Displaying all 5 publications

  1. Selvakumar M, Srivastava P, Pawar HS, Francis NK, Das B, Sathishkumar G, et al.
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016 Feb 17;8(6):4086-100.
    PMID: 26799576 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b11723
    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) scaffolds are futile in many clinical applications due to infection problems. In this work, we fabricated GBR with an anti-infective scaffold by ornamenting 2D single crystalline bismuth-doped nanohydroxyapatite (Bi-nHA) rods onto segmented polyurethane (SPU). Bi-nHA with high aspect ratio was prepared without any templates. Subsequently, it was introduced into an unprecedented synthesized SPU matrix based on dual soft segments (PCL-b-PDMS) of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), by an in situ technique followed by electrospinning to fabricate scaffolds. For comparison, undoped pristine nHA rods were also ornamented into it. The enzymatic ring-opening polymerization technique was adapted to synthesize soft segments of PCL-b-PDMS copolymers of SPU. Structure elucidation of the synthesized polymers is done by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sparingly, Bi-nHA ornamented scaffolds exhibit tremendous improvement (155%) in the mechanical properties with excellent antimicrobial activity against various human pathogens. After confirmation of high osteoconductivity, improved biodegradation, and excellent biocompatibility against osteoblast cells (in vitro), the scaffolds were implanted in rabbits by subcutaneous and intraosseous (tibial) sites. Various histological sections reveal the signatures of early cartilage formation, endochondral ossification, and rapid bone healing at 4 weeks of the critical defects filled with ornamented scaffold compared to SPU scaffold. This implies osteogenic potential and ability to provide an adequate biomimetic microenvironment for mineralization for GBR of the scaffolds. Organ toxicity studies further confirm that no tissue architecture abnormalities were observed in hepatic, cardiac, and renal tissue sections. This finding manifests the feasibility of fabricating a mechanically adequate nanofibrous SPU scaffold by a biomimetic strategy and the advantages of Bi-nHA ornamentation in promoting osteoblast phenotype progression with microbial protection (on-demand) for GBR applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chondrogenesis/drug effects*
  2. Abdul Rahman R, Mohamad Sukri N, Md Nazir N, Ahmad Radzi MA, Zulkifly AH, Che Ahmad A, et al.
    Tissue Cell, 2015 Aug;47(4):420-30.
    PMID: 26100682 DOI: 10.1016/j.tice.2015.06.001
    Articular cartilage is well known for its simple uniqueness of avascular and aneural structure that has limited capacity to heal itself when injured. The use of three dimensional construct in tissue engineering holds great potential in regenerating cartilage defects. This study evaluated the in vitro cartilaginous tissue formation using rabbit's bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)-seeded onto poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA/fibrin and PLGA scaffolds. The in vitro cartilaginous engineered constructs were evaluated by gross inspection, histology, cell proliferation, gene expression and sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) production at week 1, 2 and 3. After 3 weeks of culture, the PLGA/fibrin construct demonstrated gross features similar to the native tissue with smooth, firm and glistening appearance, superior histoarchitectural and better cartilaginous extracellular matrix compound in concert with the positive glycosaminoglycan accumulation on Alcian blue. Significantly higher cell proliferation in PLGA/fibrin construct was noted at day-7, day-14 and day-21 (p<0.05 respectively). Both constructs expressed the accumulation of collagen type II, collagen type IX, aggrecan and sox9, showed down-regulation of collagen type I as well as produced relative sGAG content with PLGA/fibrin construct exhibited better gene expression in all profiles and showed significantly higher relative sGAG content at each time point (p<0.05). This study suggested that with optimum in vitro manipulation, PLGA/fibrin when seeded with pluripotent non-committed BMSCs has the capability to differentiate into chondrogenic lineage and may serve as a prospective construct to be developed as functional tissue engineered cartilage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chondrogenesis/drug effects
  3. Shamsul BS, Chowdhury SR, Hamdan MY, Ruszymah BHI
    Indian J. Med. Res., 2019 05;149(5):641-649.
    PMID: 31417032 DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_45_17
    Background & objectives: Seeding density is one of the major parameters affecting the quality of tissue-engineered cartilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate different seeding densities of osteoarthritis chondrocytes (OACs) to obtain the highest quality cartilage.

