Dielectrophoresis (DEP) bioparticle research has progressed from micro to nano levels. It has proven to be a promising and powerful cell manipulation method with an accurate, quick, inexpensive, and label-free technique for therapeutic purposes. DEP, an electrokinetic phenomenon, induces particle movement as a result of polarization effects in a nonuniform electrical field. This review focuses on current research in the biomedical field that demonstrates a practical approach to DEP in terms of cell separation, trapping, discrimination, and enrichment under the influence of the conductive medium in correlation with bioparticle viability. The current review aims to provide readers with an in-depth knowledge of the fundamental theory and principles of the DEP technique, which is influenced by conductive medium and to identify and demonstrate the biomedical application areas. The high conductivity of physiological fluids presents obstacles and opportunities, followed by bioparticle viability in an electric field elaborated in detail. Finally, the drawbacks of DEP-based systems and the outlook for the future are addressed. This article will aid in advancing technology by bridging the gap between bioscience and engineering. We hope the insights presented in this review will improve cell suspension medium and promote DEP-viable bioparticle manipulation for health-care diagnostics and therapeutics.
Functional analysis of neutrophils requires isolation of these cells in the laboratory. Current isolation procedures are time consuming and can potentially activate the resting neutrophils. Thus, in this present study, we have optimised an existing laboratory protocol for human neutrophil isolation from peripheral blood. Twenty ml of blood samples were subjected to optimised density gradient separation and dextran sedimentation to obtain a pure population of neutrophils. The efficacy of the optimised manual post isolation of neutrophils was compared with pre isolation count performed by an automated haematology analyzer. The recovery of neutrophils via our optimised methods was 65.5% in comparison with neutrophils counts at pre-isolation. The morphological analysis of isolated neutrophils indicated the purity level more than 95% using Leishman staining. Our optimised laboratory procedures for neutrophils isolation successfully harvested neutrophils with good viability, purity and post recovery yield. This procedure provides an ideal platform to separate neutrophils for in vitro studies.
During the last three decades; dielectrophoresis (DEP) has become a vital tool for cell manipulation and characterization due to its non-invasiveness. It is very useful in the trend towards point-of-care systems. Currently, most efforts are focused on using DEP in biomedical applications, such as the spatial manipulation of cells, the selective separation or enrichment of target cells, high-throughput molecular screening, biosensors and immunoassays. A significant amount of research on DEP has produced a wide range of microelectrode configurations. In this paper; we describe the microarray dot electrode, a promising electrode geometry to characterize and manipulate cells via DEP. The advantages offered by this type of microelectrode are also reviewed. The protocol for fabricating planar microelectrodes using photolithography is documented to demonstrate the fast and cost-effective fabrication process. Additionally; different state-of-the-art Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices that have been proposed for DEP applications in the literature are reviewed. We also present our recently designed LOC device, which uses an improved microarray dot electrode configuration to address the challenges facing other devices. This type of LOC system has the capability to boost the implementation of DEP technology in practical settings such as clinical cell sorting, infection diagnosis, and enrichment of particle populations for drug development.
The 'Dextran' and the 'Buffy-coat' methods for isolation of human leucocytes for DNA extraction were compared on the basis of DNA yield from the same amounts (10 ml) of blood. Human leucocytes from a total of 11 samples were isolated using both methods for each sample after which DNA was extracted. Extracted DNA samples were treated with ribonucleases and proteinase K after which the yields were quantitated by measuring absorbance at 260 nm. The 'Buffy-coat' method yielded a mean concentration of DNA of 476.7 micrograms/ml (range: 212 to 700 micrograms/ml) while the 'Dextran' method yielded 188.4 micrograms/ml (range: 64 to 340 micrograms/ml). The difference was confirmed by subjecting the extracted DNA samples to agarose gel electrophoresis.
Liver transplantation is the most common treatment for patients with end-stage liver failure. However, liver transplantation is greatly limited by a shortage of donors. Liver tissue engineering may offer an alternative by providing an implantable engineered liver. Currently, diverse types of engineering approaches for in vitro liver cell culture are available, including scaffold-based methods, microfluidic platforms, and micropatterning techniques. Active cell patterning via dielectrophoretic (DEP) force showed some advantages over other methods, including high speed, ease of handling, high precision and being label-free. This article summarizes liver function and regenerative mechanisms for better understanding in developing engineered liver. We then review recent advances in liver tissue engineering techniques and focus on DEP-based cell patterning, including microelectrode design and patterning configuration.
