METHODS: A randomized trial was conducted from September 2020 to March 2021. A total of 140 term nulliparas (70 early amniotomy, 70 delayed amniotomy) with Foley catheter-ripened cervices (dilatation ≥3 cm achieved), singleton fetus, cephalic presentation with intact membranes, and reassuring fetal heart rate tracing were recruited. Women were randomized to immediate titrated intravenous oxytocin infusion and early amniotomy or delayed amniotomy (after 4 h of oxytocin). The primary outcome was intervention (oxytocin)-to-delivery interval (h).
RESULTS: Intervention-to-delivery intervals (h) were mean ± standard deviation 9.0 ± 3.6 versus 10.6 ± 3.5 h (mean difference of 1.4 h) (P = 0.004) for the early versus delayed amniotomy arms, respectively. Birth rates at 6 h after oxytocin infusion were 19 of 70 (27.1%) versus 8 of 70 (11.4%) (relative risk, 2.38 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-5.06]; number needed to treat: 7 [95% CI, 3.5-34.4]) (P = 0.03), cesarean delivery rates were 29 of 70 (41.4%) versus 33 of 70 (47.1%) (relative risk, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.61-1.28) (P = 0.50), and maternal satisfaction on birth process were a median of 7 (interquartile range, 7-8) versus 7 (interquartile range, 7-8) (P = 0.40) for the early versus delayed amniotomy arms, respectively.
CONCLUSION: In term nulliparas with cervices ripened by Foley catheter, immediate oxytocin and early amniotomy compared with a planned 4-h delay to amniotomy shortened the intervention-to-delivery interval but did not significantly reduce the cesarean delivery rate.
METHODS: Low-risk women at 40 weeks' gestation undergoing membrane sweeping to expedite labor were recruited. Participants were scheduled for labor induction at 41 weeks' gestation. Transvaginal ultrasonography was performed immediately before and after membrane sweeping to measure the cervical length. Three presweep and postsweep cervical lengths were measured. The shortest lengths before and after the sweep were taken as the representative lengths. The effect of membrane sweeping on cervical length was analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of cervical shortening on labor induction and the mode of delivery.
RESULTS: For the 160 participants, the mean presweep cervical length ± SD was 21.0 ± 10.0 mm; the postsweep length was 23.8 ± 10.9 mm, an average increase of 2.8 ± 0.6 mm (P < .001). Cervical shortening after membrane sweeping was noted in 53 of 160 cases (33%). Cervical shortening was associated with a reduction in all-cause cesarean delivery but not labor induction on bivariate analysis. After adjustment for maternal age, parity, presweep Bishop score, postsweep cervical length, oxytocin augmentation, epidural analgesia, and meconium-stained fluid, cervical shortening after membrane sweeping was independently predictive of a reduction in cesarean deliveries (adjusted odds ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.90; P = .034).
CONCLUSIONS: Membrane sweeping was associated with lengthening of the cervix. A shortened cervix after sweeping was independently predictive of vaginal delivery.
METHODS: This randomized trial was conducted in Malaysia in 232 term multiparous women with balloon catheter-ripened cervixes (dilatation ≥3 cm), singleton fetus, cephalic presentation with intact membranes, and reassuring fetal heart rate tracing. They were randomized to immediate titrated intravenous oxytocin infusion and early amniotomy (116) or delayed amniotomy after 4 h of oxytocin (116). Primary outcome was intervention (oxytocin initiation)-to-delivery interval.
RESULTS: Oxytocin-to-delivery intervals were a median of 4.99 h (interquartile range [IQR], 3.21-7.82 h) versus 6.23 h (IQR, 4.50-8.45 h) (P
METHODS: A randomized trial was performed in a university hospital in Malaysia. Participants were nulliparas at term with unripe cervixes (Bishop Score ≤ 5) admitted for IoL who were randomized to digital or speculum-aided transcervical Foley catheter insertion in lithotomy position. Primary outcomes were insertion duration, pain score [11-point Visual Numerical Rating Scale (VNRS)], and failure. All primary outcomes were recorded after the first insertion.
RESULTS: Data from 86 participants were analysed. Insertion duration (with standard deviation) was 2.72 ± 1.85 vs. 2.25 ± 0.55 min p = 0.12, pain score (VNRS) median [interquartile range] 3.5 [2-5] vs. 3 [2-5] p = 0.72 and failure 2/42 (5%) vs. 0/44 (0%) p = 0.24 for digital vs speculum respectively. There was no significant difference found between the two groups for all three primary outcomes. Induction to delivery 30.7 ± 9.4 vs 29.6 ± 11.5 h p = 0.64, Cesarean section 25/60 (64%) vs 28/64 (60%) RR 0.9 95% CI p = 0.7 and maternal satisfaction VNRS score with the birth process 7 [IQR 6-8] vs 7 [7-8] p = 0.97 for digital vs. speculum arms respectively. Other labor, delivery and neonatal secondary outcomes were not significantly different.
