Diamond like carbon (DLC) is applied as a thin film onto substrates to obtain desired surface properties such as increased hardness and corrosion resistance, and decreased friction and wear rate. Microdimple is an advanced surface modification technique enhancing the tribological performance. In this study, DLC coated microdimples were fabricated on hip prosthesis heads and their mechanical, material and surface properties were characterized. An Electro discharge machining (EDM) oriented microdrilling was utilized to fabricate a defined microdimple array (diameter of 300 µm, depth of 70 µm, and pitch of 900 µm) on stainless steel (SS) hip prosthesis heads. The dimpled surfaces were then coated by hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (Ta-C) layers by using a magnetron sputtering technology. A preliminary tribology test was conducted on these fabricated surfaces against a ceramic ball in simulated hip joint conditions. It was found that the fabricated dimples were perpendicular to the spherical surfaces and no cutting-tools wear debris was detected inside the individual dimples. The a-C:H and Ta-C coatings increased the hardness at both the dimple edges and the nondimpled region. The tribology test showed a significant reduction in friction coefficient for coated surfaces regardless of microdimple arrays: the lowest friction coefficient was found for the a-C:H samples (µ = 0.084), followed by Ta-C (µ = 0.119), as compared to the SS surface (µ = 0.248).
A novel hydrothermal process has been developed various hydroxyapatite(HA) powder. The HA powder was investigated in different calcination temperatures over the range of 200 degrees C-800 degrees C. TG/DTA and XRD analysis revealed that at temperatures of 700-800 degrees C the decomposition processes and phase changes took place. It is due to the appearance of TCP phase substituting the HA phase. FESEM observation showed that the produced hydroxyapatite powder was extraordinarily fine with nanosize primary particles and almost evenly spherical in shaped. Its high purity proved that the powder fulfills medical requirement.
PVD process as a thin film coating method is highly applicable for both metallic and ceramic materials, which is faced with the necessity of choosing the correct parameters to achieve optimal results. In the present study, a GEP-based model for the first time was proposed as a safe and accurate method to predict the adhesion strength and hardness of the Nb PVD coated aimed at growing the mixed oxide nanotubular arrays on Ti67. Here, the training and testing analysis were executed for both adhesion strength and hardness. The optimum parameter combination for the scratch adhesion strength and micro hardness was determined by the maximum mean S/N ratio, which was 350W, 20 sccm, and a DC bias of 90V. Results showed that the values calculated in the training and testing in GEP model were very close to the actual experiments designed by Taguchi. The as-sputtered Nb coating with highest adhesion strength and microhardness was electrochemically anodized at 20V for 4h. From the FESEM images and EDS results of the annealed sample, a thick layer of bone-like apatite was formed on the sample surface after soaking in SBF for 10 days, which can be connected to the development of a highly ordered nanotube arrays. This novel approach provides an outline for the future design of nanostructured coatings for a wide range of applications.
A quantitative structure-permeability relationship was developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modeling to study penetration across a polydimethylsiloxane membrane. A set of 254 compounds and their experimentally derived maximum steady state flux values used in this study was gathered from the literature. A total of 42 molecular descriptors were calculated for each compound. A genetic algorithm was used to select important molecular descriptors and supervised ANN was used to correlate selected descriptors with the experimentally derived maximum steady-state flux through the polydimethylsiloxane membrane (log J). Calculated molecular descriptors were used as the ANN's inputs and log J as the output. Developed model indicates that molecular shape and size, inter-molecular interactions, hydrogen-bonding capacity of drugs, and conformational stability could be used to predict drug absorption through skin. A 12-descriptor nonlinear computational neural network model has been developed for the estimation of log J values for a data set of 254 drugs. Described model does not require experimental parameters and could potentially provide useful prediction of membrane penetration of new drugs and reduce the need for actual compound synthesis and flux measurements.
