The Leukocytes are differentiated from each other on the basis of their nuclei, demanded in many Medical studies, especially in all types of Leukemia by the Hematologists to note the disorder caused by specific type of Leukocyte. Leukemia is a life threatening disease. The work for diagnosing is manually carried out by the Hematologists involving much labor, time and human errors. The problems mentioned are easily addressed through computer vision techniques, but still accuracy and efficiency are demanded in terms of the basic and challenging step segmentation of Leukocyte's nuclei. The underlying study proposed better method in terms of accuracy and efficiency by designing a dynamic convolution filter for boosting low intensity values in the separated green channel of an RGB image and suppressing the high values in the same channel. The high values in the green channel become 255 (background) while the nuclei always have low values in the green channel and thus clearly appear as foreground. The proposed technique is tested on 365 images achieving an overall accuracy of 95.89%, while improving the efficiency by 10%. The proposed technique achieved its targets in a realistic way by improving the accuracy as well as the efficiency and both are highly required in the area.
Plexiform granular cell odontogenic tumor of the mandible has recently been described. The cardinal histopathologic feature, as its name suggests, is a monophasic plexiform pattern of granular cells; the principal tumor in the differential diagnosis is granular cell ameloblastoma. Unlike the two previously reported cases of plexiform granular cell odontogenic tumor, which occurred as solid tumors in elderly men, the lesion reported here is a unicystic variant occurring in a middle-aged woman.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can provide high resolution imaging of biological specimens. The study is to establish the effects of a modified glutaraldehyde (GA) compare to the standard GA fixation on Acanthamoeba castellanii from TEM perspectives and thus provide precise and accurate information on the ultrastructure studies of the parasite. By increasing the contrast, the ultrastructures of the parasite were more evident. The TEM images were obtained from parasites fixed with the modified GA and the standard GA and then the area of the nucleus and the gray values of the image of the nucleus of the parasites were measured. The mean areas of the nucleus were found to be significantly reduced in the standard GA fixed parasites (12210.4 nm2) compared to the modified GA fixed parasites (8676.3 nm2) (p < 0.05). The mean gray values of the image were significantly reduced from 2024 in the standard GA fixed parasites (2024) to the modified GA fixed parasites (1636) (p < 0.05). The study shows that the modified GA produced significantly better contrast on TEM images of the A. castellanii compared to the standard GA. This was because the modified GA generated more free water molecules during fixation and the uptake of modified GA by the nucleus of the parasite organizing all protein constituents in the cell into a more closely packed configuration than that of the standard GA. With such properties, the modified GA is a better fixative providing better images for ultrastructures of the parasite.
Segmentation of objects from a noisy and complex image is still a challenging task that needs to be addressed. This article proposed a new method to detect and segment nuclei to determine whether they are malignant or not (determination of the region of interest, noise removal, enhance the image, candidate detection is employed on the centroid transform to evaluate the centroid of each object, the level set [LS] is applied to segment the nuclei). The proposed method consists of three main stages: preprocessing, seed detection, and segmentation. Preprocessing stage involves the preparation of the image conditions to ensure that they meet the segmentation requirements. Seed detection detects the seed point to be used in the segmentation stage, which refers to the process of segmenting the nuclei using the LS method. In this research work, 58 H&E breast cancer images from the UCSB Bio-Segmentation Benchmark dataset are evaluated. The proposed method reveals the high performance and accuracy in comparison to the techniques reported in literature. The experimental results are also harmonized with the ground truth images.
A case of denture hyperplasia of the upper labial sulcus with concomitant oncocytic metaplastic changes is described. The patient concerned is an elderly male wearing an ill-fitting upper full denture.
This report details a case of mandibular peripheral ameloblastoma having a clear cell component. The latter consisted of ovoid cells with vacuolated or clear cytoplasm and vesicular or pyknotic nuclei that may be disposed as discrete clusters or show direct transition from typical acanthomatous areas. Comparison of this lesion with other odontogenic and nonodontogenic tumors that contain clear cells is discussed in the context of the differential diagnosis.
Tetrahymena of the T. pyriformis complex collected from varied habitats in Malaysia, Thailand, and The People's Republic of China include strains of the micronucleate species T. americanis and T. canadensis and the amicronucleate T. pyriformis and T. elliotti. Two new breeding species are described-T. malaccensis from Malaysia and T. asiatica from China and Thailand. Two wild selfers from China and some of the amicronucleate strains from all three countries fall into isozymic groups similar to named micronucleate and amicronucleate species. The T. patula complex is represented by two groups of clones from Malaysia that fit the morphological description of T. vorax. They, however, have radically different isozymic electrophoretic patterns and both groups differ from those of previously described T. vorax. As their molecules indicate relationships to other "T. vorax" strains as distant as that between T. vorax and T. leucophrys, they are considered to be new species, T. caudata and T. silvana. A third new breeding species, T. nanneyi, was identified among strains previously collected in North America. Viable immature progeny were obtained from the new strains of the five breeding species. Maximum temperature tolerances were determined for the new strains of four of the breeding species.