    Methods: The OACs were expanded from passage 0 (P0) to P3, and cells in each passage were analyzed for gross morphology, growth rate, RNA expression and immunochemistry (IHC). The harvested OACs were assigned into two groups: low (1×10[7] cells/ml) and high (3×10[7] cells/ml) cell density. Three-dimensional (3D) constructs for each group were created using polymerised fibrin and cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days in vitro using chondrocyte growth medium. OAC constructs were analyzed with gross assessments and microscopic evaluation using standard histology, IHC and immunofluorescence staining, in addition to gene expression and biochemical analyses to evaluate tissue development.

    Results: Constructs with a high seeding density of 3×10[7] cells/ml were associated with better quality cartilage-like tissue than those seeded with 1×10[7] cells/ml based on overall tissue formation, cell association and extracellular matrix distribution. The chondrogenic properties of the constructs were further confirmed by the expression of genes encoding aggrecan core protein and collagen type II.

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results confirmed that cell density was a significant factor affecting cell behaviour and aggregate production, and this was important for establishing good quality cartilage.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chondrogenesis/drug effects
  4. Al-Masawa ME, Wan Kamarul Zaman WS, Chua KH
    Sci Rep, 2020 12 09;10(1):21583.
    PMID: 33299022 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-78395-y
    The scarcity of chondrocytes is a major challenge for cartilage tissue engineering. Monolayer expansion is necessary to amplify the limited number of chondrocytes needed for clinical application. Growth factors are often added to improve monolayer culture conditions, promoting proliferation, and enhancing chondrogenesis. Limited knowledge on the biosafety of the cell products manipulated with growth factors in culture has driven this study to evaluate the impact of growth factor cocktail supplements in chondrocyte culture medium on chondrocyte genetic stability and tumorigenicity. The growth factors were basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), transforming growth factor β2 (TGF β2), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS), and platelet-derived growth factor (PD-GF). Nasal septal chondrocytes cultured in growth factor cocktail exhibited a significantly high proliferative capacity. Comet assay revealed no significant DNA damage. Flow cytometry showed chondrocytes were mostly at G0-G1 phase, exhibiting normal cell cycle profile with no aneuploidy. We observed a decreased tumour suppressor genes' expression (p53, p21, pRB) and no TP53 mutations or tumour formation after 6 months of implantation in nude mice. Our data suggest growth factor cocktail has a low risk of inducing genotoxic and tumorigenic effects on chondrocytes up to passage 6 with 16.6 population doublings. This preclinical tumorigenicity and genetic instability evaluation is crucial for further clinical works.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chondrogenesis/drug effects*
  5. Chin KY, Pang KL
    Nutrients, 2017 Sep 26;9(10).
    PMID: 28954409 DOI: 10.3390/nu9101060
    Osteoarthritis is a major cause of morbidity among the elderly worldwide. It is a disease characterized by localized inflammation of the joint and destruction of cartilage, leading to loss of function. Impaired chondrocyte repair mechanisms, due to inflammation, oxidative stress and autophagy, play important roles in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Olive and its derivatives, which possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and autophagy-enhancing activities, are suitable candidates for therapeutic interventions for osteoarthritis. This review aimed to summarize the current evidence on the effects of olive and its derivatives, on osteoarthritis and chondrocytes. The literature on animal and human studies has demonstrated a beneficial effect of olive and its derivatives on the progression of osteoarthritis. In vitro studies have suggested that the augmentation of autophagy (though sirtuin-1) and suppression of inflammation by olive polyphenols could contribute to the chondroprotective effects of olive polyphenols. More research and well-planned clinical trials are required to justify the use of olive-based treatment in osteoarthritis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chondrogenesis/drug effects
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