Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

  1. Singh R, Cheah SC
    Plant Cell Rep, 2000 Jul;19(8):804-809.
    PMID: 30754873 DOI: 10.1007/s002999900179
    The technique of mRNA fingerprinting was used to isolate flower-specific cDNAs in the oil palm. Differences in the RNA populations between vegetative tissue (leaf) and inflorescences at various stages of flower development were examined using 18 primer combinations. A total of 16 flower-specific cDNAs were identified, of which 15 were successfully re-amplified. Reverse Northern analysis confirmed that 8 of the 15 cDNAs appeared to truly represent differentially expressed mRNAs in flowering tissues. Northern blot analysis subsequently showed that 5 of the clones are preferentially or exclusively expressed in the flowering tissues of oil palm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
  2. Kasinathan G, Lee BS, Sathar J
    Clin Case Rep, 2021 Mar;9(3):1330-1333.
    PMID: 33768838 DOI: 10.1002/ccr3.3757
    Although the patient with very severe aplastic anemia might be a fit elderly receiving standard therapy, there are factors which contribute to an adverse outcome such as severity of pancytopenia, absence of minor paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone and infective complications of therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
  3. Camacho F, Moreno E, Garcia-Alles LF, Chinea Santiago G, Gilleron M, Vasquez A, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2020;11:566710.
    PMID: 33162982 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.566710
    Lipids, glycolipids and lipopeptides derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are presented to T cells by monomorphic molecules known as CD1. This is the case of the Mtb-specific sulfoglycolipid Ac2SGL, which is presented by CD1b molecules and is recognized by T cells found in tuberculosis (TB) patients and in individuals with latent infections. Our group, using filamentous phage display technology, obtained two specific ligands against the CD1b-Ac2SGL complex: (i) a single chain T cell receptor (scTCR) from a human T cell clone recognizing the CD1b-AcSGL complex; and (ii) a light chain domain antibody (dAbκ11). Both ligands showed lower reactivity to a synthetic analog of Ac2SGL (SGL12), having a shorter acyl chain as compared to the natural antigen. Here we put forward the hypothesis that the CD1b endogenous spacer lipid (EnSpacer) plays an important role in the recognition of the CD1b-Ac2SGL complex by specific T cells. To support this hypothesis we combined: (a) molecular binding assays for both the scTCR and the dAbκ11 antibody domain against a small panel of synthetic Ac2SGL analogs having different acyl chains, (b) molecular modeling of the CD1b-Ac2SGL/EnSpacer complex, and (c) modeling of the interactions of this complex with the scTCR. Our results contribute to understand the mechanisms of lipid presentation by CD1b molecules and their interactions with T-cell receptors and other specific ligands, which may help to develop specific tools targeting Mtb infected cells for therapeutic and diagnostic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
  4. Atshan SS, Shamsudin MN, Sekawi Z, Thian Lung LT, Barantalab F, Liew YK, et al.
    Front Microbiol, 2015;6:524.
