/mL, respectively) was evidenced by increasing calcium and phosphate content, higher ALP activity, compared to the untreated BPA group. The quantitative analyses were confirmed through morphological findings. Osteocalcin and osteonectin levels were increased in phytoestrogens-treated cells. These findings revealed the potential effect of phytoestrogens in reverting the demineralization process due to BPA exposure in hFOB 1.19 cells.

    SIGNIFICANCE: We found that osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were maintained following treatment with phytoestrogens under BPA exposure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects*
  20. Leong YY, Ng WH, Umar Fuaad MZ, Ng CT, Ramasamy R, Lim V, et al.
    J. Cell. Biochem., 2019 06;120(6):9104-9116.
    PMID: 30548289 DOI: 10.1002/jcb.28186
    Stem cell therapy offers hope to reconstitute injured myocardium and salvage heart from failing. A recent approach using combinations of derived Cardiac-derived c-kit expressing cells (CCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in transplantation improved infarcted hearts with a greater functional outcome, but the effects of MSCs on CCs remain to be elucidated. We used a novel two-step protocol to clonogenically amplify colony forming c-kit expressing cells from 4- to 6-week-old C57BL/6N mice. This method yielded highly proliferative and clonogenic CCs with an average population doubling time of 17.2 ± 0.2, of which 80% were at the G1 phase. We identified two distinctly different CC populations based on its Sox2 expression, which was found to inversely related to their nkx2.5 and gata4 expression. To study CCs after MSC coculture, we developed micron-sized particles of iron oxide-based magnetic reisolation method to separate CCs from MSCs for subsequent analysis. Through validation using the sex and species mismatch CC-MSC coculture method, we confirmed that the purity of the reisolated cells was greater than 85%. In coculture experiment, we found that MSCs prominently enhanced Ctni and Mef2c expressions in Sox2 pos CCs after the induction of cardiac differentiation, and the level was higher than that of conditioned medium Sox2 pos CCs. However, these effects were not found in Sox2 neg CCs. Immunofluorescence labeling confirmed the presence of cardiac-like cells within Sox2 pos CCs after differentiation, identified by its cardiac troponin I and α-sarcomeric actinin expressions. In conclusion, this study shows that MSCs enhance CC differentiation toward cardiac myocytes. This enhancement is dependent on CC stemness state, which is determined by Sox2 expression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation/drug effects*
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