Taxonomic status: Bacteria; Phylum Proteobacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Order Xanthomonadales; Family Xanthomonadaceae; Genus Xanthomonas; Species Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc). Host range: Compatible hosts vary in their susceptibility to citrus canker (CC), with grapefruit, lime and lemon being the most susceptible, sweet orange being moderately susceptible, and kumquat and calamondin being amongst the least susceptible. Microbiological properties: Xcc is a rod-shaped (1.5-2.0 × 0.5-0.75 µm), Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium with a single polar flagellum. The bacterium forms yellow colonies on culture media as a result of the production of xanthomonadin. Distribution: Present in South America, the British Virgin Islands, Africa, the Middle East, India, Asia and the South Pacific islands. Localized incidence in the USA, Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Uruguay, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Tanzania, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Bangladesh. Widespread throughout Paraguay, Comoros, China, Japan, Malaysia and Vietnam. Eradicated from South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Absent from Europe.
Freshly squeezed kasturi lime fruit juice was sonicated (for 0, 30 and 60min at 20°C, 25kHz frequency) to evaluate its impact on selected physico-chemical and antioxidant properties, such as pH, °Brix, titratable acidity, Hunter color values (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗)), ascorbic acid, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and flavonols. Additionally, the effect of sonication treatments on the microbial load (TPC, yeast and mold) were also evaluated. Sonication of juice samples for 60min showed enhancement in most of the bioactive compounds compared to samples treated for 30min and control samples (untreated). Significant reductions in the microbial load corresponding to sonication time were also recorded. Results of the present study indicate that sonication may be employed as a suitable technique for kasturi lime juice processing, where antioxidant and other bioactive compound retention or enhancement is desired, along with the achievement of safety and quality standards.