Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 195 in total

  1. Vakili M, Rafatullah M, Ibrahim MH, Abdullah AZ, Salamatinia B, Gholami Z
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 Feb 10;137:139-146.
    PMID: 26686114 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.09.017
    Adsorption performance of chitosan (CS) hydrogel beads was investigated after impregnation of CS with hexadecylamine (HDA) as a cationic surfactant, for the elimination of reactive blue 4 (RB4) from wastewater. The CS/HDA beads formed with 3.8% HDA were the most effective adsorbent. The adsorption capacity was increased by 1.43 times from 317 mg/g (CS) to 454 mg/g (CS/HDA). The RB4 removal increased with decrease in the pH of dye solution from 4 to 9. The isotherm data obtained from RB4 adsorption on CS and CS/HDA are adequately described by Freundlich model (R(2)=0.946 and 0.934, χ(2)=22.414 and 64.761). The kinetic study revealed that the pseudo-second-order rate model (R(2)=0.996 and 0.997) was in better agreement with the experimental data. The negative values of ΔG° (-2.28 and -6.30 kJ/mol) and ΔH° (-172.18 and -101.62 kJ/mol) for CS beads and HDA modified CS beads, respectively; suggested a spontaneous and exothermic process for RB4 adsorption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry*
  2. Ang LF, Por LY, Yam MF
    PLoS One, 2013;8(8):e70597.
    PMID: 23940599 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070597
    Two chitosan samples (medium molecular weight (MMCHI) and low molecular weight (LMCHI)) were investigated as an enzyme immobilization matrix for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor. Chitosan membranes prepared from acetic acid were flexible, transparent, smooth and quick-drying. The FTIR spectra showed the existence of intermolecular interactions between chitosan and glucose oxidase (GOD). Higher catalytic activities were observed on for GOD-MMCHI than GOD-LMCHI and for those crosslinked with glutaraldehyde than using the adsorption technique. Enzyme loading greater than 0.6 mg decreased the activity. Under optimum conditions (pH 6.0, 35°C and applied potential of 0.6 V) response times of 85 s and 65 s were observed for medium molecular weight chitosan glucose biosensor (GOD-MMCHI/PT) and low molecular weight chitosan glucose biosensor (GOD-LMCHI/PT), respectively. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ([Formula: see text]) was found to be 12.737 mM for GOD-MMCHI/PT and 17.692 mM for GOD-LMCHI/PT. This indicated that GOD-MMCHI/PT had greater affinity for the enzyme. Moreover, GOD-MMCHI/PT showed higher sensitivity (52.3666 nA/mM glucose) when compared with GOD-LMCHI/PT (9.8579 nA/mM glucose) at S/N>3. Better repeatability and reproducibility were achieved with GOD-MMCHI/PT than GOD-LMCHI/PT regarding glucose measurement. GOD-MMCHI/PT was found to give the highest enzymatic activity among the electrodes under investigation. The extent of interference encountered by GOD-MMCHI/PT and GOD-LMCHI/PT was not significantly different. Although the Nafion coated biosensor significantly reduced the signal due to the interferents under study, it also significantly reduced the response to glucose. The performance of the biosensors in the determination of glucose in rat serum was evaluated. Comparatively better accuracy and recovery results were obtained for GOD-MMCHI/PT. Hence, GOD-MMCHI/PT showed a better performance when compared with GOD-LMCHI/PT. In conclusion, chitosan membranes shave the potential to be a suitable matrix for the development of glucose biosensors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry*
  3. Ahmad MB, Tay MY, Shameli K, Hussein MZ, Lim JJ
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(8):4872-84.
    PMID: 21954331 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12084872
    This paper presents the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in aqueous medium. This method was performed by reducing AgNO(3) in different stirring times of reaction at a moderate temperature using green agents, chitosan (Cts) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). In this work, silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) was used as the silver precursor while Cts and PEG were used as the solid support and polymeric stabilizer. The properties of Ag/Cts/PEG nanocomposites (NCs) were studied under different stirring times of reaction. The developed Ag/Cts/PEG NCs were then characterized by the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry*
  4. Wan Ngah WS, Hanafiah MA, Yong SS
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2008 Aug 1;65(1):18-24.
