Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 536 in total

  1. Chung ELT, Alghirani MM, Kamalludin MH, Nayan N, Jesse FFA, Wei OTA, et al.
    Br Poult Sci, 2021 Feb;62(1):32-37.
    PMID: 32875813 DOI: 10.1080/00071668.2020.1817327
    1. A vaccination regime is a schedule for the administration of vaccines which may vary according to country or even by farm. This study aimed to measure the production and health performance of broilers treated with different vaccination regimes. 2. A total of 108 Cobb 500 broiler birds were randomly divided into three treatment groups, with six replicates consisting of six birds per replicate. Each treatment group was administered with different vaccination regimes against Newcastle Disease (ND), Infectious Bronchitis (IB) and Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD). Treatment 1 (T1) broilers were vaccinated against ND+IB and IBD on days 7 and 14 of age, respectively (control); Treatment 2 (T2) broilers were vaccinated against ND+IB on days 3 and 7 of age, and IBD on day 14; and Treatment 3 (T3) broilers were vaccinated against ND+IB on days 7 and 21 and IBD on day 14. Throughout the 42-day study period, data and samples were collected to determine the growth performance, immune status, carcase characteristics and meat quality. 3. There were significant differences (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens*
  2. Azli B, Ravi S, Hair-Bejo M, Omar AR, Ideris A, Mat Isa N
    BMC Genomics, 2021 Jun 19;22(1):461.
    PMID: 34147086 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-021-07690-3
    BACKGROUND: Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an economically very important issue to the poultry industry and it is one of the major threats to the nation's food security. The pathogen, a highly pathogenic strain of a very virulent IBD virus causes high mortality and immunosuppression in chickens. The importance of understanding the underlying genes that could combat this disease is now of global interest in order to control future outbreaks. We had looked at identified novel genes that could elucidate the pathogenicity of the virus following infection and at possible disease resistance genes present in chickens.

    RESULTS: A set of sequences retrieved from IBD virus-infected chickens that did not map to the chicken reference genome were de novo assembled, clustered and analysed. From six inbred chicken lines, we managed to assemble 10,828 uni-transcripts and screened 618 uni-transcripts which were the most significant sequences to known genes, as determined by BLASTX searches. Based on the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis, 12 commonly upregulated and 18 downregulated uni-genes present in all six inbred lines were identified with false discovery rate of q-value

    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens/genetics
  3. Cheong CW, Lee YS, Ahmad SA, Ooi PT, Phang LY
    Waste Manag, 2018 Sep;79:658-666.
    PMID: 30343798 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2018.08.029
    A huge amount of feathers is generated as a waste every year. Feathers can be a protein source if it is treated with an appropriate method. The present study investigates feasibility of autoclave alkaline and microwave alkaline pretreatments to be combined with enzymatic treatment for feather solubilization and protein production. Hydrolysis of chicken feather by autoclave alkaline pretreatment followed by an enzymatic method (AAS) or microwave alkaline pretreatment followed by an enzymatic method (MAS) was optimized by response surface methodology. Various NaOH concentrations for autoclave alkaline pretreatment (0.01-0.1 M) and microwave-alkaline pretreatment (0.01-0.05 M) were applied. The holding time for both pretreatments ranged from 1 to 10 min. The pretreated feathers were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercial enzyme prior to analysis of protein content, feather solubilization, functional groups, and elemental composition (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur) of the treated feathers. The results revealed that both autoclave alkaline pretreatment and microwave alkaline pretreatment under optimized conditions of 0.068 M NaOH, 2 min holding time, 105 °C and 450 W, 0.05 M NaOH for 10 min, respectively, enhanced the subsequent Savinase hydrolysis of chicken feathers to achieve more than 80% degradation and more than 70% protein recovery. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed that both thermal-alkaline pretreatments weakened the structure of the feather. Reduction of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur occurred in both thermal-alkaline pretreatments of feathers indicating degradation of the feather as well as protein release. Thermal-alkaline pretreatment may be a promising method for enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of chicken feathers and for producing a protein-rich hydrolysate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens*
  4. Teoh SL, Sudfangsai S, Lumbiganon P, Laopaiboon M, Lai NM, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Nutrients, 2016;8(4).
