Infectious diseases remain a significant threat to human health, contributing to more than 17 million deaths, annually. With the worsening trends of drug resistance, there is a need for newer and more powerful antimicrobial agents. We hypothesized that animals living in polluted environments are potential sources of antimicrobials. Under polluted milieus, organisms such as cockroaches encounter different types of microbes, including superbugs. Such creatures survive the onslaught of superbugs and are able to ward off disease by producing antimicrobial substances. Here, we characterized antibacterial properties in extracts of various body organs of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) and showed potent antibacterial activity in crude brain extract against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1. The size-exclusion spin columns revealed that the active compound(s) are less than 10 kDa in molecular mass. Using cytotoxicity assays, it was observed that pre-treatment of bacteria with lysates inhibited bacteria-mediated host cell cytotoxicity. Using spectra obtained with LC-MS on Agilent 1290 infinity liquid chromatograph, coupled with an Agilent 6460 triple quadruple mass spectrometer, tissues lysates were analysed. Among hundreds of compounds, only a few homologous compounds were identified that contained the isoquinoline group, chromene derivatives, thiazine groups, imidazoles, pyrrole-containing analogs, sulfonamides, furanones, and flavanones and known to possess broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties and anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, and analgesic properties. Further identification, characterization, and functional studies using individual compounds can act as a breakthrough in developing novel therapeutics against various pathogens including superbugs.
Mangrove derived microorganisms constitute a rich bioresource for bioprospecting of bioactive natural products. This study explored the antioxidant potentials of Streptomyces bacteria derived from mangrove soil. Based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis, strain MUM292 was identified as the genus Streptomyces. Strain MUM292 showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.54% with S. griseoruber NBRC12873T. Furthermore, strain MUM292 was also characterized and showed phenotypic characteristics consistent with Streptomyces bacteria. Fermentation and extraction were performed to obtain the MUM292 extract containing the secondary metabolites of strain MUM292. The extract displayed promising antioxidant activities, including DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide radical scavenging and also metal-chelating activities. The process of lipid peroxidation in lipid-rich product was also retarded by MUM292 extract and resulted in reduced MDA production. The potential bioactive constituents of MUM292 extract were investigated using GC-MS and preliminary detection showed the presence of pyrazine, pyrrole, cyclic dipeptides, and phenolic compound in MUM292 extract. This work demonstrates that Streptomyces MUM292 can be a potential antioxidant resource for food and pharmaceutical industries.
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), a class of renewable and biodegradable green polymers, have gained attraction as a potential substitute for the conventional plastics due to the increasing concern towards environmental pollution as well as the rapidly depleting petroleum reserve. Nevertheless, the high cost of downstream processing of PHA has been a bottleneck for the wide adoption of PHAs. Among the options of PHAs recovery techniques, aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) outshines the others by having the advantages of providing a mild environment for bioseparation, being green and non-toxic, the capability to handle a large operating volume and easily scaled-up. Utilizing unique properties of thermo-responsive polymer which has decreasing solubility in its aqueous solution as the temperature rises, cloud point extraction (CPE) is an ATPE technique that allows its phase-forming component to be recycled and reused. A thorough literature review has shown that this is the first time isolation and recovery of PHAs from Cupriavidus necator H16 via CPE was reported. The optimum condition for PHAs extraction (recovery yield of 94.8% and purification factor of 1.42 fold) was achieved under the conditions of 20 wt/wt % ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) with molecular weight of 3900 g/mol and 10 mM of sodium chloride addition at thermoseparating temperature of 60°C with crude feedstock limit of 37.5 wt/wt %. Recycling and reutilization of EOPO 3900 can be done at least twice with satisfying yield and PF. CPE has been demonstrated as an effective technique for the extraction of PHAs from microbial crude culture.
