METHODS: Skeletal human muscle cells were cultured in four different conditions; control, EGF, laminin (Lam) and laminin EGF (Lam + EGF). Using live imaging system, their cellular properties; attachment, migration and growth were exposed to Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, and EGF-receptor (EGF-R) inhibitor, gefitinib were measured.
RESULTS: Myoblast migration and proliferation was enhanced significantly by synergistic stimulation of laminin and EGF (0.61 ± 0.14 µm/min, 0.008 ± 0.001 h-1) compare to that by EGF alone (0.26 ± 0.13 µm/min, 0.004 ± 0.0009 h-1). However, no changes in proliferation and migration were observed for fibroblasts among the culture conditions. Inhibition of Rho kinase resulted in the increase of the myoblast migration on the laminin-coated surface with EGF condition (0.64 ± 0.18 µm/min). Compared to the untreated conditions, myoblasts cultured on the laminin-coated surface and EGF demonstrated elongated morphology, and average cell length increase significantly. In contrast, inhibition of EGF-R resulted in the decrease of myoblast migration on the laminin coated surface with EGF supplemented condition (0.43 ± 0.05 µm/min) in comparison to the untreated control (0.53 ± 0.05 µm/min).
CONCLUSION: Laminin and EGF preferentially enhance the proliferation and migration of myoblasts, and Rho kinase and EGF-R play a role in this synergistic effect. These results will be beneficial for the propagation of skeletal muscle cells for clinical applications.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Honey and some of its components, which include the sugars, the proteins, the hydrogen peroxide produced, and the phenolics, were exposed to cultured fibroblasts. The MTT colorimetric assay was used to assess cell viability and proliferation.
RESULTS: The stimulatory effect of honey on fibroblast proliferation was observed to be time- and dose-dependent. The continuous production of hydrogen peroxide by the honey-glucose oxidase system also acts to stimulate cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The presence of phenolics with antioxidant properties, on the other hand, renders protection to the cells against the toxic effect of hydrogen peroxide. However, the presence of a growth factor-like substance in honey could not be ascertained.
CONCLUSION: For the first time, honey and its major components were shown to exert stimulatory effects on cultured fibroblasts. Honey is therefore potentially useful in medicinal practices.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Neural induction was carried out with a small molecule cocktail based two-step culture protocol, over a total duration of 14 days. At the 8 and 14 day timepoints, the cells were analyzed for expression of neural markers with immunocytochemistry, qRT-PCR and Western Blot. The Fluo 4-AM calcium flux assay was also performed after a further 14 days of neural maturation.
RESULTS: More pronounced morphological changes characteristic of the neural lineage (i.e. neuritogenesis) were observed in all three cell types treated with small molecules, as compared to the untreated controls. This was corroborated by the immunocytochemistry, qRT-PCR and western blot data, which showed upregulated expression of several early and mature neural markers in all three cell types treated with small molecules, versus the corresponding untreated controls. Finally, the Fluo-4 AM calcium flux assay showed consistently higher calcium transient (F/Fo) peaks for the small molecule-treated versus untreated control groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Small molecules can enhance the neurogenic differentiation of DPSCs, SCAPs and GMSCs, which offer much potential for therapeutic applications.
METHODS: We first generated 14 primary human subject-derived ASCs and stable immortalized CD10 knockdown and overexpression lines for 4 subjects by the lentiviral transduction system. To evaluate the role of CD10 in adipogenesis, the adipogenic potential of the human subject samples were scored against their respective CD10 transcript levels. Assessment of UCP1 expression levels was performed to correlate CD10 levels to the browning potential of mature ASCs. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot analysis were performed to determine CD10-dependent regulation of various targets. Seahorse analysis of oxidative metabolism and lipolysis assay were studied. Lastly, as a proof-of-concept study, we used CD10 as a prospective marker for screening nuclear receptor ligands library.
RESULTS: We identified intrinsic CD10 levels as a positive determinant of adipocyte maturation as well as browning potential of ASCs. Interestingly, CD10 regulates ASC's adipogenic maturation non-canonically by modulating endogenous lipolysis without affecting the classical peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ)-dependent adipogenic pathways. Furthermore, our CD10-mediated screening analysis identified dexamethasone and retinoic acid as stimulator and inhibitor of adipogenesis, respectively, indicating CD10 as a useful biomarker for pro-adipogenic drug screening.
CONCLUSION: Overall, we establish CD10 as a functionally relevant ASC biomarker, which may be a prerequisite to identify high-quality cell populations for improving metabolic diseases.
METHODS: We screened the in-house built fluorescent library compounds that specifically bind human iPS cells. After tertiary screening, the selected probe was analyzed for its ability to detect reprogramming cells in the time-dependent manner using high-content imaging analysis. The probe was compared with conventional dyes in different reprogramming methods, cell types, and cell culture conditions. Cell sorting was performed with the fluorescent probe to analyze the early reprogramming cells for their pluripotent characteristics and genome-wide gene expression signatures by RNA-seq. Finally, the candidate reprogramming factor identified was investigated for its ability to modulate reprogramming efficiency.
RESULTS: We identified a novel BODIPY-derived fluorescent probe, BDL-E5, which detects live human iPS cells at the early reprogramming stage. BDL-E5 can recognize authentic reprogramming cells around 7 days before iPS colonies are formed and stained positive with conventional pluripotent markers. Cell sorting of reprogrammed cells with BDL-E5 allowed generation of an increased number and higher quality of iPS cells. RNA sequencing analysis of BDL-E5-positive versus negative cells revealed early reprogramming patterns of gene expression, which notably included CREB1. Reprogramming efficiency was significantly increased by overexpression of CREB1 and decreased by knockdown of CREB1.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, BDL-E5 offers a valuable tool for delineating the early reprogramming pathway and clinically applicable commercial production of human iPS cells.