    PMID: 27104559 DOI: 10.3390/nu8040228
    In a recent systematic review and meta-analysis report (Nutrients 2016, 8, 57), we critically appraised and summarized current evidence to determine the effects of chicken essence in improving cognitive functions as well as its safety. [...].
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens
  5. Jin LZ, Ho YW, Abdullah N, Jalaludin S
    Poult Sci, 1998 Sep;77(9):1259-65.
    PMID: 9733111
    A study was conducted to determine the effects of adherent Lactobacillus culture on growth performance, intestinal microbial population, and serum cholesterol level of broilers. Four dietary treatments, consisting of the basal diet (control), basal diet + 0.05, 0.10, or 0.15% Lactobacillus culture (LC), were fed to 2,000 Arbor Acres broiler chicks from 1 to 42 d of age (DOA). The chicks were randomly assigned to 40 cages (50 chicks per cage, 10 cages per diet). The experimental period was 42 d. Body weights and feed to gain ratio were measured at 21 and 42 DOA. The intestinal microbial populations and serum cholesterol levels were determined at 10, 20, 30, and 40 DOA. The results showed that body weights and feed to gain ratios were improved significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to control broilers for broilers fed diets containing 0.05 or 0.10% LC, but not 0.15% LC, at 21 and 42 DOA. Coliform counts in the cecum of birds receiving 0.05% LC at 10, 20, and 30 DOA, and 0.10% at 10 and 20 DOA were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control birds. The total aerobes, total anaerobes, lactobacilli, and streptococci in the small intestines and ceca of the control birds were not significantly different from those of the treated groups. Serum cholesterol levels were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in broilers fed the three diets containing LC at 30 DOA, and in the birds fed 0.05 or 0.10% LC at 20 DOA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens/blood; Chickens/growth & development*; Chickens/microbiology
  6. Roslan NS, Jabeen S, Mat Isa N, Omar AR, Bejo MH, Ideris A
    Genome Announc, 2017 Nov 16;5(46).
    PMID: 29146857 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.01272-17
    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of several well-categorized Salmonella serotypes recognized globally. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of S Typhimurium strain UPM 260, isolated from a broiler chicken.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens
  7. Sinniah B
    PMID: 7444591
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens/parasitology*
  8. Benalywa ZA, Ismail MM, Shamsudin MN, Yusop Z
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2019 Feb;51(2):321-327.
    PMID: 30112733 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1690-8
    Broiler meat is the largest and cheapest protein source in Malaysia. Using the policy analysis matrix (PAM), this study examines the comparative advantage of broiler production in Peninsular Malaysia. Three hundred and ten farms in Peninsular Malaysia were involved in a field survey. The results of the domestic resource cost (DRC) show that Malaysia has a comparative advantage in all scales of broiler production. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the changes in input prices have a significant effect on comparative advantage. Nonetheless, the industry should reduce its dependence on corn-based feed, which is expensive and has an unstable price, to increase competitiveness in further securing its comparative advantage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens*
  9. Rusul G, Khair J, Radu S, Cheah CT, Yassin RM
    Int J Food Microbiol, 1996 Dec;33(2-3):183-94.
    PMID: 8930704
    A study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella among broilers retailed at wet-markets and processing plants. Litter and feed samples obtained from both broiler and breeder farms were also examined for Salmonella. A total of 158 out of 445 (35.5%) and 52 out of 104 (50.0%) broiler carcasses obtained from wet-markets and processing plants were contaminated with Salmonella, respectively. Salmonella was isolated from 14 out of 98 (14.3%) samples of intestinal content. Litter samples from broiler and breeder farms were positive for Salmonella, 8/40 (20%) and 2/10 (20%), respectively. Salmonella isolates (230) belonging to 15 different serovars were isolated. Predominant serovars were S. enteritidis, S. muenchen, S. kentucky and S. blockley.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens/microbiology*
  10. Mathur PK, Horst P
    Poult Sci, 1994 Dec;73(12):1777-84.