The ultrastructure of the pinealocytes of the Malaysian rat (Rattus sabanus), a mammal inhabiting a zone near the equator where the annual variations of daylength are inconspicuous, was examined and compared with that of pinealocytes of other mammals. On the basis of the presence of granular vesicles, only one population of pinealocytes was found. A large number of granular vesicles and vesicle-crowned rodlets is characteristic of the pinealocytes of this equatorial species. Vesicle-crowned rodlets are especially numerous in the endings of the pinealocyte processes and; they most often found in direct topographical connection with the perivascular spaces. The physiological significance of the presence of such large amounts of vesicle-crowned rodlets and of the secretory process characterized by the formation of granular vesicles is discussed.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks as the fifth most common cancer with an increasing frequency worldwide. "Nuclear atypia", one of the critical features in histological diagnosis of malignancy and grading of the tumour, is generally ascertained through eyeballing. A study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya Medical Centre to assess whether nuclear area, (surrogate measure for nuclear size) and standard deviation (surrogate measure for nuclear pleomorphism) when objectively measured via computer-linked image analysis differs between (1) benign and malignant liver cells and (2) different grades of HCC. A 4-microm thick H&E stained section of 52 histologically re-confirmed HCC with 36 having benign, non-dysplastic surrounding liver were analysed using the Leica Q550 CW system. 10 consecutive non-overlapping, non-mitotic and non-apoptotic nuclei of HCC and surrounding benign hepatocytes respectively were manually traced at 400x magnification on the computer monitor and the nuclear area for the particular cell computed in arbitrary units by the Leica QWIN software. A total of 360 benign hepatocytic nuclei, 240 low grade HCC and 280 high grade HCC nuclei were traced. The mean nuclear area of the benign hepatocytes (37.3) was significantly smaller (p < 0.05) than that of both low grade (65.2) and high grade HCC (80.0). In addition, the mean nuclear area of high grade HCC was significantly larger (p < 0.05) than the low grade HCC. SD of the nuclear areas was lowest in benign hepatocytes (9.3), intermediate in low grade HCC (25.0) and highest in high grade HCC (25.6). These findings indicate that computer-linked nuclear measurement may be a useful adjunct in differentiating benign from malignant hepatocytes, in particular in small biopsies of well-differentiated tumours, and in predicting survival after surgical resection and transplant.
Thiourea derivatives display a broad spectrum of applications in chemistry, various industries, medicines and various other fields. Recently, different thiourea derivatives have been synthesized and explored for their anti-microbial properties. In this study, four carbonyl thiourea derivatives were synthesized and characterized, and then further tested for their anti-amoebic properties on two potential pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba, namely A. castellanii (CCAP 1501/2A) and A. polyphaga (CCAP 1501/3A). The results indicate that these newly-synthesized thiourea derivatives are active against both Acanthamoeba species. The IC50 values obtained were in the range of 2.39-8.77 µg·mL⁻¹ (9.47-30.46 µM) for A. castellanii and 3.74-9.30 µg·mL⁻¹ (14.84-31.91 µM) for A. polyphaga. Observations on the amoeba morphology indicated that the compounds caused the reduction of the amoeba size, shortening of their acanthopodia structures, and gave no distinct vacuolar and nuclear structures in the amoeba cells. Meanwhile, fluorescence microscopic observation using acridine orange and propidium iodide (AOPI) staining revealed that the synthesized compounds induced compromised-membrane in the amoeba cells. The results of this study proved that these new carbonyl thiourea derivatives, especially compounds M1 and M2 provide potent cytotoxic properties toward pathogenic Acanthamoeba to suggest that they can be developed as new anti-amoebic agents for the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis.
Tocotrienols are isomers of the vitamin E family, which have been reported to exert cytotoxic effects in various cancer cells. Although there have been some reports on the effects of tocotrienols in leukemic cells, ultrastructural evidence of tocotrienol-induced apoptotic cell death in leukemic cells is lacking. The present study investigated the effects of three isomers of tocotrienols (alpha, delta, and gamma) on a human T lymphoblastic leukemic cell line (CEM-SS). Cell viability assays showed that all three isomers had cytotoxic effects (p < 0.05) on CEM-SS cells with delta-tocotrienol being the most potent. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the cytotoxic effects by delta- and gamma-tocotrienols were through the induction of an apoptotic pathway as demonstrated by the classical ultrastructural apoptotic changes characterized by peripheral nuclear chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. These findings were confirmed biochemically by the demonstration of phosphatidylserine externalization via flow cytometry analysis. This is the first study showing classical ultrastructural apoptotic changes induced by delta- and gamma-tocotrienols in human T lymphoblastic leukemic cells.