Bone marrow derived progenitor cells have been widely studied for its multipotent property and have proofed to be an important resource in regenerative medicine. However, the propagation of murine bone marrow appeared to be a great challenge as compared to other mammalian species. In this study, various isolation techniques and the plasticity of the isolated cells were evaluated. Our result shows that magnetic sorting technique yielded the most viable cells and displayed wider differentiation capacity.
A comparative study was conducted to evaluate three different permeabilization methods: FACS Permeabilizing Solution (FPerm), CytoFix/CytoPerm Kit (CFP) and Paraformaldehyde-Tween 20 (PFT) reagents, in cytoplasmic labeling of myeloperoxidase (MPO). Peripheral blood cells from 23 healthy subjects were fixed and permeabilized according to the proposed procedures, prior to direct immunofluorescence staining with CD14, CD45, IgG1, IgG2 and MPO monoclonal antibodies (McAb). Subsequent flow cytometric analysis was performed on FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson, BD). As far as the antigenic expression of MPO in normal samples is concerned, FPerm and CFP demonstrated better cytoplasmic staining by inducing minor effects on light-scattering properties of the cell populations, whereas PFT-treated samples showed a diminished ability to distinguish the cell types. However, the simple and rapid FPerm method required an earlier processing of samples since the stored whole blood samples (for more than 8 hours) tended to show a significant decrease of fluorescence intensity. We also have demonstrated that P/N ratio possesses added value in evaluation of cell reactivity in immunophenotyping, based upon the apparent nonspecific cytoplasmic staining of MPO in the lymphocyte population.
Biomedical research advances over the past two decades in bioseparation science and engineering have led to the development of new adsorbent systems called monoliths, mostly as stationary supports for liquid chromatography (LC) applications. They are acknowledged to offer better mass transfer hydrodynamics than their particulate counterparts. Also, their architectural and morphological traits can be tailored in situ to meet the hydrodynamic size of molecules which include proteins, pDNA, cells and viral targets. This has enabled their development for a plethora of enhanced bioscreening applications including biosensing, biomolecular purification, concentration and separation, achieved through the introduction of specific functional moieties or ligands (such as triethylamine, N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecylamine, antibodies, enzymes and aptamers) into the molecular architecture of monoliths. Notwithstanding, the application of monoliths presents major material and bioprocess challenges. The relationship between in-process polymerisation characteristics and the physicochemical properties of monolith is critical to optimise chromatographic performance. There is also a need to develop theoretical models for non-invasive analyses and predictions. This review article therefore discusses in-process analytical conditions, functionalisation chemistries and ligands relevant to establish the characteristics of monoliths in order to facilitate a wide range of enhanced bioscreening applications. It gives emphasis to the development of functional polymethacrylate monoliths for microfluidic and preparative scale bio-applications.
Most vertebrates possess at least two gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron types. To understand the physiological significance of the multiple GnRH systems in the brain, we examined three GnRH neuron type-specific transcriptomes using single-cell microarray analyses in the medaka (Oryzias latipes). A microarray profile of the three GnRH neuron types revealed five genes that are uniquely expressed in specific GnRH neuron types. GnRH1 neurons expressed three genes that are homologous to functionally characterised genes, GnRH2 neurons uniquely expressed one unnamed gene, and GnRH3 neurons uniquely expressed one known gene. These genes may be involved in the modulation or maintenance of each GnRH neuron type.
Cancer is a major health problem worldwide. The failure of current treatments to completely eradicate cancer cells often leads to cancer recurrence and dissemination. Studies have suggested that tumor growth and spread are driven by a minority of cancer cells that exhibit characteristics similar to those of normal stem cells, thus these cells are called cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are believed to play an important role in initiating and promoting cancer. CSCs are resistant to currently available cancer therapies, and understanding the mechanisms that control the growth of CSCs might have great implications for cancer therapy. Cancer cells are consist of heterogeneous population of cells, thus methods of identification, isolation, and characterisation of CSCs are fundamental to obtain a pure CSC populations. Therefore, this chapter describes in detail a method for isolating and characterizing a pure population of CSCs from heterogeneous population of cancer cells and CSCs based on specific cell surface markers.
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are tumor cells that have detached from primary tumor site and are transported via the circulation system. The importance of CTCs as prognostic biomarker is leveraged when multiple studies found that patient with cutoff of 5 CTCs per 7.5 mL blood has poor survival rate. Despite its clinical relevance, the isolation and characterization of CTCs can be quite challenging due to their large morphological variability and the rare presence of CTCs within the blood. Numerous methods have been employed and discussed in the literature for CTCs separation. In this paper, we will focus on label free CTCs isolation methods, in which the biophysical and biomechanical properties of cells (e.g., size, deformability, and electricity) are exploited for CTCs detection. To assess the present state of various isolation methods, key performance metrics such as capture efficiency, cell viability, and throughput will be reported. Finally, we discuss the challenges and future perspectives of CTC isolation technologies.
Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) exhibit heterogeneous characteristics, indicating various genotypes and differentiation abilities. The isolated hADSCs can possess different purity levels and divergent properties depending on the purification methods used. We developed a hybrid-membrane migration method that purifies hADSCs from a fat tissue solution with extremely high purity and pluripotency. A primary fat-tissue solution was permeated through the porous membranes with a pore size from 8 to 25 μm, and the membranes were incubated in cell culture medium for 15-18 days. The hADSCs that migrated from the membranes contained an extremely high percentage (e.g., >98%) of cells positive for mesenchymal stem cell markers and showed almost one order of magnitude higher expression of some pluripotency genes (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and Nanog) compared with cells isolated using the conventional culture method.
A study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of flow cytometric analysis of intracellular myeloperoxidase (MPO) in differentiating populations of lymphocytes (L), monocytes (M) and granulocytes (G), by means of lysed whole blood method. Anticoagulated blood from 23 normal individuals was lysed with FACS lysing solution and permeabilized with FACS permeabilizing solution before subjected to direct immunofluorescence staining. The geometric means of the fluorescence intensity were measured using FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson). Populations of L, M and G were gated based on their light scatter characteristics and expression of CD14 and CD45. Then, the fluorescence intensity of MPO expression was studied in these individual cell populations. The results showed that fluorescence intensity of MPO was the strongest in G and weakest in L, whereas M showed intermediate fluorescence intensity. Our findings reveal that discrimination of these three cell types is achievable based upon the sole expression of intracellular MPO.
In vitro cellular proliferation and the ability to undergo multilineage differentiation make bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) potentially useful for clinical applications. Several methods have been described to isolate a homogenous bone marrow-derived MSCs population; however, none has been proven most effective, mainly due to their effects on proliferation and differentiation capability of the isolated cells. It is hypothesized that our newly established total cell pooling method may provide a better alternative as compared to the standard isolation method (density gradient centrifugation method). For the total cell pooling method, MSCs were isolated from rabbit bone marrow and were subsequently cultured in the growth medium without further separation as in the standard isolation method. The total cell pooling method was 65 min faster than the standard isolation method in completing cell isolation. Nevertheless, both methods did not differ significantly in the number of primary viable cells and population doubling time in the cultures (p > 0.05). The isolated cells from both methods expressed CD29 and CD44 markers, but not CD45 markers. Furthermore, they displayed multilineage differentiation characteristics of chondroblasts, osteoblasts, and adipocytes. In conclusion, both methods provide similar efficiency in the isolation of rabbit bone marrow-derived MSCs; however, the total cell pooling method is technically simpler and more cost effective than the standard isolation method.
Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). Apart from playing vital roles as sentinel cells, they are crucial in physiological processes such as synaptic pruning during brain development. CNS disorders require an understanding of the contribution of each cellular compartment to the pathogenesis. Elucidating the role of microglia in disease development and progression in the intricate CNS environment is technically challenging and requires the establishment of reliable, reproducible techniques to isolate and culture microglia. A number of different protocols have been developed for isolation of neonatal microglia and here we compare two widely used methods, namely, mild trypsinization and EasySep® magnetic separation. EasySep® magnetic separation provided higher microglia yield, and flow cytometric evaluation of CD11b and F4/80 markers revealed that EasySep® separation method also produced significantly higher purity compared to mild trypsinization. Microglia isolated using EasySep® separation method were functional, as demonstrated by the generation of nitric oxide, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. In summary, this study has revealed that magnetic separation is superior to mild trypsinization in terms of yield and purity of microglia.
Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) are easily isolated from fat tissue without ethical concerns, but differ in purity, pluripotency, differentiation ability, and stem cell marker expression, depending on the isolation method. We isolated hADSCs from a primary fat tissue solution using: (1) conventional culture, (2) a membrane filtration method, (3) a membrane migration method where the primary cell solution was permeated through membranes, adhered hADSCs were cultured, and hADSCs migrated out from the membranes. Expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers and pluripotency genes, and osteogenic differentiation were compared for hADSCs isolated by different methods using nylon mesh filter membranes with pore sizes ranging from 11 to 80 μm. hADSCs isolated by the membrane migration method had the highest MSC surface marker expression and efficient differentiation into osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation ability of hADSCs and MSC surface marker expression were correlated, but osteogenic differentiation ability and pluripotent gene expression were not.
