Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

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  1. Varghese E, Samson RS, Kumbargere SN, Pothen M
    BMJ Case Rep, 2017 May 22;2017.
    PMID: 28536237 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2017-220506
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods*
  2. Hossain MG, Saw A, Ohtsuki F, Lestrel PE, Kamarul T
    Singapore Med J, 2011 Nov;52(11):818-23.
    PMID: 22173252
    Secular changes in the head and body dimensions of the Japanese population were recorded during the last century, but studies on Japanese adult facial shape were poorly documented. This study aimed to document the secular changes in facial shape and their association with craniofacial measures of Japanese adult female students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods*
  3. Donald PM, Nagraj SK, Pallivathukkal RG, Ismail ARB
    BMJ Case Rep, 2017 Aug 21;2017.
    PMID: 28827299 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2017-220851
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods
  4. Hayashida A, Endo H, Sasaki M, Oshida T, Kimura J, Waengsothorn S, et al.
    J Vet Med Sci, 2007 Feb;69(2):149-57.
    PMID: 17339759
    The geographical variation of the gray-bellied squirrel (Callosciurus caniceps) was examined using osteometry of skull in Southeast Asia. From the principal component analysis (PCA), the plots of the northern localities from Nan to Kanchanaburi and those of the southern localities from Narathiwat to Kuala Lumpur in male were completely separated. In female, the plots of the locality from Uttradit to Kanchanaburi and those of the locality from Pattani to Negri Sembilan were completely separated. We called these northern localities and southern localities which are distinguished by the PCA as N group and S group. The size and shape of the skulls of these squirrels indicated the differences between N group and S group from t-test and U-test. These results may be influenced by the two transitions of the phytogeography around the southernmost locality in N group and the northernmost locality in S group in the peninsular Thailand and Malay Peninsula. Localities which are located between N and S groups were called the Middle (M) group. From the PCA among N, S groups and each locality of M group, the plots of localities such as Prachuap Khiri Khan, Chumphon, Krabi, Nakhon Si Thammarat and Trang in both sexes of M group could not be separated from those of N and S groups. We suggest that the sympatric distribution of N and S groups and the hybrid of N and S populations may be seen in these localities of M group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods
  5. Hossain MG, Saw A, Alam R, Ohtsuki F, Kamarul T
    Singapore Med J, 2013 Sep;54(9):516-20.
    PMID: 24068061
    INTRODUCTION: Cephalic index (CI), the ratio of head breadth to head length, is widely used to categorise human populations. The aim of this study was to access the impact of anthropometric measurements on the CI of male Japanese university students.

    METHODS: This study included 1,215 male university students from Tokyo and Kyoto, selected using convenient sampling. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the effect of anthropometric measurements on CI.

    RESULTS: The variance inflation factor (VIF) showed no evidence of a multicollinearity problem among independent variables. The coefficients of the regression line demonstrated a significant positive relationship between CI and minimum frontal breadth (p < 0.01), bizygomatic breadth (p < 0.01) and head height (p < 0.05), and a negative relationship between CI and morphological facial height (p < 0.01) and head circumference (p < 0.01). Moreover, the coefficient and odds ratio of logistic regression analysis showed a greater likelihood for minimum frontal breadth (p < 0.01) and bizygomatic breadth (p < 0.01) to predict round-headedness, and morphological facial height (p < 0.05) and head circumference (p < 0.01) to predict long-headedness. Stepwise regression analysis revealed bizygomatic breadth, head circumference, minimum frontal breadth, head height and morphological facial height to be the best predictor craniofacial measurements with respect to CI.

    CONCLUSION: The results suggest that most of the variables considered in this study appear to influence the CI of adult male Japanese students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods*
  6. Mosleh MA, Baba MS, Malek S, Almaktari RA
    BMC Bioinformatics, 2016 Dec 22;17(Suppl 19):499.
    PMID: 28155649 DOI: 10.1186/s12859-016-1370-5
    BACKGROUND: Cephalometric analysis and measurements of skull parameters using X-Ray images plays an important role in predicating and monitoring orthodontic treatment. Manual analysis and measurements of cephalometric is considered tedious, time consuming, and subjected to human errors. Several cephalometric systems have been developed to automate the cephalometric procedure; however, no clear insights have been reported about reliability, performance, and usability of those systems. This study utilizes some techniques to evaluate reliability, performance, and usability metric using SUS methods of the developed cephalometric system which has not been reported in previous studies.