    PMID: 18359205 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2008.02.007
    The adsorption of humic acid on crosslinked chitosan-epichlorohydrin (chitosan-ECH) beads was investigated. Chitosan-ECH beads were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), surface area and pore size analyses, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Batch adsorption experiments were carried out and optimum humic acid adsorption on chitosan-ECH beads occurred at pH 6.0, agitation rate of 300 rpm and contact time of 50 min. Adsorption equilibrium isotherms were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models. Freundlich model was found to show the best fit for experimental data while the maximum adsorption capacity determined from Langmuir model was 44.84 mg g(-1). The adsorption of humic acid on chitosan-ECH beads was best described with pseudo-first-order kinetic model. For desorption study, more than 60% of humic acid could be desorbed from the adsorbent using 1.0M HCl for 180 min.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry
  5. H P S AK, Saurabh CK, A S A, Nurul Fazita MR, Syakir MI, Davoudpour Y, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 Oct 05;150:216-26.
    PMID: 27312632 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.05.028
    Chitin is one of the most abundant natural polymers in world and it is used for the production of chitosan by deacetylation. Chitosan is antibacterial in nature, non-toxic, and biodegradable thus it can be used for the production of biodegradable film which is a green alternative to commercially available synthetic counterparts. However, their poor mechanical and thermal properties restricted its wide spread applications. Chitosan is highly compatible with other biopolymers thus its blending with cellulose and/or incorporation of nanofiber isolated from cellulose namely cellulose nanofiber and cellulose nanowhiskers are generally useful. Cellulosic fibers in nano scale are attractive reinforcement in chitosan to produce environmental friendly composite films with improved physical properties. Thus chitosan based composites have wide applicability and potential in the field of biomedical, packaging and water treatment. This review summarises properties and preparation procedure of chitosan-cellulose blends and nano size cellulose reinforcement in chitosan bionanocomposites for different applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry*
  6. El Zowalaty ME, Hussein Al Ali SH, Husseiny MI, Geilich BM, Webster TJ, Hussein MZ
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:3269-74.
    PMID: 25995633 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S74469
    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by the coprecipitation of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) iron salts in alkali media. MNPs were coated by chitosan (CS) to produce CS-MNPs. Streptomycin (Strep) was loaded onto the surface of CS-MNPs to form a Strep-CS-MNP nanocomposite. MNPs, CS-MNPs, and the nanocomposites were subsequently characterized using X-ray diffraction and were evaluated for their antibacterial activity. The antimicrobial activity of the as-synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated using different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For the first time, it was found that the nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms (albeit with a more pronounced effect against Gram-negative than Gram-positive bacteria), and thus, should be further studied as a novel nano-antibiotic for numerous antimicrobial and antituberculosis applications. Moreover, since these nanoparticle bacteria fighters are magnetic, one can easily envision magnetic field direction of these nanoparticles to fight unwanted microorganism presence on demand. Due to the ability of magnetic nanoparticles to increase the sensitivity of imaging modalities (such as magnetic resonance imaging), these novel nanoparticles can also be used to diagnose the presence of such microorganisms. In summary, although requiring further investigation, this study introduces for the first time a new type of magnetic nanoparticle with microorganism theranostic properties as a potential tool to both diagnose and treat diverse microbial and tuberculosis infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry*
  7. Aziz SB, Hamsan MH, Kadir MFZ, Karim WO, Abdullah RM
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Jul 09;20(13).
    PMID: 31323971 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20133369
    Solid polymer blend electrolyte membranes (SPBEM) composed of chitosan and dextran with the incorporation of various amounts of lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) were synthesized. The complexation of the polymer blend electrolytes with the salt was examined using FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology of the SPBEs was also investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The ion transport behavior of the membrane films was measured using impedance spectroscopy. The membrane with highest LiClO4 content was found to exhibit the highest conductivity of 5.16 × 10-3 S/cm. Ionic (ti) and electronic (te) transference numbers for the highest conducting electrolyte were found to be 0.98 and 0.02, respectively. Electrochemical stability was estimated from linear sweep voltammetry and found to be up to ~2.3V for the Li+ ion conducting electrolyte. The only existence of electrical double charging at the surface of electrodes was evidenced from the absence of peaks in cyclic voltammetry (CV) plot. The discharge slope was observed to be almost linear, confirming the capacitive behavior of the EDLC. The performance of synthesized EDLC was studied using CV and charge-discharge techniques. The highest specific capacitance was achieved to be 8.7 F·g-1 at 20th cycle. The efficiency (η) was observed to be at 92.8% and remained constant at 92.0% up to 100 cycles. The EDLC was considered to have a reasonable electrode-electrolyte contact, in which η exceeds 90.0%. It was determined that equivalent series resistance (Resr) is quite low and varies from 150 to 180 Ω over the 100 cycles. Energy density (Ed) was found to be 1.21 Wh·kg-1 at the 1st cycle and then remained stable at 0.86 Wh·kg-1 up to 100 cycles. The interesting observation is that the value of Pd increases back to 685 W·kg-1 up to 80 cycles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry*
  8. Abbasi Pirouz A, Abedi Karjiban R, Abu Bakar F, Selamat J
    Toxins (Basel), 2018 09 06;10(9).
