Method: A total of 89 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) [pus (n = 55), blood (n = 27), respiratory (n = 5), eye (n = 2)] isolates and 109 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) [pus (n = 79), blood (n = 24), respiratory (n = 3), eye (n = 2) and urine (n = 1)] isolates were subjected to spa typing with sequences analysed using BioNumerics version 7.
Results: The spa sequence was successfully amplified from 77.8% of the strains (154/198) and 47 known spa types were detected. The distribution of known spa types in MRSA (36.2%, 17/47) was less diverse than in MSSA (70.2%, 33/47). The most predominant spa types were t032 (50%) in MRSA, and t127 (19%) and t091 (16.7%) in MSSA, respectively. spa type t091 in MSSA was significantly associated with skin and soft tissue infections (p = 0.0199).
Conclusion: The previously uncommon spa type t032 was detected in the Malaysian MRSA strains, which also corresponded to the most common spa type in Europe and Australia, and has replaced the dominant spa type t037 which was reported in Malaysia in 2010.
Materials and Methods: Pulmonary abscess samples were cultured on several types of media, including Ashdown agar, Ashdown broth, and MacConkey agar. Type three secretion system orf 2 real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and latex agglutination tests were performed to identify the bacteria. Morphological characteristics were compared to all previously published morphotypes. Subsequently, the bacteria were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and Yersinia-like flagellum/Burkholderia thailandensis-like flagellum and chemotaxis PCR. The results of the genotyping were afterward compared to all genotypes from Southeast Asia.
Results: Multiple morphotypes of B. pseudomallei were perceived during the growth on Ashdown agar. Furthermore, it was identified by MLST that the Type I and Type II morphotypes observed in this study were clones of a single ST, ST54, which is predominantly found in humans and the environment in Malaysia and Thailand, although a very limited number of reports was published in association with animals. Moreover, the E-BURST analysis showed that the ST is grouped together with isolates from Southeast Asian countries, including Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and Cambodia. ST54 was predicted to be the founding genotype of several STs from those regions.
Conclusion: B. pseudomallei ST54 that caused the death of a Bornean orangutan has a distant genetic relationship with other STs which were previously reported in Indonesia, implying a vast genetic diversity in Indonesia that has not been discovered yet.