    METHODS: In this study a novel system named Ceph-X is developed to computerize the manual tasks of orthodontics during cephalometric measurements. Ceph-X is developed by using image processing techniques with three main models: enhancements X-ray image model, locating landmark model, and computation model. Ceph-X was then evaluated by using X-ray images of 30 subjects (male and female) obtained from University of Malaya hospital. Three orthodontics specialists were involved in the evaluation of accuracy to avoid intra examiner error, and performance for Ceph-X, and 20 orthodontics specialists were involved in the evaluation of the usability, and user satisfaction for Ceph-X by using the SUS approach.

    RESULTS: Statistical analysis for the comparison between the manual and automatic cephalometric approaches showed that Ceph-X achieved a great accuracy approximately 96.6%, with an acceptable errors variation approximately less than 0.5 mm, and 1°. Results showed that Ceph-X increased the specialist performance, and minimized the processing time to obtain cephalometric measurements of human skull. Furthermore, SUS analysis approach showed that Ceph-X has an excellent usability user's feedback.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Ceph-X has proved its reliability, performance, and usability to be used by orthodontists for the analysis, diagnosis, and treatment of cephalometric.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods*
  7. Zabidin N, Mohamed AM, Zaharim A, Marizan Nor M, Rosli TI
    Int Orthod, 2018 03;16(1):133-143.
    PMID: 29478934 DOI: 10.1016/j.ortho.2018.01.009
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between human evaluation of the dental-arch form, to complete a mathematical analysis via two different methods in quantifying the arch form, and to establish agreement with the fourth-order polynomial equation.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 64 sets of digitised maxilla and mandible dental casts obtained from a sample of dental arch with normal occlusion. For human evaluation, a convenient sample of orthodontic practitioners ranked the photo images of dental cast from the most tapered to the less tapered (square). In the mathematical analysis, dental arches were interpolated using the fourth-order polynomial equation with millimetric acetate paper and AutoCAD software. Finally, the relations between human evaluation and mathematical objective analyses were evaluated.

    RESULTS: Human evaluations were found to be generally in agreement, but only at the extremes of tapered and square arch forms; this indicated general human error and observer bias. The two methods used to plot the arch form were comparable.

    CONCLUSION: The use of fourth-order polynomial equation may be facilitative in obtaining a smooth curve, which can produce a template for individual arch that represents all potential tooth positions for the dental arch.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods
  8. Abdullah JY, Rajion ZA, Martin AG, Jaafar A, Ghani ARI, Abdullah JM
    Neurocirugia (Astur : Engl Ed), 2019 02 16;30(3):115-123.
    PMID: 30782505 DOI: 10.1016/j.neucir.2018.12.004
    INTRODUCTION: Intracranial volume (ICV) is an important tool in the management of patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy (DC) surgery. The aim of this study was to validate ICV measurement applying the shape-based interpolation (SBI) method using open source software on computed tomography (CT) images.

    METHODS: The pre- and post-operative CT images of 55 patients undergoing DC surgery were analyzed. The ICV was measured by segmenting every slice of the CT images, and compared with estimated ICV calculated using the 1-in-10 sampling strategy and processed using the SBI method. An independent t test was conducted to compare the ICV measurements between the two different methods. The calculation using this method was repeated three times for reliability analysis using the intraclass correlations coefficient (ICC). The Bland-Altman plot was used to measure agreement between the methods for both pre- and post-operative ICV measurements.

    RESULTS: The mean ICV (±SD) were 1341.1±122.1ml (manual) and 1344.11±122.6ml (SBI) for the preoperative CT data. The mean ICV (±SD) were 1396.4±132.4ml (manual) and 1400.53±132.1ml (SBI) for the post-operative CT data. No significant difference was found in ICV measurements using the manual and the SBI methods (p=.983 for pre-op, and p=.960 for post-op). The intrarater ICC showed a significant correlation; ICC=1.00. The Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement between the manual and the SBI method.