    PMID: 26089817 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00524
    Staphylococcus aureus is well known for its biofilm formation with rapid emergence of new clones circulating worldwide. The main objectives of the study were (1) to identify possible differences in protein expression among various and closely related clonal types of S. aureus, (2) to establish the differences in protein expression in terms of size of protein spots and its intensities between bacteria which are grown statically (biofilm formation) with that of under aeration and agitation, and (3) to compare the differences in protein expression as a function of time (in hours). In this study, we selected six clinical isolates comprising two similar (MRSA-527 and MRSA-524) and four different (MRSA-139, MSSA-12E, MSSA-22d, and MSSA-10E) types identified by spa typing, MLST and SCCmec typing. We performed 2D gel migration comparison. Also, two MRSA isolates (527 and 139) were selected to determine quantitative changes in the level of extracellular proteins at different biofilm growth time points of 12, 24, and 48 h. The study was done using a strategy that combines 2-DGE and LC-MS/MS analysis for absolute quantification and identification of the extracellular proteins. The 2DGE revealed that the proteomic profiles for the isolates belonging to the similar spa, MLST, and SCCmec types were still quite different. Among the extracellular proteins secreted at different time points of biofilm formation, significant changes in protein expression were observed at 48 h incubation as compared to the exponential growth at 12 h incubation. The main conclusion of the work is that the authors do observe differences among isolates, and growth conditions do influence the protein content at different time points of biofilm formation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
  5. Yahaya N, Mohd Dom NS, Adam Z, Hamid M
    PMID: 30046337 DOI: 10.1155/2018/3769874
    Ficus deltoidea is a traditional medicinal plant that has been proven to show antidiabetic effects. This study focus is to assess the insulin secretion activity of Ficus deltoidea standardized methanolic extracts from seven independent varieties and mechanisms that underlie the insulin secretion action of the extracts. The cytotoxicity of Ficus deltoidea extracts was tested using viability assay. The insulin secretion assay was carried out by treating clonal BRIN BD11 cell line with standardized methanolic Ficus deltoidea extracts or glybenclamide. The clonal BRIN BD11 cell was also treated with insulin agonist and antagonist to elucidate the insulin secretion mechanism. Only the viability percentage for Ficus deltoidea var. kunstleri and intermedia was identified to be toxic at 500 and 1000 μg/ml (P<0.001). The insulin secretion for Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea, angustifolia, and motleyana was dose-dependent; further evaluation suggested that Ficus deltoidea var. trengganuensis was involved in KATP-independent pathway. This study suggests that standardized methanolic extracts of Ficus deltoidea varieties have an insulinotropic effect on clonal BRIN BD11 cell line and can be utilized as a modern candidate of antidiabetic agents targeting the escalation for insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
  6. Jones SU, Chua KH, Chew CH, Yeo CC, Abdullah FH, Othman N, et al.
    PeerJ, 2021;9:e11195.
    PMID: 33889447 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.11195
    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the important pathogens causing nosocomial infection. spa typing allows identification of S. aureus clones in hospital isolates and is useful for epidemiological studies and nosocomial infection control. This study aims to investigate the spa types in Malaysian S. aureus isolates obtained from various clinical specimens.

    Method: A total of 89 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) [pus (n = 55), blood (n = 27), respiratory (n = 5), eye (n = 2)] isolates and 109 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) [pus (n = 79), blood (n = 24), respiratory (n = 3), eye (n = 2) and urine (n = 1)] isolates were subjected to spa typing with sequences analysed using BioNumerics version 7.

    Results: The spa sequence was successfully amplified from 77.8% of the strains (154/198) and 47 known spa types were detected. The distribution of known spa types in MRSA (36.2%, 17/47) was less diverse than in MSSA (70.2%, 33/47). The most predominant spa types were t032 (50%) in MRSA, and t127 (19%) and t091 (16.7%) in MSSA, respectively. spa type t091 in MSSA was significantly associated with skin and soft tissue infections (p = 0.0199).

    Conclusion: The previously uncommon spa type t032 was detected in the Malaysian MRSA strains, which also corresponded to the most common spa type in Europe and Australia, and has replaced the dominant spa type t037 which was reported in Malaysia in 2010.

    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
  7. Nor Amerulah Nor Mohamad, Suhaida Salleh, Hamzah Abdul Aziz
    Borneo Akademika, 2019;3(2):12-22.
    Black pod rot is the most economically important disease of cocoa in Malaysia which is
    mainly caused by a highly polyphagous Phytophthora species, called Phytophthora palmivora.
    The fungus could attack all parts of the cocoa plant organs and caused various diseases at
    any growth stage from seedling until the mature stages, especially during raining season. The
    application of synthetic fungicides has been widely recommended to manage the disease but
    their repeated use had led to other problems such as environmental, human health and
    development of fungicide resistance issues. This study isolated and identified Phytopththora
    isolate from a cocoa pod sample based on micro-morphological characters. Besides, the
    present investigation was undertaken to screen for the antifungal potency of different weed
    extracts against the Phytophthora pathogen using poisoned food technique. The fungal isolate
    was successfully recovered from pod tissues of clone PBC123 on 20% tomato juice agar
    culture (20T). Only one out of ten weed extracts tested showed a significant in vitro inhibitory
    effect towards mycelial growth of Phytophthora isolate, which was aqueous crude leaf extract
    of Solanum torvum (42.68%). This study indicated that the potential of weed extracts in the
    management of Phytophthora diseases, and may offer more natural, effective and economical
    control methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
  8. Ibahim MJ, Crosbie JC, Yang Y, Zaitseva M, Stevenson AW, Rogers PA, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(6):e100547.