    PMID: 7877933
    This study was conducted to evaluate the significance of genotype by environment (G x E) interactions for tropical poultry breeding. Three environmental conditions were considered: controlled normal-temperature (20 +/- 2 C, CN) and controlled high-temperature (32 C, CH) housing in Germany as well as natural open tropical housing in Malaysia (22 to 34 C, TO). Eighty-four sires were considered as genotypes. Their 5,352 progeny were tested simultaneously over three environments. For each sire, its part breeding value (BV) was estimated within each environment for each performance trait. Correlations between these BV for a pair of environments were used to estimate the magnitude of G x E interactions and the degree of relationship between them to demonstrate their implications on breeding strategies. Differences between observed and expected genetic correlations of BV for body weight, egg weight, egg number, egg mass, feed intake, and production efficiency as a fraction of the expected correlation were 5.1, 4.0, 36.7, 36.5, 17.7, and 31.6%, respectively, suggesting greater significance of G x E interactions for reproduction and production efficiency. The relationships between BV over the three environments were linear for most of the traits studied, but the coefficients of determination were dependent upon the magnitude of interactions involved. Relative efficiencies of indirect selection in CN or CH for performance in TO were also very low.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens/genetics*
  11. Chooi KF, Chulan U
    Vet. Rec., 1985 Mar 30;116(13):354.
    PMID: 4002545
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens*
  12. Nor’ain Senin, Noorhidayah Ramli, Mai Noor Asiah Tan Zalilah
    A new innovation has been created which is called AUTOMATIC MEAT SLICING (AMS) MACHINE. The main purpose of the machine creation is to replace the old-style method in slicing the chicken meat to modern method. BABARITTOS DELIGHT supplies Tortillas Wrap to the latest trend of Food & Beverage (F&B) business called Food Truck. The main ingredient of Burritos is slices of boneless chicken meat, where each slice is approximately has to be 5 mm thick. Formerly, the slicing procedure used a normal cutting knife and its production rate was truncated as the demands of the Burritos are going higher by days. This method requires 3 to 4 workers to team up to complete the 30 kg boneless chicken meat to be cut into roughly 5 mm per slice within one and half hour. The AMS machine is predominant to help the company to grow the output of sliced meat and at the same time can reduce the number of workers. The usage of AMS machine is only required one worker for the operation and the output can be up to 30kg per 30mins, which is actually can end up almost 3 times quantity of output and 3 times labor cost-saving. Meanwhile the quality of the sliced meat is much enhanced as most of the slice meat is precisely 5mm thick. The AMS concept design is cutting the meat using several circular cutting blades, where the chicken will be put on the moving conveyor and finally will fall onto the hygienic tray.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens
  13. Usha, M.R., Tunung, R., Chai, L.C., Ghazali, F.M., Cheah, Y.K., Nishibuchi, M., et al.
    Studies indicate that bacterial cross-contamination occurs during food preparation where bacteria can retent on the food contact surfaces and cause illness. The study evaluated the adherence of Campylobacter spp. to cutting boards, blades of knives and hands after cutting chilled, raw broiler parts (thighs + drumsticks, wings and livers). The adherence to cucumber cuts that were cut using the unwashed boards and knives was also analyzed. Generally, utensils have higher mean of Campylobacter spp. retained to them (1.4-223.3 MPN/ml rinse) than hands (0.7-43.4 MPN/ml rinse); however, Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant differences in the bacterial numbers found among the different surfaces. The transfer rates of Campylobacter spp. from utensils to cucumber cuts varied from 0% to more than 100%. The bacteria detected could be from the utensils and cucumber contamination before purchase or due to other factors where further investigation is required. The possibility is there for Campylobacter to spread to contact surfaces during chilled broiler handling; therefore, utensils and hands involved should be washed thoroughly especially before ready-to-eat food preparation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens
  14. Wan Rosli W, Nurhanan A, Solihah M, Mohsin S
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40:1165-1172.
