METHODS: Different volumes of NaOCl were added to CHX (mix 1) or PCA (mix 2). Upon centrifugation, the supernatant and precipitate fractions collected from samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The cytotoxic effects of both fractions were examined on human periodontal ligament and 3T3 fibroblast cell lines.
RESULTS: High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis showed no PCA signal when NaOCl was mixed with CHX (mix 1). In mix 2, the intensity of PCA was decreased when NaOCl was added to PCA, and chromatographic signals, similar to that of CHX/NaOCl, were also observed. The mortality of precipitates exerted on both cell lines was lower compared with that of supernatants.
CONCLUSIONS: The discrepancy in the data from the literature could be caused by the instability of the PCA in the presence of NaOCl. The CHX/NaOCl reaction mixture exhibits a wide range of cytotoxic effects.
METHODOLOGY: Dentin blocks were sterilized and E. faecalis and C. albicans microbial colonies were counted for colony-forming-units against 2%k21, 2%CHX and Ca(OH)2 medicaments. Biofilm colonies after 7 days on dentin were analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy with live/dead bacterial viability staining. TEM was done to study dentin collagen matrix. Dentin discs from 3rd day and 7th day well plate was used for Raman spectra and observed under fluorescent-microscope. Docking studies were carried out on MMP-2 S1 binding-domain with k21.
RESULTS: There was reduction of E. faecalis/C. albicans when k21, chlorhexidine and calcium hydroxide were used with highest percentage in 2%k21 treated specimens. 2%k21 showed dense and regular collagen network with intact cross-banding and decreased Raman intensity for 2%k21 on 3rd day. NaOCl + k21 showed least adherence, whereas saline groups showed highest adherence of E. faecalis and C. albicans to root-canal dentin. Alizarin red staining of hDPSCs revealed calcium deposition in all groups with significant difference seen amongst 2%k21 groups. MMP-2 ligand binding was seen accurately indicating possible target sites for k21 intervention.
CONCLUSION: 2%k21 can be considered as alternative intracanal medicament.
METHODS: Sixteen healthy adult participants donned one antimicrobial surgical glove and one non-antimicrobial surgical glove randomly allocated to their dominant and non-dominant hand following a crossover design. During a 2-h wear time, participants performed standardized finger and hand movements. Thereafter, the interior surface of excised fingers of the removed gloves was challenged with 8.00 log10 cfu/mL S. aureus (ATCC 6538) or K. pneumoniae (ATCC 4352), respectively. The main outcome measure was the viable mean log10 cfu counts of the two glove groups after 5 min contact with the interior glove's surface.
RESULTS: When comparing an antimicrobial glove against an untreated reference glove after 2-h simulated use wear-time, a mean reduction factor of 6.24 log10 (S. aureus) and 6.22 log10 (K. pneumoniae) was achieved after 5 min contact.
CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that wearing antibacterial gloves on hands does not negatively impact their antibacterial activity after 2-h of wear. This may have a potential benefit for patient safety in case of glove puncture during surgical procedures.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: An experimental GIC (ex-GIC) was prepared by mixing CHX-D powder with the powder of type II GIC to obtain 1% (w/w) concentration of CHX-D in the GIC. Antibacterial activity of this ex-GIC was tested against L. casei and A. viscosus using the agar diffusion method. The ex-GIC specimens were tested in their unset and set forms for each bacterium. For the unset group, specimens were placed in each agar plate immediately after manipulation and for the set group, specimens were placed in each agar plate, 1 hour after manipulation. The inhibition zones on the agar plate were recorded in millimeters immediately on placement of the specimen in the agar plate and after 48 hours. The reading was recorded and statistically analyzed for significant difference.
RESULTS: Mann-Whitney U test showed statistically significant difference in the inhibition zones produced by ex-GIC against L. casei and A. viscosus when both were compared in unset (p-value = 0.002) and set (p-value = 0.031) groups. For both the groups, the zone of inhibition against L. casei was greater. Though the unset group recorded wider zone of inhibition, the difference was not significant when compared with the respective set group. This was true for both the bacterial groups.
CONCLUSION: The 1% CHX-D-modified type II GIC showed antibacterial property against L. casei and A. viscosus and significantly higher activity against L. casei.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Addition of 1% CHX-D to type II GIC showed evidence of antibacterial activity against organisms found in deep carious lesion and therefore may exhibit superior antimicrobial efficiency when used as an intermediate therapeutic restoration in deep cavities.
AIM: To determine the susceptibility of A. baumannii isolates to commonly-used biocides, investigate their biofilm-forming capacities and the prevalence of biocide resistance and biofilm-associated genes.
METHODOLOGY: . The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100 A. baumannii hospital isolates from Terengganu, Malaysia, towards the biocides benzalkonium chloride (BZK), benzethonium chloride (BZT) and chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX), were determined by broth microdilution. The isolates were also examined for their ability to form biofilms in 96-well microplates. The prevalence of biocide resistance genes qacA, qacE and qacDE1 and the biofilm-associated genes bap and abaI were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
RESULTS: Majority of the A. baumannii isolates (43%) showed higher MIC values (> 50 µg/mL) for CLX than for BZK (5% for MIC > 50 µg/mL) and BZT (9% for MIC > 50 µg/mL). The qacDE1 gene was predominant (63%) followed by qacE (28%) whereas no isolate was found harbouring qacA. All isolates were positive for the bap and abaI genes although the biofilm-forming capacity varied among the isolates.
CONCLUSION: The Terengganu A. baumannii isolates showed higher prevalence of qacDE1 compared to qacE although no correlation was found with the biocides' MIC values. No correlation was also observed between the isolates' biofilm-forming capacity and the MIC values for the biocides.