    PMID: 24945301 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100547
    High-dose synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) has shown the potential to deliver improved outcomes over conventional broadbeam (BB) radiation therapy. To implement synchrotron MRT clinically for cancer treatment, it is necessary to undertake dose equivalence studies to identify MRT doses that give similar outcomes to BB treatments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
  9. See Too WC, Few LL
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2010 Jul;26(7):1251-9.
    PMID: 24026930 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-009-0295-9
    Psychrophiles are organisms that thrive in cold environments. One of the strategies for their cold adaptation is the ability to synthesize cold-adapted enzymes. These enzymes usually display higher catalytic efficiency and thermolability at lower temperatures compared to their mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts. In this work, a psychrophilic bacterial isolate codenamed π9 was selected for the cloning of the gene encoding triose phosphate isomerase (TIM), an enzyme in the glycolytic pathway. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, this isolate was identified as a species of the genus Pseudomonas under the P. fluorescens group. The cloning of a 816 bp fragment of TIM gene which covers the 756 bp open reading frame was achieved by a combination of degenerate and splinkerette PCRs. The partial sequence of this gene was first PCR amplified by using degenerate primers and the flanking sequences were subsequently amplified by splinkerette PCR technique. Amino acid sequence of the cloned TIM was 97% identical to TIM from Pseudomonas fluorescens and shared 51% identity with the TIM from psychrophilic Vibrio sp. This work demonstrated the use of multiple PCR techniques to clone a gene without prior knowledge of its sequence. The cloning of the TIM gene by PCR was more rapid and cost effective compared to the traditional genomic library construction and screening method. Homology model of the TIM protein in this study was generated based on Escherichia coli TIM crystal structure. The model could serve as a hypothetical TIM structure from a psychrophilic microorganism for further investigation into areas that showed deviations from the known mesophilic TIM structures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
  10. Ang HH, Cheang HS, Mak JW
    Chemotherapy, 2005 Oct;51(6):377-80.
    PMID: 16227695
    Exposure of Plasmodium falciparum to increasing sublethal drug concentrations followed by drug treatment led to the development of many resistant parasites. Therefore, the susceptibility of these clones to the type II antifolate drugs, cycloguanil and pyrimethamine, before and after subculturing them in vitro for a period of 3 years, was studied.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
  11. Ang HH, Chan KL, Mak JW
    Med Trop (Mars), 1996;56(4):349-51.
    PMID: 9112620
    Six clones were derived from each of five isolates of Malaysian Plasmodium falciparum and characterized with regard to susceptibility to schizontocidal drugs, chloroquine, mefloquine, and quinine. The 5 isolates were found to be resistant to chloroquine and sensitive to mefloquine and quinine. Most of the clones displayed susceptibility patterns similar to those of their parent isolate, except ST9/D8 clone which became sensitive to chloroquine, C/C10 and ST148/A5 clones which became resistant to mefloquine and to quinine respectively. This diversity in susceptibility to schizontocidal drugs would likely have been overlooked by assessment of natural uncloned isolates against antimalarial drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
  12. Gill HK, Ridley DS, Ganesan J, Mustafa AS, Rees RJ, Godal T
    Lepr Rev, 1990 Mar;61(1):25-31.