Chemically crosslinked hydrogel magnetorheological (MR) plastomer (MRP) embedded with carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) exhibits excellent magnetic performance (MR effect) in the presence of external stimuli especially magnetic field. However, oxidation and desiccation in hydrogel MRP due to a large amount of water content as a dispersing phase would limit its usage for long-term applications, especially in industrial engineering. In this study, different solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are also used to prepare polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel MRP. Thus, to understand the dynamic viscoelastic properties of hydrogel MRP, three different samples with different solvents: water, DMSO, and their binary mixtures (DMSO/water) were prepared and systematically carried out using the oscillatory shear. The outcomes demonstrate that the PVA hydrogel MRP prepared from precursor gel with water shows the highest MR effect of 15,544% among the PVA hydrogel MRPs. However, the samples exhibit less stability and tend to oxidise after a month. Meanwhile, the samples with binary mixtures (DMSO/water) show an acceptable MR effect of 11,024% with good stability and no CIPs oxidation. Otherwise, the sample with DMSO has the lowest MR effect of 7049% and less stable compared to the binary solvent samples. This confirms that the utilisation of DMSO as a new solvent affects the rheological properties and stability of the samples.
Adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) onto chitosan coated with poly 3-methyl thiophene synthesized chemically was investigated in a batch system by considering the effects of various parameters like contact time, initial concentration, pH and temperature. Cr(VI) removal is pH dependent and found to be maximum at pH 2.0. Increases in adsorption capacity with increase in temperature indicate that the adsorption reaction is endothermic. Based on this study, the thermodynamic parameters like standard Gibb's free energy (DeltaG degrees), standard enthalpy (DeltaH degrees) and standard entropy (DeltaS degrees) were evaluated. Adsorption kinetics of Cr(VI) ions onto chitosan coated with poly 3-methyl thiophene were analyzed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to describe the adsorption equilibrium studies of chitosan coated with poly 3-methyl thiophene at different temperatures. Langmuir isotherm shows better fit than Freundlich and Temkin isotherms in the temperature range studied. The results show that the chitosan coated with poly 3-methyl thiophene can be efficiently used for the treatment of wastewaters containing chromium as a low cost alternative compared to commercial activated carbon and other adsorbents reported. In order to find out the possibility of regeneration and reuse of exhausted adsorbent, desorption studies were also performed.
The effect of Manganese (Mn) addition on the Vickers hardness and relative density of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) dense bodies were studied. The starting Mn doped HA powders was synthesized via sol-gel method with Mn concentration varies from 2 mol% up to 15 mol% Mn. The Mn doped HA disc samples were prepared by uniaxial pressing at 200MPa and subsequently sintered at 1300 degrees C. Characterization was carried out where appropriate to determine the phases present, bulk density, Vickers hardness of the various content of Mn doped HA dense bodies. The addition of Mn was observed to influence the color appearance of the powders and dense bodies as well. Higher Mn concentration resulted in dark grey powders. It was also found that the hardness and relative density of the material increased as the Mn content increased and influenced by the crystallinity of the prepared Mn doped HA powders.
In this study, titanium thin films were deposited on alumina substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The mechanical properties of the Ti coatings were evaluated in terms of adhesion strength at various RF powers, temperatures, and substrate bias voltages. The coating conditions of 400W of RF power, 250°C, and a 75V substrate bias voltage produced the strongest coating adhesion, as obtained by the Taguchi optimisation method. TiO2 nanotube arrays were grown as a second layer on the Ti substrates using electrochemical anodisation at a constant potential of 20V and anodisation times of 15min, 45min, and 75min in a NH4F electrolyte solution (75 ethylene glycol: 25 water). The anodised titanium was annealed at 450°C and 650°C in a N2 gas furnace to obtain different phases of titania, anatase and rutile, respectively. The mechanical properties of the anodised layer were investigated by nanoindentation. The results indicate that Young's modulus and hardness increased with annealing temperature to 650°C.