    PMID: 30200553 DOI: 10.3390/toxins10090361
    A novel magnetic graphene oxide modified with chitosan (MGO-CTS) was synthesised as an adsorbent aimed to examine the simultaneous removal of mycotoxins. The composite was characterised by various procedures, namely Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The adsorption evaluation was considered via pH effects, initial mycotoxin concentration, adsorption time and temperature. Adsorption isotherm data and kinetics experiments were acquired at the optimum pH 5 fit Freundlich isotherm as well as pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The thermodynamic results indicated that the adsorption of the mycotoxins was spontaneous, endothermic and favourable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry*
  9. Subramaniam S, Foo KY, Md Yusof EN, Jawad AH, Wilson LD, Sabar S
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2021 Dec 15;193(Pt B):1716-1726.
    PMID: 34742842 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.11.009
    Phosphorylated chitosan (P-CS) was successfully synthesized using a facile experimental setup of hydrothermal method that was applied to the adsorption of anionic Acid Red 88 (AR88) from aqueous media. The adsorption process obeyed the pseudo-second-order (PSO) kinetic model. In contrast, the adsorption isotherm conformed to the Langmuir model, with the maximum adsorption capacity (qm = 230 mg g-1) at 303 K. Both external and intraparticle diffusion strongly influenced the rate of adsorption. The insights from this study reveal that P-CS could be easily prepared and regenerated for reusability applications. The adsorption mechanism and intermolecular interaction between P-CS and AR 88 were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and calculations via Density Functional Theory (DFT). The key modes of adsorption for the P-CS/AR 88 system are driven by electrostatic attractions, H-bonding, and n-π interactions. The findings herein reveal that P-CS is a promising adsorbent for the removal of anionic dyes such as AR88 or similar pollutants from water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry*
  10. Pant A, Negi JS
    Eur J Pharm Sci, 2018 Jan 15;112:180-185.
    PMID: 29191520 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejps.2017.11.020
    The aim of this study was to develop a novel controlled ionic gelation strategy for chitosan nanoparticle preparation to avoid particle aggregation tendency associated with conventional ionic gelation process. In this study inclusion complexation behaviour of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) with beta cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been investigated. The TPP-β-CD inclusion complex was characterized by FT-IR, XRD and DSC techniques. The complexation behaviour was also investigated by molecular docking study. The results showed that the TPP molecule formed inclusion complex with β-CD. Further, TPP-β-CD inclusion complex was used to prepare chitosan nanoparticles. The chitosan nanoparticles based on TPP-β-CD inclusion complex had smaller size of 104.2nm±0.608, good PDI value of 0.346±0.016 and acceptable zeta potential of +27.33mV±0.416. The surface characteristics of chitosan nanoparticles were also observed with transmission electron microscopy. Results indicates that TPP-β-CD inclusion complex can be used for the formation of chitosan nanoparticles with smaller and more uniform particle size in comparison to conventional TPP based chitosan nanoparticles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry*
  11. Rubentheren V, Ward TA, Chee CY, Tang CK
    Carbohydr Polym, 2015 Jan 22;115:379-87.
    PMID: 25439908 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.09.007
    Chitosan film reinforced with nano-sized chitin whiskers and crosslinked using tannic acid was synthesized by the casting-vaporation method. The mechanical and physicochemical properties of several film samples (consisting of different ratio of chitin and tannic acid) were compared with neat chitosan. Tensile tests show that the addition of chitin improves the nanocomposite films mechanical properties up to 137% compared to neat chitosan, but this is slightly degraded when tannic acid is introduced. However, tannic acid and chitin whisker content greatly reduced moisture content by 294% and water solubility by 13%. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to investigate the morphology and molecular interaction of film. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the samples with chitin whiskers had a more rigid structure. The addition of tannic acid changed the structure into an anhydrous crystalline conformation when compared to neat chitosan film.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry*
  12. Vakili M, Rafatullah M, Salamatinia B, Abdullah AZ, Ibrahim MH, Tan KB, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2014 Nov 26;113:115-30.