    PMID: 2181222
    The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to Mycobacterium leprae and BCG were studied in two groups of leprosy patients: a group of 8 lepromatous patients who had been on treatment for more than 20 years (TLL) and a group of 8 untreated lepromatous leprosy patients (ULL). The mean response to M. leprae of the TLL group was 6195 cpm with 5 of the 8 patients responding positively. The mean response to M. leprae of the ULL group was 617 cpm, with only 1 patient showing a positive response. The corresponding proliferative responses to BCG were 19,908 cpm in the TLL group and 7908 in the ULL group. Thirteen M. leprae reactive clones were established from 2 TLL patients and 5 M. leprae reactive clones were established from 2 tuberculoid leprosy patients. Seven of these clones, 4 from the TLL patients and 3 from the tuberculoid (TT) patients could be studied further. Three of the TLL clones responded specifically to M. leprae, while one of the clones exhibited a broad cross-reactivity to other mycobacteria. All of these clones were of the CD4+CD8- phenotype. Our findings suggest that responsiveness to M. leprae can be detected in vitro in a proportion of LL patients who have undergone prolonged chemotherapy, and that this response involves M. leprae reactive CD8+CD8- T cells, of which some appear to be specific to M. leprae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
  13. Sabariah, M. N., Zainina, S., Faridah, I., Leong, C. F.
    Clonal disorders of LGL may either be CD3+ CD56- or CD3- CD56+ phenotype and these have been designated as T-cell leukaemia (T-LGL) or natural killer cell (NK)-LGL leukaemia respectively. Clonality is usually demonstrated by clonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor gene rearrangement or identified by flowcytometry analysis. Most patients with T-LGL will have an indolent course. In this report we described an aggressiveness of disease in a patient with clonal CD3+ LGL leukaemia whose cells also co-expressed CD56 diagnosed by flowcytometry. The patient responded well to interrupt ALL standard risk protocol however succumbed to her disease while waiting for upfront stem cell transplant. This case highlights on both the classical laboratory findings of rare entity of disease as well as a review of the literature pertaining particularly on its management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
  14. Ang HH, Chan KL, Mak JW
    J Parasitol, 1996 Dec;82(6):1029-31.
    PMID: 8973418
    Six clones were derived from each Malaysian Plasmodium falciparum isolate and characterized for their susceptibilities against type II antifolate drugs, cycloguanil and pyrimethamine. Results showed that these isolates were of a heterogeneous population, with average IC50 values of Gombak C clones at 0.012-0.084 microM and 0.027-0.066 microM, ST 9 clones at 0.019-0.258 microM and 0.027-0.241 microM, ST 12 clones at 0.015-0.342 microM and 0.012-0.107 microM, ST 85 clones at 0.022-0.087 microM and 0.024-0.426 microM, and ST 148 clones at 0.027-0312 microM and 0.029-0.690 microM against cycloguanil and pyrimethamine, respectively. Generally, most of these clones displayed susceptibility patterns similar to their parent isolates except ST 9/A4, ST 9/A7, ST 9/B5, ST 9/D9, ST 9/D10, ST 148/A4, ST 148/A5, ST 148/A7, ST 148/F7, ST 148/F8 clones, which were sensitive at 0.027 microM, 0.019 microM, 0.022 microM, 0.063 microM, 0.037 microM, 0.031 microM, 0.042, microM, 0.042 microM, 0.062 microM, and 0.027 microM, whereas, ST 12/D7 clone was resistant at 0.342 microM, against cycloguanil respectively. However, ST 9/A4, ST 9/D8, ST 12/D5, ST 85/A5, ST 85/B3, ST 85/B4, ST 85/D3, ST 85/D7, ST 148/A6, and ST 148/A7 clones were resistant to pyrimethamine at 0.158 microM, 0.241 microM, 0.107 microM, 0.223 microM, 0.393 microM, 0.402 microM, 0.426 microM, 0.115 microM, 0.690 microM, and 0.520 microM, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
  15. Sarpan N, Taranenko E, Ooi SE, Low EL, Espinoza A, Tatarinova TV, et al.
    Plant Cell Rep, 2020 Sep;39(9):1219-1233.