In recent years, calcium phosphate-base composites, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and carbonate apatite (CA) have been considered desirable and biocompatible coating layers in clinical and biomedical applications such as implants because of the high resistance of the composites. This review focuses on the effects of voltage, time and electrolytes on a calcium phosphate-base composite layer in case of pure titanium and other biomedical grade titanium alloys via the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. Remarkably, these parameters changed the structure, morphology, pH, thickness and crystallinity of the obtained coating for various engineering and biomedical applications. Hence, the structured layer caused improvement of the biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and assignment of extra benefits for Osseo integration. The fabricated layer with a thickness range of 10 to 20 μm was evaluated for physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological characteristics via XRD, FESEM, EDS, EIS and corrosion analysis respectively, to determine the effects of the applied parameters and various electrolytes on morphology and phase transition. Moreover, it was observed that during PEO, the concentration of calcium, phosphor and titanium shifts upward, which leads to an enhanced bioactivity by altering the thickness. The results confirm that the crystallinity, thickness and contents of composite layer can be changed by applying thermal treatments. The corrosion behavior was investigated via the potentiodynamic polarization test in a body-simulated environment. Here, the optimum corrosion resistance was obtained for the coating process condition at 500 V for 15 min in Ringer solution. This review has been summarized, aiming at the further development of PEO by producing more adequate titanium-base implants along with desired mechanical and biomedical features.
In the present work, the microstructure, corrosion, and bioactivity of graphene oxide (GO) coating on the laser-modified and -unmodified surfaces of TiNb shape memory alloys (SMAs) were investigated. The surface morphology and chemical composition was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface modification was carried out via a femtosecond laser with the aim to increase the surface roughness, and thus increase the adhesion property. FE-SEM analysis of the laser-treated Ti-30at.% Nb revealed the increase in surface roughness and oxygen/nitrogen containing groups on the Ti-30at.% Nb surface after being surface modified via a femtosecond laser. Furthermore, the thickness of GO was increased from 35μm to 45μm after the surface was modified. Potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies revealed that both the GO and laser/GO-coated samples exhibited higher corrosion resistance than that of the uncoated TiNb SMA sample. However, the laser/GO-coated sample presented the highest corrosion resistance in SBF at 37°C. In addition, during soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF), both the GO and laser/GO coating improved the formation of apatite layer. Based on the bioactivity results, the GO coating exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria compared with the uncoated. In conclusion, the present results indicate that Ti-30at.% Nb SMAs may be promising alternatives to NiTi for certain biomedical applications.
In this in vivo study, Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used to investigate the bioactivity as well as the microstructural and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V samples embedded with hydroxyapatite (HA) using two different coating methods-superplastic embedment (SPE) and superplastic deformation (SPD). The HA layer thickness for the SPE and SPD samples increased from 249.1 ± 0.6 nm to 874.8 ± 13.7 nm, and from 206.1 ± 5.8 nm to 1162.7 ± 7.9 nm respectively, after 12 weeks of implantation. The SPD sample exhibited much faster growth of newly formed HA compared to SPE. The growth of the newly formed HA was strongly dependent on the degree of HA crystallinity in the initial HA layer. After 12 weeks of implantation, the surface hardness value of the SPE and SPD samples decreased from 661 ± 0.4 HV to 586 ± 1.3 HV and from 585 ± 6.6 HV to 425 ± 86.9 HV respectively. The decrease in surface hardness values was due to the newly formed HA layer that was more porous than the initial HA layer. However, the values were still higher than the substrate surface hardness of 321 ± 28.8 HV. Wear test results suggest that the original HA layers for both samples were still strongly intact, and to a certain extent the newly grown HA layers also were strongly bound with the original HA layers. This study confirms the bioactivity and mechanical stability of the HA layer on both samples in vivo.
This paper presents a new approach in assembling bone extracellular matrix components onto PLA films, and investigates the most favourable environment which can be created using the technique for cell-material interactions. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) films were chemically modified by covalently binding the poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) as to prepare the substrate for immobilization of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) coating. Negatively charged polyelectrolyte consists of well-dispersed silicon-carbonated hydroxyapatite (SiCHA) nanopowders in hyaluronic acid (Hya) was deposited onto the modified PLA films followed by SiCHA in collagen type I as the positively charged polyelectrolyte. The outermost layer was finally cross-linked by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrocholoride and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide sodium salt (EDC/NHS) solutions. The physicochemical features of the coated PLA films were monitored via X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The amounts of calcium and collagen deposited on the surface were qualitatively and quantitatively determined. The surface characterizations suggested that 5-BL has the optimum surface roughness and highest amounts of calcium and collagen depositions among tested films. In vitro human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on the coated PLA films confirmed that the coating materials greatly improved cell attachment and survival compared to unmodified PLA films. The cell viability, cell proliferation and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) expression on 5-BL were found to be the most favourable of the tested films. Hence, this newly developed coating materials assembly could contribute to the improvement of the bioactivity of polymeric materials and structures aimed to bone tissue engineering applications.