A 30-year-old, nulliparous woman presented with a history of subfertility. On examination she was found to have uterine fibroid of 28 weeks size of gravid uterus and subsequently laporatomy myomectomy was performed. Multilobulated masses, with diameters ranging from 22 mm to 160 mm were found. Cut sections of the lobulated masses showed whitish whorled cut surface. One of the multilobulated masses had a cystic cavity, measuring 60x50x35 mm(3). Light microscopic findings of the mass with the cystic cavity showed a well-circumscribed cellular tumour composed of cells exhibiting moderate nuclear atypia which were enlarged, nuclei with prominent chromatin clumping and were distributed in areas. Some tumour cells showed large nuclear pseudoinclusions, multinucleated or multilobated tumour giant cells, smudging and few enlarged nucleoli. Mitotic activity was 4 MFs per 10 HPFs. Occasional cells with intracytoplasmic inclusions resembling rhabdoid - like features were seen. There were no atypical mitoses or tumour necroses were noted. Diagnosis of atypical leiomyoma or symplastic leiomyoma was made. Atypical or symplastic leiomyomas are rare in the region of Malaysia and the present case discusses its incidence in younger age, its morphological features along with diagnosis and clinical outcome.
The lining epithelium of 15 cases of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) was evaluated immunohistochemically. The peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique was applied to study the distribution of polyclonal keratin and S-100 protein while the indirect method was used to examine monoclonal vimentin and desmin reactivity. Consistent positive keratin staining was revealed in the lining epithelium of all 15 OKCs with additional intense staining in the stratum corneum. None of the cases showed vimentin or desmin reactivity within the lining epithelium elements. One of the 15 cysts studied showed positive S-100 protein staining in the nuclei of the lining epithelial cells. The pertinent literature on the immunophenotyping of the lining epithelium of OKC is reviewed.
Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellate protozoan parasite commonly found in the human genitourinary tract, is transmitted primarily by sexual intercourse. Diagnosis is usually by in vitro culture method and staining with Giemsa stain. There are laboratories that use Gram stain as well. We compared the use of modified Field's (MF), Giemsa, and Gram stains on 2 axenic and xenic isolates of T. vaginalis, respectively. Three smears from every sediment of spun cultures of all 4 isolates were stained, respectively, with each of the stains. We showed that MF staining, apart from being a rapid stain (20 s), confers sharper staining contrast, which differentiates the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the organism when compared to Giemsa and Gram staining especially on parasites from spiked urine samples. The alternative staining procedure offers in a diagnostic setting a rapid stain that can easily visualize the parasite with sharp contrasting characteristics between organelles especially the nucleus and cytoplasm. Vacuoles are more clearly visible in parasites stained with MF than when stained with Giemsa.
Twelve pleomorphic adenomas of minor salivary gland origin were examined for the distribution of S-100 protein, detected using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method. Strong S-100 protein immunoreactivity was noted in areas containing plasmacytoid cells, stellate and spindle cells against a myxochondroid or hyalinous stroma, and solid epithelial areas. Tubular and duct-like structures showed variable stainability. Stromal tissue and normal salivary glands were generally negative for S-100 protein. These findings were compared with those reported elsewhere.
The prevalence and cellular distribution of human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) in archival labial salivary glands was analysed for virus-specific DNA sequences by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization signals. In addition, the cellular expression of HHV-7-encoded protein was detected by immunohistochemical staining with a virus-specific monoclonal antibody. Eleven of 20 samples were positive for the HHV-7 DNA sequence by PCR. Eighteen of 20 tissues analysed by in situ hybridization showed signals in ductal, serous and mucous cells. Some nuclei of these cells and also the myoepithelial population were positive. In immunolocalization studies, all 20 salivary glands consistently showed HHV-7-expressed protein in the cytoplasm of ductal cuboidal and columnar cells. The protein was also found in the cytoplasm of mucous and serous acinar cells that were immunopositive for HHV-7. The observations are consistent with the suggestion that the labial salivary gland is a site for virus replication, potential persistence and a source of infective HHV-7 in saliva.
In mammals, the Notch gene family encodes four receptors (Notch1-4), and all of them are important for cell fate decisions. Notch signaling pathway plays an essential role in tooth development. The ameloblastoma, a benign odontogenic epithelial neoplasm, histologically recapitulates the enamel organ at bell stage. Notch has been detected in the plexiform and follicular ameloblastoma. Its activity in the desmoplastic ameloblastoma is unknown.
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via the mechanism of transcription repression is a crucial process for the induction of invasiveness in many human tumors. Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic epithelial neoplasm with a locally infiltrative behavior. Twist, an EMT promoter, has been implicated in its invasiveness. The roles of the other transcription factors remain unclarified.