CONCLUSION: Digital and speculum insertion in nulliparas with unripe cervixes had similar insertion performance. As digital insertion required less equipment and consumables, it could be the preferred insertion method for the equally adept and the insertion technique to train towards.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with ISRCTN registration number 13804902 on 15 November 2017.
METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study on IOL using the CRB in women with previous caesarean section or grandmultiparity between January 2014 and March 2015. All cases were identified from the Sarawak General Hospital CRB request registry. Individual admission notes were traced and data extracted using a standardised proforma.
RESULTS: The overall success rate of vaginal delivery after IOL was 50%, although this increases to about two-thirds when sub analysis was performed in women with previous tested scars and the unscarred, grandmultiparous woman. There was a significant change in Bishop score prior to insertion and after removal of the CRB. The Bishop score increased by a score of 3.2 (95% CI 2.8-3.6), which was statistically significant (p<0.01) and occurred across both subgroups, not limited to the grandmultipara. There were no cases of hyperstimulation but one case of intrapartum fever and scar dehiscence each (1.4%). Notably, there were two cases of change in lie/presentation after CRB insertion.
CONCLUSION: CRB adds to the obstetricians' armamentarium and appears to provide a reasonable alternative for the IOL in women at high risk of uterine rupture. Rates of hyperstimulation, maternal infection and scar dehiscence are low and hence appeals to the user.
METHODS: We conducted a multicentre randomised controlled study of 420 patients from 1st January 2016 to 31st December 2017 to evaluate the use of DBC in IOL in an Asian population looking at the adverse effects in the first 12 h after insertion. Women were assigned randomly to cervical ripening with either a DBC or a prostaglandin pessary. The adverse events in the 12 h after DBC or first prostaglandin inserted, the efficacy of a DBC to a prostaglandin in labour induction and maternal satisfaction were evaluated.
RESULTS: There were significantly less women with uterine hyperstimulation in the DBC (2 vs 24, p ≤ 0.0001) compared to the prostaglandin group. There were no women with uterine hyperstimulation and non-reassuring foetal status in the DBC while there were 5 women with uterine hyperstimulation and foetal distress in the prostaglandin group. Use of entonox was significantly less in the DBC group (p = 0.009). There were no significant differences in both groups in caesarean section, vaginal deliveries and time to delivery, although significant less time was needed to achieve cervical os dilation more than 4 cm in the DBC group (p ≤ 0.0001). Neonatal birth outcomes were similar. Women's pain scores were similar for both methods. 80.1% of women allocated the DBC and 76.8% of women allocated the PGE were keen to recommend their method of induction.
CONCLUSION: Double balloon catheter remains a good alternative method for inducing women in view of a good safety profile with low risk of hyperstimulation and high maternal satisfaction.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02620215.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A randomized trial was conducted in the University of Malaya Medical Center. A total of 163 term multiparas (no dropouts) with unripe cervixes (Bishop score ≤5) scheduled for labor induction were randomized to outpatient or inpatient Foley catheter. Primary outcomes were delivery during "working hours" 08:00-18:00 h and maternal satisfaction on allocated care (assessed by 11-point visual numerical rating score 0-10, with higher score indicating more satisfied).
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN13534944.
RESULTS: Comparing outpatient and inpatient arms, delivery during working hours were 54/82 (65.9%) vs. 48/81 (59.3%) (relative risk 1.1, 95% CI 0.9-1.4, p = 0.421) and median maternal satisfaction visual numerical rating score was 9 (interquartile range 9-9) vs. 9 (interquartile range 8-9, p = 0.134), repectively. Duration of hospital stay and membrane rupture to delivery interval were significantly shorter in the outpatient arm: 35.8 ± 20.2 vs. 45.2 ± 16.2 h (p = 0.001) and 4.1 ± 2.9 vs. 5.3 ± 3.6 h (p = 0.020), respectively. Other maternal and neonatal secondary outcomes were not significantly different.
CONCLUSIONS: The trial failed to demonstrate the anticipated increase in births during working hours with outpatient compared with inpatient induction of labor with Foley catheter in parous women with an unripe cervix. Hospital stay and membrane rupture to delivery interval were significantly shortened in the outpatient group. The rate of maternal satisfaction was high in both groups and no significant differences were found.
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