    PMID: 25256466 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.07.007
    Chitosan based adsorbents have received a lot of attention for adsorption of dyes. Various modifications of this polysaccharide have been investigated to improve the adsorption properties as well as mechanical and physical characteristics of chitosan. This review paper discusses major research topics related to chitosan and its derivatives for application in the removal of dyes from water. Modification of chitosan changes the original properties of this material so that it can be more suitable for adsorption of different types of dye. Many chitosan derivatives have been obtained through chemical and physical modifications of raw chitosan that include cross-linking, grafting and impregnation of the chitosan backbone. Better understanding of these varieties and their affinity toward different types of dye can help future research to be properly oriented to address knowledge gaps in this area. This review provides better opportunity for researchers to better explore the potential of chitosan-derived adsorbents for removal of a great variety of dyes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry*
  13. Mohd Sultan N, Johan MR
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:184604.
    PMID: 25215315 DOI: 10.1155/2014/184604
    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been synthesized with various molarities and weights of reducing agent, monosodium glutamate (MSG), and stabilizer chitosan, respectively. The significance of chitosan as stabilizer was distinguished through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and UV-Vis absorption spectra in which the interparticles distance increases whilst retaining the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) characteristics peak. The most stable AuNPs occurred for composition with the lowest (1 g) weight of chitosan. AuNPs capped with chitosan size stayed small after 1 month aging compared to bare AuNPs. The ability of chitosan capped AuNPs to uptake analyte was studied by employing amorphous carbon nanotubes (α-CNT), copper oxide (Cu2O), and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) as the target material. The absorption spectra showed dramatic intensity increased and red shifted once the analyte was added to the chitosan capped AuNPs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry*
  14. Afreen S, Muthoosamy K, Manickam S, Hashim U
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2015 Jan 15;63:354-364.
    PMID: 25125029 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2014.07.044
    Designing a biosensor for versatile biomedical applications is a sophisticated task and how dedicatedly functionalized fullerene (C60) can perform on this stage is a challenge for today and tomorrow's nanoscience and nanotechnology. Since the invention of biosensor, many ideas and methods have been invested to upgrade the functionality of biosensors. Due to special physicochemical characteristics, the novel carbon material "fullerene" adds a new dimension to the construction of highly sensitive biosensors. The prominent aspects of fullerene explain its outstanding performance in biosensing devices as a mediator, e.g. fullerene in organic solvents exhibits five stages of reversible oxidation/reduction, and hence fullerene can work either as an electrophile or nucleophile. Fullerene is stable and its spherical structure produces an angle strain which allows it to undergo characteristic reactions of addition to double bonds (hybridization which turns from sp(2) to sp(3)). Research activities are being conducted worldwide to invent a variety of methods of fullerene functionalization with a purpose of incorporating it effectively in biosensor devices. The different types of functionalization methods include modification of fullerene into water soluble derivatives and conjugation with enzymes and/or other biomolecules, e.g. urease, glucose oxidase, hemoglobin, myoglobin (Mb), conjugation with metals e.g. gold (Au), chitosan (CS), ferrocene (Fc), etc. to enhance the sensitivity of biosensors. The state-of-the-art research on fullerene functionalization and its application in sensor devices has proven that fullerene can be implemented successfully in preparing biosensors to detect glucose level in blood serum, urea level in urine solution, hemoglobin, immunoglobulin, glutathione in real sample for pathological purpose, to identify doping abuse, to analyze pharmaceutical preparation and even to detect cancer and tumor cells at an earlier stage. Employing fullerene-metal matrix for the detection of tumor and cancer cells is also possible by the inclusion of fullerene in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) known as peapods as well as in double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs), to augment the effectiveness of biosensors. This review discusses various approaches that have been reported for functionalizing fullerene (C60) derivatives and their application in different types of biosensor fabrication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry
  15. Tan HW, Misran M
    J Liposome Res, 2012 Dec;22(4):329-35.