Stem cell differentiation is guided by contact with the physical microenvironment, influence by both topography and mechanical properties of the matrix. In this study, the combined effect of substratum nano-topography and mechanical stiffness in directing mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis was investigated. Three polyesters of varying stiffness were thermally imprinted to create nano-grating or pillar patterns of the same dimension. The surface of the nano-patterned substrate was coated with chondroitin sulfate (CS) to provide an even surface chemistry, with cell-adhesive and chondro-inductive properties, across all polymeric substrates. The surface characteristic, mechanical modulus, and degradation of the CS-coated patterned polymeric substrates were analyzed. The cell morphology adopted on the nano-topographic surfaces were accounted by F-actin distribution, and correlated to the cell proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation outcomes. Results show that substratum stiffness and topographical cues affected MSC morphology and aggregation, and influenced the phenotypic development at the earlier stage of chondrogenic differentiation. Hyaline-like cartilage with middle/deep zone cartilage characteristics was generated on softer pillar surface, while on stiffer nano-pillar material MSCs showed potential to generate constituents of hyaline/fibro/hypertrophic cartilage. Fibro/superficial zone-like cartilage could be derived from nano-grating of softer stiffness, while stiffer nano-grating resulted in insignificant chondrogenesis. This study demonstrates the possibility of refining the phenotype of cartilage generated from MSCs by manipulating surface topography and material stiffness.
The utilisation of hydroxyapatite and collagen as bioactive coating materials could enhance cells attachment, proliferation and osseointegration. However, most methods to form crystal hydroxyapatite coating do not allow the incorporation of polymer/organic compound due to production phase of high sintering temperature. In this study, a polydopamine film was used as an intermediate layer to immobilise hydroxyapatite-collagen without the introduction of high sintering temperature. The surface roughness, coating adhesion, bioactivity and osteoblast attachment on the hydroxyapatite-collagen coating were assessed as these properties remains unknown on the polydopamine grafted film. The coating was developed by grafting stainless steel 316L disks with a polydopamine film. Collagen type I fibres were then immobilised on the grafted film, followed by the biomineralisation of hydroxyapatite. The surface roughness and coating adhesion analyses were later performed by using AFM instrument. An Alamar Blue assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of the coating, while an alkaline phosphatase activity test was conducted to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of human fetal osteoblasts on the coating. Finally, the morphology of cells attachment on the coating was visualised under FESEM. The highest RMS roughness and coating adhesion were observed on the hydroxyapatite-collagen coating (hydroxyapatite-coll-dopa). The hydroxyapatite-coll-dopa coating was non-toxic to the osteoblast cells with greater cells proliferation, greater level of alkaline phosphate production and more cells attachment. These results indicate that the immobilisation of hydroxyapatite and collagen using an intermediate polydopamine is identical to enhance coating adhesion, osteoblast cells attachment, proliferation and differentiation, and thus could be implemented as a coating material on orthopaedic and dental implants.
In recent assassinations reported in London and Malaysia, nerve agents were used to cause death, by skin poisoning. Skin decontamination is the ultimate and most important defense against nerve agent poisoning, because no effective antidote currently exists. However, almost no existing material can achieve effective and rapid decontamination without irritating the skin. This study links proteins that exhibit no decontamination ability with polymers to form a nanocomposite. This creates a nanospace on the surface of the protein that attracts and traps organic molecules, effectively adsorbing the nerve agent Soman within several seconds, without irritating the skin. Analysis of the different components of proteins and polymers reveals that the decontamination efficiency is considerably affected by the thickness of the coated polymer. Moreover, the thickness of the layer is predominantly determined by the size and species of the core and the crosslinking method. Further in vivo experiments on rats poisoned with Soman verify the efficiency and safety of the nanocomposite. These results could be used to design and synthesize more multi-functional and effective decontamination materials.