    PMID: 32591850 DOI: 10.1007/s00299-020-02561-9
    KEY MESSAGE: Several hypomethylated sites within the Karma region of EgDEF1 and hotspot regions in chromosomes 1, 2, 3, and 5 may be associated with mantling. One of the main challenges faced by the oil palm industry is fruit abnormalities, such as the "mantled" phenotype that can lead to reduced yields. This clonal abnormality is an epigenetic phenomenon and has been linked to the hypomethylation of a transposable element within the EgDEF1 gene. To understand the epigenome changes in clones, methylomes of clonal oil palms were compared to methylomes of seedling-derived oil palms. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data from seedlings, normal, and mantled clones were analyzed to determine and compare the context-specific DNA methylomes. In seedlings, coding and regulatory regions are generally hypomethylated while introns and repeats are extensively methylated. Genes with a low number of guanines and cytosines in the third position of codons (GC3-poor genes) were increasingly methylated towards their 3' region, while GC3-rich genes remain demethylated, similar to patterns in other eukaryotic species. Predicted promoter regions were generally hypomethylated in seedlings. In clones, CG, CHG, and CHH methylation levels generally decreased in functionally important regions, such as promoters, 5' UTRs, and coding regions. Although random regions were found to be hypomethylated in clonal genomes, hypomethylation of certain hotspot regions may be associated with the clonal mantling phenotype. Our findings, therefore, suggest other hypomethylated CHG sites within the Karma of EgDEF1 and hypomethylated hotspot regions in chromosomes 1, 2, 3 and 5, are associated with mantling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
  16. Rita DV, Swee KCW, Shamini C, Kang TL, Nurshamimi NR, Hussin AR, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2018 Dec 01;35(4):1075-1086.
    PMID: 33601854
    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is a major disease in cattle and buffaloes, caused by certain serotypes of Pasteurella multocida, mainly B and E serotypes. Frequent HS outbreak has a major impact in many Asian countries, including Malaysia, where farmers encounter economic loss due to low milk production as well as death of their livestock. There are four types of vaccines available; broth bacterins, alum precipitated vaccine, aluminium hydroxide gel vaccine and oil adjuvant vaccine (OAV), but these vaccines can only provide short term immunity and therefore need to be administered annually. Hence, the development of a protein vaccine using recombinant antigen can be a potential candidate for the production of HS vaccine that would give longer immunity. We have successfully cloned the ABA392 gene fragment into a protein expression vector, pET-30a. The protein was expressed from our ABA392/pET30a clone and the immunogenicity of the protein has been tested on rats. This vaccine was able to trigger an immune response and therefore has the potential to be tested as suitable vaccine candidate in future studies. It is envisaged that this subunit vaccine will make a significant contribution in the management of HS among livestock in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
  17. Ainoon O, Hamidah AB, Cheong SK, Hamidah HN
    Malays J Pathol, 2000 Jun;22(1):5-11.
    PMID: 16329531
    Rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene has been used as a marker of lineage and clonality in the diagnosis of B lymphoproliferative disorders. A number of PCR-based techniques have been developed to overcome the disadvantages of Southern blotting, the standard technique in detecting IgH gene rearrangement. Using an established seminested PCR technique with consensus primers to the V and J regions of the IgH gene, we analysed DNA prepared from peripheral blood and/or bone marrow specimens from 30 cases of known B cell malignancies (16 chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 11 acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 3 Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma), 3 cases of T lymphoproliferative disease and 3 cases of reactive lymphocytosis diagnosed in Hospital UKM to detect rearranged IgH gene. We found that monoclonality as represented by the presence of rearranged IgH gene were demonstrated in all the 30 cases. The PCR findings showed 100% concordance with the Southern blot analysis results which also showed rearranged IgH bands in all the 30 cases. We also found that none of the cases of T lymphoproliferative diseases and reactive lymphocytosis showed presence of rearranged IgH band, suggesting that the amplification using the IgH primers is lineage-specific. In conclusion, we find the PCR a useful method to detect IgH gene rearrangement in peripheral blood and bone marrow specimen. Since the PCR results are comparable to that of the Southern blotting in demonstrating B cell monoclonality and owing to its many advantages we feel that it can replace the Southern blot technique for the diagnosis of B cell malignancies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells/pathology
  18. Inayat-Hussain SH, Wong LT, Chan KM, Rajab NF, Din LB, Harun R, et al.
    Toxicol Lett, 2009 Dec 15;191(2-3):118-22.