    CONCLUSION: The shape-based interpolation method with 1-in-10 sampling strategy gave comparable results in estimating ICV compared to manual segmentation. Thus, this method could be used in clinical settings for rapid, reliable and repeatable ICV estimations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods
  9. Ebin LE, Zam NM, Othman SA
    Aust Orthod J, 2010 Nov;26(2):165-70.
    PMID: 21175027
    To investigate the craniofacial morphology of Malay children with repaired UCLP and compare the data with non-cleft Malay children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods*
  10. Banabilh SM, Suzina AH, Dinsuhaimi S, Samsudin AR, Singh GD
    J Oral Rehabil, 2009 Mar;36(3):184-92.
    PMID: 19207445 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2008.01915.x
    The association between dental arch morphology and the aetiology of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is not clear. To compare dental arch morphology in 108 Asian adults with and without ''OSA, overnight'' hospital polysomnography was performed, and sleep reports were obtained for all subjects. Standardized digital photographs were also taken of the subjects' upper and lower study models. Using 25 homologous landmarks, mean OSA and control dental arch configurations were computed, and subjected to finite-element morphometry (FEM), t-tests and principal components analysis (PCA). Mean upper and lower OSA dental arch morphologies were statistically different from respective Control upper and lower arch morphologies (P < 0.05). FEM of the upper arch indicated that the mean OSA configuration was 7-11% narrower in the transverse plane in the incisor and canine regions when compared with the control configuration, and inter-landmark analysis (ILA) confirmed this finding. FEM for the lower arch indicated that the mean OSA configuration was 10-11% narrower in the antero-posterior plane in the pre-molar and molar regions, and confirmed by ILA. Using PCA, significant differences were also found between the two groups in the lower arch using the first two eigenvalues, which accounted for 90% of the total shape change (P < 0.001). Supporting their role as aetiological factors, size and shape differences in dental arch morphology are found in patients with OSA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods
  11. Banabilh SM, Rajion ZA, Samsudin AR, Singh GD
    Int J Orthod Milwaukee, 2006;17(4):17-20.
    PMID: 17256439
    Facial soft tissues are a major determinant of treatment choice. When Class I and Class II malocclusions were compared using finite-element analysis, morphologic differences were localized and quantified. This study highlights the importance of determining the timing, magnitude and direction offacial growth prior to treatment to achieve stable results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods*
  12. Munandar S, Snow MD
    Aust Dent J, 1995 Dec;40(6):381-8.
    PMID: 8615744
    A cephalometric study using Downs' analysis was undertaken with lateral cephalometric radiographs for a mixed sample of 50 child, adolescent and young adult Indonesians who presented with Angle Class I occlusions. Significant differences between this study group and the published results from comparative racial types were found for Downs' angle of convexity, Y-axis and incisor inclinations, indicating that Indonesians can be differentiated from other races with similar occlusions by using Downs' analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods*
  13. Othman SA, Ahmad R, Asi SM, Ismail NH, Rahman ZA
    Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2014 Mar;52(3):208-13.
    PMID: 24342372 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjoms.2013.11.008
    The aims of this study were to assess the quantitative values of measurements using proportion indices in the craniofacial region in patients with repaired, non-syndromic, complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), and compare them with a control group who did not have clefts using the non-invasive systems of 3-dimensional technology. Three-dimensional measurements of the facial surfaces of 15 Malay patients who had UCLP repaired and 100 Malay control patients aged 18-25 years were analysed. The 3-dimensional images of the respondents' faces were captured using the VECTRA-3D Stereophotogrammetry System. Eleven craniofacial proportions were assessed using a combination of 18 linear measurements obtained from 21 anthropometric soft tissue landmarks. These measurements were used to produce proportion indices to find the differences in the morphological features between the groups, and assessed using the independent sample t test and z scores. There were significant differences between the groups in 7 out of 11 craniofacial proportion indices (p=0.001-0.044). Z scores of 2 indices were disproportionate. They were nasal index (which was severely supernormal) and upper lip index (which was moderately supernormal). Patients with UCLP had higher mean z scores, indicating that patients with UCLP tended to have larger faces than the control group. There were clinically important differences mainly in the nasolabial area, where the nose and the upper lip were wider, larger, or flatter in patients with UCLP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods
  14. Purmal K, Alam MK, Moganadass DD, Zakariat NN, Cheong NW
    Aust Orthod J, 2013 May;29(1):34-42.
    PMID: 23785936
    To assess the applicability of Pont's Index in a Malaysian population by obtaining baseline measurements of dental arch shape based on premolar arch width, molar arch width and the combined width of the maxillary incisors. A secondary aim was to determine whether a correlation exists between arch widths, Pont's Index and the facial framework.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods*
  15. Othman SA, Ahmad R, Mericant AF, Jamaludin M