    The proximate analyses, physical traits and sensory properties of chicken patties incorporated with different levels of cornsilk dietary fibre were studied. The patties were formulated with 2%, 4% and 6% dried ground cornsilk. The protein content increased in line with the cornsilk level in both raw and cooked chicken patties. Cooked chicken patties incorporated with 6% cornsilk showed the highest protein concentration at 28.42% and the lowest fat concentration at 14.60%, respectively. All cooked patty samples recorded moisture content ranging from 42.73-46.40%. Patty formulated with 6% cornsilk recorded the highest cooking yield at 83.03%. Cornsilk fibre has been successful in improving cooking yield and in retaining moisture and fat of chicken patties. The addition of cornsilk fibre does not change the sensory properties and the acceptability of chicken patties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens
  15. Xing S, Wang J, Liang JB, Jahromi MF, Zhu C, Shokryazdan P, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 May;24(15):13528-13535.
    PMID: 28390025 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8896-6
    This study investigated the effects and the possible mechanisms of intestinal content (IC) from laying hens on in vitro lead (Pb(2+)) biosorption of four probiotic bacterial strains (Bifidobacterium longum BB79, Lactobacillus paracasei Kgl6, Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23, and Lactobacillus acidipiscis ITA44). The total Pb(2+) removal capacity of the four probiotic strains, with and without capsule polysaccharides (CPSs), increased in the presence of IC compared to the control (without IC). SEM imaging revealed certain unidentified particles from the IC adhered on the surface of bacterial cells sorted out using flow cytometry. Follow-up experiment showed an overall trend of increase in the Pb(2+) removal capacity of the sorted bacteria, but statistically significant for L. pentosus ITA23 and B. longum BB79 after incubation with IC, particularly with the suspended solid portion of the IC. In addition, the Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer data showed that functional groups such as C-H, O-H, C=O, and C-O-C which possibly associated with Pb(2+) binding were mainly presented in the suspended solid portion of IC. Putting the above together, we postulated that the enhanced Pb(2+) binding capacity the probiotic bacteria incubated in IC is due to the adherence of the yet to be identified particles which could much exist in suspended solid portion of IC containing negatively charged functional groups which bind with the positive Pb(2+) ions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens
  16. Ugwu CC, Hair-Bejo M, Nurulfiza MI, Omar AR, Aini I
    Open Vet J, 2023 Feb;13(2):171-178.
    PMID: 37073244 DOI: 10.5455/OVJ.2023.v13.i2.4
    BACKGROUND: Fowl adenovirus (FAdV) 8b and other serotypes cause inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) in chickens. Specific detection of aetiologic serotype in mixed infection and vaccine failure could be difficult.

    AIM: The objective of this study was to develop a TaqMan probe-based qPCR method for the detection and quantification of the FAdV 8b challenge virus.

    METHODS: Forty-eight broiler chickens inoculated with live attenuated or inactivated FAdV 8b strains at day 1 of age either with or without booster at day 14 post-inoculation were used. The chickens were challenged with a pathogenic strain of FAdV 8b at day 28 of age. Liver and cloacal swabs were collected on days 7 and 14 post-challenge. Primers and probes were designed, specificity confirmed, and used to carry out qPCR amplification.

    RESULTS: The assay amplified the FAdV DNA challenge virus, but not that of the live attenuated virus. It could detect FAdV 8b DNA as low as 0.001 ng/µl in liver and cloacal swab samples. Copy numbers obtained indicate virus load and shedding.

    CONCLUSIONS: It shows that a selective detection of FAdV 8b within serotype is possible. It can be useful for rapid detection and diagnosis of the disease, virus quantification and differentiation within species, determination of vaccination failure, and efficacy especially the virus load in the target organ and shedding.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens
  17. M M, Azmi MA, Sani NI, Gilbert G, Reduan MHF
    Trop Biomed, 2023 Jun 01;40(2):194-198.
