Results: The CHVs' skills before training were far from adequate. Although widely varied, all trainees improved their abilities. Stacking analysis showed that the skills of all CHVs in measuring infants and toddlers increased by 2.68 and 3.34 logits (p < 0.01), respectively. Racking analysis showed a decrease in the perceived difficulty of all items by 2.61 and 3.07 logits for infant and toddler measurements, respectively (p < 0.01). The results of the racking analysis showed that the difficulty in measuring the anthropometrics of infants decreased more than that of toddlers.
Conclusions: CHVs' capacity to monitor child growth must be refreshed regularly. Standardized and proper training and assessment were developed to make CHVs reliable in taking anthropometric measurements of infants and toddlers.
METHODS: This study was done as part of the continuous professional development for Health Education England West Midlands speciality trainees in diabetes and Endocrinology. Standardized transcripts of anonymized real-life endocrinology (endocrine session) and diabetes cases (diabetes session) were used in the simulation model. Trainees interacted with moderators through WhatsApp® in this model. All cases were then discussed in detail by a consultant endocrinologist with reference to local, national and international guidelines. Trainee acceptance rate and improvement in their self-reported confidence levels post-simulation were assessed.
RESULTS: 70.8% (n = 17/24) and 75% (n = 18/24) strongly agreed the simulation session accommodated their personal learning style and the session was engaging. 66.7% (n = 16/24) strongly felt that the simulation was worth their time. In the endocrine session, there was a significant improvement in trainees' confidence in the management of craniopharyngioma (p = 0.0179) and acromegaly (p = 0.0025). There was a trend towards improved confidence levels to manage Cushing's disease and macroprolactinoma. In diabetes session, there was a significant improvement in trainees' confidence to interpret continuous glucose monitor readings (p = 0.01). There was a trend towards improvement for managing monogenic diabetes, hypoglycaemic unawareness and interpreting Libre readings. Overall, there was a significant improvement in trainees' confidence in managing cases that were discussed post-simulation.
CONCLUSION: SIMBA is an effective learning model to improve trainees' confidence to manage various diabetes and endocrine case scenarios. More sessions with a variety of other speciality case scenarios are needed to further assess SIMBA's effectiveness and application in other areas of medical training.
METHODS: This critique on the OSCE is based on the published findings of researchers from its inception in 1975 to 2004.
RESULTS: The reliability, validity, objectivity and practicability or feasibility of this examination are based on the number of stations, construction of stations, method of scoring (checklists and/ or global scoring) and number of students assessed. For a comprehensive assessment of clinical competence, other methods should be used in conjunction with the OSCE.
CONCLUSION: The OSCE can be a reasonably reliable, valid and objective method of assessment, but its main drawback is that it is resource-intensive.
OBJECTIVE: To appraise and synthesize the best available evidence that examines the effectiveness of OBE approaches towards the competencies of nursing students.
DESIGN: A systematic review of interventional experimental studies.
DATA SOURCES: Eight online databases namely CINAHL, EBSCO, Science Direct, ProQuest, Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE and SCOPUS were searched.
REVIEW METHODS: Relevant studies were identified using combined approaches of electronic database search without geographical or language filters but were limited to articles published from 2006 to 2016, handsearching journals and visually scanning references from retrieved studies. Two reviewers independently conducted the quality appraisal of selected studies and data were extracted.
RESULTS: Six interventional studies met the inclusion criteria. Two of the studies were rated as high methodological quality and four were rated as moderate. Studies were published between 2009 and 2016 and were mostly from Asian and Middle Eastern countries. Results showed that OBE approaches improves competency in knowledge acquisition in terms of higher final course grades and cognitive skills, improve clinical skills and nursing core competencies and higher behavioural skills score while performing clinical skills. Learners' satisfaction was also encouraging as reported in one of the studies. Only one study reported on the negative effect.
CONCLUSIONS: Although OBE approaches does show encouraging effects towards improving competencies of nursing students, more robust experimental study design with larger sample sizes, evaluating other outcome measures such as other areas of competencies, students' satisfaction, and patient outcomes are needed.
METHODS: The norm-referenced method of standard setting was applied to the real scores of 40 final-year dental students on a multiple-choice question (MCQ), a short answer question (SAQ), and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). A panel of 10 judges set the standard using the modified-Angoff method for the same paper in one sitting. One judge set the passing score of 10 OSCE questions after 2 weeks. A comparison of the grades and pass/fail rates derived from the absolute standard, norm-referenced, and modified-Angoff methods was made. The intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities of the modified-Angoff method were assessed.
RESULTS: The passing rate for the absolute standard was 100% (40/40), for the norm-referenced method it was 62.5% (25/40), and for the modified-Angoff method it was 80% (32/40). The modified-Angoff method had good inter-rater reliability of 0.876 and excellent test-retest reliability of 0.941.
CONCLUSION: There were significant differences in the outcomes of these three standard-setting methods, as shown by the difference in the proportion of candidates who passed and failed the assessment. The modified-Angoff method was found to have good reliability for use with a professional qualifying dental examination.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention related to ETT cuff pressure management on improving and retaining critical care nurses' knowledge.
DESIGN: A single group pre-post interventional study was conducted involving 112 registered nurses (RNs) from a 24-bed adult general intensive care unit at a teaching hospital in Malaysia.
METHODS: The educational intervention included a theoretical session on endotracheal cuff pressure management and demonstration plus hands-on practice with the conventional cuff pressure monitoring method. Nurses' knowledge was measured using a self-administered questionnaire pre- and post-intervention. Data were analysed using repeated measure analysis of variance and bivariate analysis.
RESULTS: In this study, 92% of the total number of RNs in the unit participated. A significant difference in mean knowledge score was noted between the pre- (mean = 8.13; SD = 1.53) and post-intervention phases (3 months [mean = 8.97; SD = 1.57) and 9 months post-intervention [mean = 10.34; SD = 1.08), P