The purification of parasite-infected erythrocytes from whole blood containing leucocytes is crucial for many downstream genetic and molecular assays in parasitology. Current methodologies to achieve this are often costly and time consuming. Here, we demonstrate the successful application of a cheap and simple Non-Woven Fabric (NWF) filter for the purification of parasitized red blood cells from whole blood. NWF filtration was applied to the malaria-parasitized blood of three strains of mice, and one strain of rat, and to Babesia gibsoni parasitized dog blood. Before and after filtration, the white blood cell (WBC) removal rates and red blood cell (RBC) recovery rates were measured. After NWF filter treatment of rodent malaria-infected blood, the WBC removal rates and RBC recovery rates were, for Kunming mice: 99.51%±0.30% and 86.12%±8.37%; for BALB/C mice: 99.61%±0.15% and 80.74%±7.11%; for C57 mice: 99.71%±0.12% and 84.87%±3.83%; for Sprague-Dawley rats: 99.93%±0.03% and 83.30%±2.96%. Microscopy showed WBCs were efficiently removed from infected dog blood samples, and there was no obvious morphological change of B. gibsoni parasites. NWF filters efficiently remove leukocytes from malaria parasite-infected mouse and rat blood, and are also suitable for filtration of B. gibsoni-infected dog blood.
Mammalian adipose tissue derived stem cells (AT-SC) have a tremendous potential in regenerative medicine for tissue engineering and somatic nuclear transfer (SNT). The isolation methods of human and bovine adipose tissue derived stem cells are compared in this paper to determine the feasibility and optimum method of isolation. The optimum isolation method will reduce the processing time, efforts and money as isolation is the first crucial and important step in stem cells research. Human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and bovine abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue are digested in three collagenase type 1 concentration 0.075%, 0.3% and 0.6% agitated at 1 h and 2 h under 37 °C in 5% CO2 incubator. The cultures are then morphologically characterised. Human adipose tissue stem cells are found to be best isolated using abdominal subcutaneous depot, using 0.075% collagenase type 1 agitated at 1 h under 37 °C in CO2 incubator. While bovine adipose tissue derived stem cells are best isolated using abdominal subcutaneous depot, using 0.6% collagenase type 1 agitated at 2 h under 37 °C in CO2 incubator.
The colloidal suspension of nanometer-sized particles of Fe3O4 in traditional base fluids is referred to as Ferro-nanofluids. These fluids have many technological applications such as cell separation, drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging, heat dissipation, damping, and dynamic sealing. Due to the massive applications of Ferro-nanofluids, the main objective of this study is to consider the MHD flow of water-based Ferro-nanofluid in the presence of thermal radiation, heat generation, and nanoparticle shape effect. The Caputo-Fabrizio time-fractional Brinkman type fluid model is utilized to demonstrate the proposed flow phenomenon with oscillating and ramped heating boundary conditions. The Laplace transform method is used to solve the model for both ramped and isothermal heating for exact solutions. The ramped and isothermal solutions are simultaneously plotted in the various figures to study the influence of pertinent flow parameters. The results revealed that the fractional parameter has a great impact on both temperature and velocity fields. In the case of ramped heating, both temperature and velocity fields decreasing with increasing fractional parameter. However, in the isothermal case, this trend reverses near the plate and gradually, ramped, and isothermal heating became alike away from the plate for the fractional parameter. Finally, the solutions for temperature and velocity fields are reduced to classical form and validated with already published results.
Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) isolated from umbilical cord is widely used as endothelial cell model.
However, HUVEC has been characteristically hard to maintain and showed molecular heterogeneity depending on the
umbilical cord donors. Commercial HUVEC is commonly derived from European and Caucasian population which have
different molecular characteristics from Asian women. This study aimed to optimize the isolation and culture condition of
HUVEC using combinations of growth factors and extracellular matrix components so that the isolated HUVEC will purely
represent the population under study. Umbilical cords were obtained from women post-labour. Different incubation times
and digestive enzymes were used during endothelial cells isolation process. The culture conditions were optimized based
on the coating materials and the media supplements. The results showed that 0.1% collagenase for 40 min incubation
was the optimal isolation condition of HUVEC. HUVEC grown in 0.2% gelatin coated plate with 10% heat-inactivated
fetal calf serum showed higher proliferative capacity and reduced cell death compared to other conditions (p<0.05). The
results generated from this study provide a basic protocol of HUVEC isolation and culture conditions in order to generate
working endothelial cell populations purely represent the Malaysian population.