    PMID: 22881198 DOI: 10.3109/08982104.2012.700459
    Preparation of chitosan-coated fatty acid liposomes is often restricted by the solubility of chitosan under basic conditions. In this experiment, the preparation of chitosan-coated oleic acid (OA) liposomes using low molecular weight (LMW) chitosan (10 and 25 kDA) was demonstrated. These selected LMW chitosans are water soluble. The coating of the chitosan layer on OA liposomes was confirmed by its microscope images and physicochemical properties, such as zeta potential and the size of the liposomes. The "peeling off" effect on the surface of chitosan-coated OA liposomes was observed in the atomic force microscope images and showed the occurrence of the chitosan layer on the surface of OA liposomes. The size of the chitosan-coated liposomes was at least 20 nm smaller than the OA liposomes, and the increase of zeta potential with the increasing amount of LMW chitosan further confirmed the presence of the surface modification of OA liposomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry*
  16. Kadir MF, Aspanut Z, Majid SR, Arof AK
    PMID: 21237698 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2010.12.051
    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and chitosan polymer blend doped with ammonium nitrate (NH(4)NO(3)) salt and plasticized with ethylene carbonate (EC) have been performed with emphasis on the shift of the carboxamide, amine and hydroxyl bands. 1% acetic acid solution was used as the solvent. It is observed from the chitosan film spectrum that evidence of polymer-solvent interaction can be observed from the shifting of the carboxamide band at 1660 cm(-1) and the amine band at 1591 cm(-1) to 1650 and 1557 cm(-1) respectively and the shift of the hydroxyl band from 3377 to 3354 cm(-1). The hydroxyl band in the spectrum of PVA powder is observed at 3354 cm(-1) and is observed at 3343 cm(-1) in the spectrum of the PVA film. On addition of NH(4)NO(3) up to 30 wt.%, the carboxamide, amine and hydroxyl bands shifted from 1650, 1557 and 3354 cm(-1) to 1642, 1541 and 3348 cm(-1) indicating that the chitosan has complexed with the salt. In the PVA-NH(4)NO(3) spectrum, the hydroxyl band has shifted from 3343 to 3272 cm(-1) on addition of salt from 10 to 30 wt.%. EC acts as a plasticizing agent since there is no shift in the bands as observed in the spectrum of PVA-chitosan-EC films. The mechanism of ion migration is proposed for the plasticized and unplasticized PVA-chitosan-NH(4)NO(3) systems. In the spectrum of PVA-chitosan-NH(4)NO(3)-EC complex, the doublet CO stretching in EC is observed in the vicinity 1800 and 1700. This indicates that there is some interaction between the salt and EC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry*
  17. Choo CK, Kong XY, Goh TL, Ngoh GC, Horri BA, Salamatinia B
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 Mar 15;138:16-26.
    PMID: 26794733 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.11.060
    Development of new materials for different applications especially as bio-composites has received great attention. This study concentrates on development of a biopolymer based on chitosan (CT) and halloysite nanotubes (HNT) and evaluates the copper removal intake as a potential application of this bio-composite. In this study, CT/HNT beads were prepared by ultrasonic-assisted extrusion-dripping method for the first time. Two sources of HNTs (i.e. Dragonite and Matauri Bay) were added into a chitosan solution (2wt.%) at various loading fractions (25, 50, 75wt.%). The effect of ultrasound as a mixing device was also studied by varying the amplitude at constant frequency of 25%, 50% and 75%. Characteristics and physical properties of the prepared CT/HNT beads were also analyzed by SEM, FTIR, TGA and BET the results show that introducing HNT to chitosan increases the adsorption capacity toward copper ions; however HNT loading fraction above 50wt.% resulted in a decrease in adsorption capacity attributed to limited accessibility of the amino groups. The adsorption capacity of the CT/HNT beads prepared from Dragonite source had a larger adsorption capacity of 14.2mg/g as compared to that of Matauri Bay, 10.55mg/g. It was observed that the adsorption capacity of the beads toward copper ions decreased when the loading fraction of HNT is increased at constant ultrasound amplitude. The result of this study helps to understand the links between the characteristics and adsorption abilities of CT/HNT beads.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry*
  18. Wan Ngah WS, Kamari A, Koay YJ
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2004 Jun;34(3):155-61.