    PMID: 19698770 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2009.08.012
    Goniothalamin, a styryllactone, has been shown to induce cytotoxicity via apoptosis in several tumor cell lines. In this study, we have examined the potential role of several genes, which were stably transfected into T-cell lines and which regulate apoptosis in different ways, on goniothalamin-induced cell death. Overexpression of full-length receptor for activated protein C-kinase 1 (RACK-1) and pc3n3, which up-regulates endogenous RACK-1, in both Jurkat and W7.2 T cells resulted in inhibition of goniothalamin-induced cell death as assessed by MTT and clonogenic assays. However, overexpression of rFau (antisense sequence to Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus-associated ubiquitously expressed gene) in W7.2 cells did not confer resistance to goniothalamin-induced cell death. Etoposide, a clinically used cytotoxic agent, was equipotent in causing cytotoxicity in all the stable transfectants. Assessment of DNA damage by Comet assay revealed goniothalamin-induced DNA strand breaks as early as 1 h in vector control but this effect was inhibited in RACK-1 and pc3n3 stably transfected W7.2 cells. This data demonstrate that RACK-1 plays a crucial role in regulating cell death signalling pathways induced by goniothalamin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
  19. Song BK, Hein I, Druka A, Waugh R, Marshall D, Nadarajah K, et al.
    Funct. Integr. Genomics, 2009 Feb;9(1):97-108.
    PMID: 18633654 DOI: 10.1007/s10142-008-0091-x
    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) plays an important role by contributing to modern rice breeding. In this paper, we report the sequence and analysis of a 172-kb genomic DNA region of wild rice around the RM5 locus, which is associated with the yield QTL yld1.1. Comparative sequence analysis between orthologous RM5 regions from Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, O. sativa ssp. indica and O. rufipogon revealed a high level of conserved synteny in the content, homology, structure, orientation, and physical distance of all 14 predicted genes. Twelve of the putative genes were supported by matches to proteins with known function, whereas two were predicted by homology to rice and other plant expressed sequence tags or complementary DNAs. The remarkably high level of conservation found in coding, intronic and intergenic regions may indicate high evolutionary selection on the RM5 region. Although our analysis has not defined which gene(s) determine the yld1.1 phenotype, allelic variation and the insertion of transposable elements, among other nucleotide changes, represent potential variation responsible for the yield QTL. However, as suggested previously, two putative receptor-like protein kinase genes remain the key suspects for yld1.1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
  20. Testamenti VA, Surya M, Saepuloh U, Iskandriati D, Tandang MV, Kristina L, et al.
    Vet World, 2020 Nov;13(11):2459-2468.
    PMID: 33363342 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2020.2459-2468
    Background and Aim: Melioidosis is a potentially fatal disease affecting humans and a wide range of animal species; it is often underdiagnosed and underreported in veterinary medicine in Indonesia. This study aimed to characterize morphological and molecular features of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis which caused the death of a Bornean orangutan.

    Materials and Methods: Pulmonary abscess samples were cultured on several types of media, including Ashdown agar, Ashdown broth, and MacConkey agar. Type three secretion system orf 2 real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and latex agglutination tests were performed to identify the bacteria. Morphological characteristics were compared to all previously published morphotypes. Subsequently, the bacteria were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and Yersinia-like flagellum/Burkholderia thailandensis-like flagellum and chemotaxis PCR. The results of the genotyping were afterward compared to all genotypes from Southeast Asia.

    Results: Multiple morphotypes of B. pseudomallei were perceived during the growth on Ashdown agar. Furthermore, it was identified by MLST that the Type I and Type II morphotypes observed in this study were clones of a single ST, ST54, which is predominantly found in humans and the environment in Malaysia and Thailand, although a very limited number of reports was published in association with animals. Moreover, the E-BURST analysis showed that the ST is grouped together with isolates from Southeast Asian countries, including Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and Cambodia. ST54 was predicted to be the founding genotype of several STs from those regions.

    Conclusion: B. pseudomallei ST54 that caused the death of a Bornean orangutan has a distant genetic relationship with other STs which were previously reported in Indonesia, implying a vast genetic diversity in Indonesia that has not been discovered yet.

    Matched MeSH terms: Clone Cells
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