    PMID: 37650407 DOI: 10.47665/tb.40.2.011
    We have previously isolated a novel avian Orthobunyavirus, Kedah Fatal Kidney Syndrome (KFKS) virus from a broiler farm in Kedah, Malaysia in 2020 with a severe kidney lesion in chickens. The virus was designated as KFKS2_CS virus. Sequence analysis of partial nucleocapsid (N) and nonstructural (NSs) sequence of this virus showed the highest sequence identity with previous KFKS1 from Malaysia (100%) and 97% with a zoonotic Umbre (UMB) virus, which was reported to cause encephalitis in immunocompromised humans in India. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this virus was clustered together with previous KFKS1 virus from Malaysia, UMB and Cristoli viruses. This study aimed to assess the zoonotic potential of this KFKS2_CS virus in vitro by determining its ability to inhibit the production of interferon (IFN) in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) brain cells using reverse-transcriptase polymerase reaction (RT-PCR). This virus blocked the production of interferon-a in this human brain cells. In conclusion, this KFKS2_CS virus may have a zoonotic potential and become a public health concern in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens
  18. Rejab SB, Zessin KH, Fries R, Patchanee P
    PMID: 23082559
    This study was conducted to determine the Campylobacter contamination rate of chicken carcasses and the processing lines of modern processing plants in Malaysia. Three hundred sixty samples were collected from 24 flocks of broiler chickens at 12 modern poultry processing plants in 6 states of Malaysia. Fresh fecal droppings were collected from crates in the arrival area. Neck skin samples were taken from processed chicken carcasses at 3 different processing stages: before inside-outside washing, after inside-outside washing and post chilling. Swab samples from the scalding tank, chilling tank and conveyer belt before chilling were also collected to determine contamination with Campylobacter in the slaughter house environment prior to slaughter. Isolation for Campylobacter was performed following ISO 10272-1:2006(E). The overall of contamination rate with Campylobacter at the 12 plants was 61.0% (220/360). Eighty point six percent of the samples from before the inside-outside wishing step were contaminated with Campylobacter, as were 62.5% of the samples after the inside washing and 38.9% after the post-chilling step. This study shows extensive contamination of chicken carcasses and slaughtering houses in Malaysia with Campylobacter.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens/microbiology*
  19. Soleimani AF, Kasim A, Alimon AR, Meimandipour A, Zulkifli I
    J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl), 2010 Oct;94(5):641-7.
    PMID: 20050954 DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2009.00951.x
    High environmental temperature has detrimental effects on the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of acute heat stress on endogenous amino acid (EAA) flow in broiler chickens. A total of 90, day-old broiler chicks were housed in battery cages in an environmentally controlled chamber. Chicks were fed a nitrogen-free diet on day 42 following either no heat exposure (no-heat) or 2 weeks exposure to 35 ± 1 °C for 3 h from days 28 to 42 (2-week heat) or 1 week exposure to 35 ± 1 °C for 3 h from days 35 to 42 (1 week heat). The most abundant amino acid in the ileal flow was glutamic acid, followed by aspartic acid, serine and threonine in non-heat stressed group. The EAA flow in 1-week heat and 2-week heat birds were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those under no heat exposure (14682, 11161 and 9597 mg/kg of dry matter intake respectively). Moreover, the EAA flow of 2-week heat group was less than 1-week heat group by approximately 36%. These observations suggest that the effect of heat stress on EAA flow is mostly quantitative; however, heat stress may also alter the content of EAA flow qualitatively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens/physiology*
  20. Soleimani AF, Kasim A, Alimon AR, Zulkifli I
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2008 Sep 01;11(17):2163-6.
    PMID: 19266934
    A trial was conducted to determine the influence of short-term exposure to high ambient temperature at 28 and 35 days of age on deep body temperatures (Tb) and subsequent growth of birds until 42 days of age. A total of 90 day old chicks were reared in stainless steel battery cages and were assigned at random into 18 pens of 5 birds each, with 9 pens containing males and another 9 pens containing females. Three treatment groups, each represented by 3 male and 3 female pens, were represented by T1 without any heat exposure, T2 with heat exposure starting at day 28 and T3 with heat exposure starting at day 35. Heat stress was defined as 180 min exposure to 35 +/- 1 degrees C. Tb and body weights were measured at 35, 37 and 39 days of age immediately following heat exposure. Heat stress resulted in higher Tb and Onset of heat stress at 28 days resulted in significantly lower Tb than onset of heat stress at 35 days. Lower Tb in T2 than T3 permitted recovery in body weight at 42 days. Sexes responded similarly to heat stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens/physiology*
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