The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains has prompted the reintroduction of maggot therapy in the treatment of chronic, infected wounds. Many previous studies have demonstrated the potent antibacterial activity of larval excretions/secretions of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera:Calliphoridae) against bacteria. However, the antibacterial activity of its sibling species, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) (Diptera:Calliphoridae) against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria has never been determined. The aim of this study was to develop a new procedure to produce whole body extract of larvae of L. cuprina via methanol extraction as well as to demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial activity of this extract against seven selected wound pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli). The turbidimetric assay demonstrated that L. cuprina larval extract was significantly potent against all bacteria tested (P
Dye-ligand affinity chromatography in a stirred fluidized bed has been developed for the rapid recovery of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) from highly turbid baker's yeast cell homogenate in a single step. The most suitable dye, namely Reactive Orange 4, in its optimal immobilized concentration of 8.78 mg/mL was immobilized onto high-density STREAMLINE matrix. To further examine optimal adsorption and elution conditions, the enzyme recovery operation was carried out using unclarified cell homogenates in stirred fluidized bed system. Aiming to develop a non-specific eluent, namely NaCl, to effectively elute the MDH adsorbed, direct recovery of MDH from highly turbid cell homogenate (50% w/v) in a stirred fluidized bed adsorption system was performed. The proposed system successfully achieved a recovery yield of 73.6% and a purification factor of 73.5 in a single step by using 0.6 M NaCl as an eluent at a high liquid velocity of 200 cm/h.
This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant capacities of extracts from Pleurotus pulmonarius via Folin-Ciocalteu, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging, metal chelating, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Extract compositions were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid; Coomassie Plus (Bradford) protein; Spectroquant zinc, copper, and manganese test assays; and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Methanol-dichloromethane extract, water fraction, hot water, aqueous extract and hexane fraction exhibited the most potent extracts in the antioxidant activities. LC/MS/MS and GC/MS showed that the extracts contained ergothioneine, ergosterol, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds. The selected potent extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effect against oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins and protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxic injury in human aortic endothelial cells. The crude aqueous extract was deemed most potent for the prevention of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation and endothelial membrane damage. Ergothioneine might be the compound responsible for the activities, as supported by previous reports. Thus, P. pulmonarius may be a valuable antioxidant ingredient in functional foods or nutraceuticals.
BACKGROUND AIMS. Dental pulp stromal cells (DPSC) are considered to be a promising source of stem cells in the field of regenerative therapy. However, the usage of DPSC in transplantation requires large-scale expansion to cater for the need for clinical quantity without compromising current good manufacturing practice (cGMP). Existing protocols for cell culturing make use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a nutritional supplement. Unfortunately, FBS is an undesirable additive to cells because it carries the risk of transmitting viral and prion diseases. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the efficacy of human platelet lysate (HPL) as a substitute for FBS in a large-scale set-up. METHODS. We expanded the DPSC in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium-knock-out (DMEM-KO) with either 10% FBS or 10% HPL, and studied the characteristics of DPSC at pre- (T25 culture flask) and post- (5-STACK chamber) large-scale expansion in terms of their identity, quality, functionality, molecular signatures and cytogenetic stability. RESULTS. In both pre- and post-large-scale expansion, DPSC expanded in HPL showed extensive proliferation of cells (c. 2-fold) compared with FBS; the purity, immune phenotype, colony-forming unit potential and differentiation were comparable. Furthermore, to understand the gene expression profiling, the transcriptomes and cytogenetics of DPSC expanded under HPL and FBS were compared, revealing similar expression profiles. CONCLUSIONS. We present a highly economized expansion of DPSC in HPL, yielding double the amount of cells while retaining their basic characteristics during a shorter time period under cGMP conditions, making it suitable for therapeutic applications.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that affects a lot of people worldwide. Current treatment for OA mainly focuses on halting or slowing down the disease progress and to improve the patient's quality of life and functionality. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a new treatment modality with the potential to promote regeneration of worn cartilage. Traditionally, foetal bovine serum (FBS) is used to expand the chondrocytes. However, the use of FBS is not ideal for the expansion of cells mean for clinical applications as it possesses the risk of animal pathogen transmission and animal protein transfer to host. Human platelet lysate (HPL) appears to be a suitable alternative to FBS as it is rich in biological factors that enhance cell proliferation. Thus far, HPL has been found to be superior in promoting chondrocyte proliferation compared to FBS. However, both HPL and FBS cannot prevent chondrocyte dedifferentiation. Discrepant results have been reported for the maintenance of chondrocyte redifferentiation potential by HPL. These differences are likely due to the diversity in the HPL preparation methods. In the future, more studies on HPL need to be performed to develop a standardized technique which is capable of producing HPL that can maintain the chondrocyte redifferentiation potential reproducibly. This review discusses the in vitro expansion of chondrocytes with FBS and HPL, focusing on its capability to promote the proliferation and maintain the chondrogenic characteristics of chondrocytes.