    Aust Orthod J, 2013 May;29(1):58-65.
    PMID: 23785939
    Fast and non-invasive systems of the three-dimensional (3D) technology are a recent trend in orthodontics. The reproducibility of facial landmarks is important so that 3D facial measurements are accurate and may-be applied clinically. The aim of this study is to evaluate the reproducibility of facial soft tissue landmarks using a non-invasive stereo-photogrammetry 3D camera.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods
  16. Isa ZM, Abdulhadi LM
    J Oral Sci, 2012;54(2):159-63.
    PMID: 22790408
    We investigated the relationship of the maxillary central incisors to the incisive papilla in wearers of complete dentures. First, image analyzer software was used to examine the relationship of the midpoint of the incisive papilla to the labial surface of the maxillary central incisors on occlusal photographs of 120 maxillary casts from dentate Malaysian adults. Then, an Alma denture gauge was used to identify the position of the labial surface of the maxillary central incisors in relation to the midpoint of the incisive papilla in complete dentures from 51 patients who requested replacement dentures at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. The mean incisor distance to the incisive papilla in dentate adults was 9.59 ± 1.00 mm, while the mean incisor distance to the incisive papilla in complete dentures was 6.34 ± 1.87 mm. Thus, in our sample of edentulous patients, the anterior teeth in complete dentures were positioned approximately 3 mm closer to the incisive papilla, as compared with the position of the central incisors in natural dentition, and did not duplicate the position of the natural anterior teeth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods
  17. Alam MK, Iida J, Sato Y, Kajii TS
    Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2013 Dec;51(8):e205-10.
    PMID: 23099108 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjoms.2012.10.001
    We have evaluated the craniofacial morphology of Japanese patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and assessed the various postnatal factors that affect it. Lateral cephalograms of 140 subjects (mean (SD) aged 7 (2) years) with UCLP were taken before orthodontic treatment. Surgeons from Hokkaido University Hospital had done the primary operations. The craniofacial morphology was assessed by angular and linear cephalometric measurements. Cheiloplasty, palatoplasty, and preoperative orthopaedic treatment were chosen as postnatal factors. To compare the assessments of the postnatal factors, we made angular and linear cephalometric measurements for each subject and converted them into Z scores in relation to the mean (SD) of the two variables. Subjects treated by the modified Millard cheiloplasty had larger sella-nasion-point A (SNA) and nasion-point A-pogonion (NA-POG) measurements than subjects treated by the modified Millard with a vomer flap cheiloplasty. Two-stage palatoplasty showed consistently better craniofacial morphology than the other palatoplasty. Subjects who had preoperative orthopaedic treatment with a Hotz plate had significantly larger upper incisor/sella-nasion (U1-SN) measurements than who had no preoperative orthopaedic treatment or an active plate. We conclude that in subjects treated by a modified Millard type of cheiloplasty, a two-stage palatoplasty, and a Hotz plate there were fewer adverse effects on craniofacial morphology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods*
  18. Al-Khatib AR, Rajion ZA, Masudi SM, Hassan R, Anderson PJ, Townsend GC
    Orthod Craniofac Res, 2011 Nov;14(4):243-53.
    PMID: 22008304 DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-6343.2011.01529.x
    To investigate tooth size and dental arch dimensions in Malays using a stereophotogrammetric system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods
  19. Toman HA, Nasir A, Hassan R, Hassan R
    Eur J Orthod, 2011 Dec;33(6):700-4.
    PMID: 21282284 DOI: 10.1093/ejo/cjq147
    Thalassaemia is a public health problem in Malaysia. It is known to cause skeletal deformity. The purpose of this study was to compare the skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue features of Malay transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (TDT) patients with a Malay control group. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 30 Malay (14 males and 16 females aged 6.4-21.8 years) TDT patients and 60 normal Malays matched for chronological age and gender were analysed and compared using an independent t-test. The TDT group showed a similar sagittal relationship to the control group but with a significantly increased (P < 0.01) mandibular plane inclination. They also showed a significantly shorter (P ≤ 0.001) mandibular body, ramus length, and posterior face height and consequently a smaller ratio of posterior to anterior face height (P < 0.01). The upper and lower lips were significantly procumbent (P < 0.001) in the TDT group together with a significantly smaller nasolabial angle (P < 0.05). Dentoalveolar measurements showed less proclined maxillary teeth in the TDT group compared with the controls (P < 0.05). The cephalometric features of Malay TDT patients were characterized by a mild Class II skeletal pattern, prominent vertical growth direction of the mandible, and protruded upper and lower lips.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods*
  20. Isa ZM, Tawfiq OF, Noor NM, Shamsudheen MI, Rijal OM
    J Prosthet Dent, 2010 Mar;103(3):182-8.
    PMID: 20188241 DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3913(10)60028-5
    In rehabilitating edentulous patients, selecting appropriately sized teeth in the absence of preextraction records is problematic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalometry/methods
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