    PMID: 15225987
    The adsorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution by chitosan and chitosan/PVA beads was studied in a batch adsorption system. Chitosan solution was blended with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in order to obtain sorbents that are insoluble in aqueous acidic and basic solution. The adsorption capacities and rates of Cu(II) ions onto chitosan and chitosan/PVA beads were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and BET adsorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants. Adsorption isothermal data could be well interpreted by the Langmuir model. The kinetic experimental data properly correlated with the second-order kinetic model, which indicates that the chemical sorption is the rate-limiting step. The Cu(II) ions can be removed from the chitosan and chitosan/PVA beads rapidly by treatment with an aqueous EDTA solution. Results also showed that chitosan and chitosan/PVA beads are favourable adsorbers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry*
  19. Aziz SB, Hamsan MH, Abdullah RM, Kadir MFZ
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 09;24(13).
    PMID: 31323966 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24132503
    In the present work, promising proton conducting solid polymer blend electrolytes (SPBEs) composed of chitosan (CS) and methylcellulose (MC) were prepared for electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) application with a high specific capacitance and energy density. The change in intensity and the broad nature of the XRD pattern of doped samples compared to pure CS:MC system evidencedthe amorphous character of the electrolyte samples. The morphology of the samples in FESEM images supported the amorphous behavior of the solid electrolyte films. The results of impedance and Bode plotindicate that the bulk resistance decreasedwith increasing salt concentration. The highest DC conductivity was found to be 2.81 × 10-3 S/cm. The electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) model was conducted for selected samples to explain the complete picture of the electrical properties.The performance of EDLC cells was examined at room temperature by electrochemical techniques, such as impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and constant current charge-discharge techniques. It was found that the studied samples exhibit a very good performance as electrolyte for EDLC applications. Ions were found to be the dominant charge carriers in the polymer electrolyte. The ion transference number (tion) was found to be 0.84 while 0.16 for electron transference number (tel). Through investigation of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), the CS:MC:NH4SCN system was found to be electrochemically stable up to 1.8 V. The CV plot revealed no redox peak, indicating the occurrence of charge double-layer at the surface of activated carbon electrodes. Specific capacitance (Cspe) for the fabricated EDLC was calculated using CV plot and charge-discharge analyses. It was found to be 66.3 F g-1 and 69.9 F g-1 (at thefirst cycle), respectively. Equivalent series resistance (Resr) of the EDLC was also identified, ranging from 50.0 to 150.0 Ω. Finally, energy density (Ed) was stabilized to anaverage of 8.63 Wh kg-1 from the 10th cycle to the 100th cycle. The first cycle obtained power density (Pd) of 1666.6 W kg-1 and then itdropped to 747.0 W kg-1 at the 50th cycle and continued to drop to 555.5 W kg-1 as the EDLC completed 100 cycles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry*
  20. Aziz SB, Abdulwahid RT, Hamsan MH, Brza MA, Abdullah RM, Kadir MFZ, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Sep 27;24(19).
    PMID: 31569650 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24193508
    In this report, a facile solution casting technique was used to fabricate polymer blend electrolytes of chitosan (CS):poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO):NH4SCN with high electrochemical stability (2.43V). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the polymer electrolyte formation. For the electrochemical property analysis, cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques were carried out. Referring to the FTIR spectra, a complex formation between the added salt and CS:PEO was deduced by considering the decreasing and shifting of FTIR bands intensity in terms of functional groups. The CS:PEO:NH4SCN electrolyte was found to be electrochemically stable as the applied voltage linearly swept up to 2.43V. The cyclic voltammogram has presented a wide potential window without showing any sign of redox peaks on the electrode surface. The proved mechanisms of charge storage in these fabricated systems were found to be double layer charging. The EIS analysis showed the existence of bulk resistance, wherein the semicircle diameter decreased with increasing salt concentration. The calculated maximum DC conductivity value was observed to be 2.11 × 10-4 S/cm for CS:PEO incorporated with 40 wt% of NH4SCN salt. The charged species in CS:PEO:NH4SCN electrolytes were considered to be predominantly ionic in nature. This was verified from transference number analysis (TNM), in which ion and electron transference numbers were found to be tion = 0.954 and tel = 0.045, respectively. The results obtained for both ion transference number and DC conductivity implied the possibility of fabricating electrolytes for electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) device application. The specific capacitance of the fabricated EDLC was obtained from the area under the curve of the CV plot.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/chemistry*
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