Electrodeposition is commonly used to deposit ceramic or metal coating on metallic implants. Its utilization in depositing polymer microcapsule coating is currently being explored. However, there is no encapsulation of drug within polymer microcapsules that will enhance its chemical and biological properties. Therefore, in this study, ginseng which is known for its multiple therapeutic effects was encapsulated inside biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microcapsules to be coated on pre-treated medical grade stainless steel 316L (SS316L) using an electrodeposition technique. Polyaniline (PANI) was incorporated within the microcapsules to drive the formation of microcapsule coating. The electrodeposition was performed at different current densities (1-3 mA) and different deposition times (20-60 s). The chemical composition, morphology and wettability of the microcapsule coatings were characterized through attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle analyses. The changes of electrolyte colors, before and after the electrodeposition were also observed. The addition of PANI has formed low wettability and uniform microcapsule coatings at 2 mA current density and 40 s deposition time. Reduction in the current density or deposition time caused less attachment of microcapsule coatings with high wettability records. While prolonging either one parameter has led to debris formation and melted microcapsules with non-uniform wettability measurements. The color of electrolytes was also changed from milky white to dark yellow when the current density and deposition time increased. The application of tolerable current density and deposition time is crucial to obtain a uniform microcapsule coating, projecting a controlled release of encapsulated drug.
Even though drug-eluting stent (DES) has prominently reduced restenosis, however, its complication of delayed endothelialization has caused chronic side effect. A coating of ginseng-based biodegradable polymer could address this issue due to its specific therapeutic values. However, deposition of this type of stable coating on metallic implant often scarce. Therefore, in this study, different polyaniline (PANI) emeraldine compositions were adopted to electrodeposit ginsenoside encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microcapsules coating. The coating surfaces were analyzed using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, and atomic force microscopy instruments. A month coating stability was then investigated with an evaluation of in vitro human umbilical vein endothelial cell analyses consisted of cytotoxicity and cells attachment assessments. The 1.5 mg PANI emeraldine has assisted the formation of stable, uniform, and rounded microcapsules coating with appropriate wettability and roughness. Less than 1.5 mg PANI emeraldine was not enough to drive the formation of microcapsules coating while greater than 1.5 mg caused the deposition of melted microcapsules. The similar coating also has promoted greater cells proliferation and attachment compared to other coating variation. Therefore, the utilization of electrodeposition to deposit a drug-based polymer coating could be implemented to develop DES, in accordance to stent implantation which ultimately aims for enrich endothelialization.
Dental implants made of pure titanium suffer from abrasion and scratch during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results in an irreversible surface damage, facilitates bacteria adhesion and increases risk of peri-implantitis. To overcome these problems, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was introduced to increase surface hardness of pure titanium. However, the osteoconductivity of TiN is considered to be similar or superior to that of titanium and its alloys and therefore surface modification is necessary. In this study, TiN coating prepared through gas nitriding was partially oxidized by hydrothermal (HT) treatment and ozone (O3) treatment in pure water to improve its osteoconductivity. The effects of HT treatment and O3 treatment on surface properties of TiN were investigated and the osteoconductivity after undergoing treatment was assessed in vitro using osteoblast evaluation. The results showed that the critical temperature for HT treatment was 100°C since higher temperatures would impair the hardness of TiN coating. By contrast, O3 treatment was more effective in oxidizing TiN surfaces, improving its wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Osteoblast attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and mineralization were improved on oxidized specimens, especially on O3 treated specimens, compared with untreated ones. These effects seemed to be consequences of partial oxidation, as well as improved hydrophilicity and surface decontamination. Finally, it was concluded that, partially oxidized TiN is a promising coating to be used for dental implant.
The chief obstacle for reconstructing the bladder is the absence of a biomaterial, either permanent or biodegradable, that will function as a suitable scaffold for the natural process of regeneration. In this study, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) plus collagen or fibrin was evaluated for its suitability as a scaffold for urinary bladder construct. Human adipose-derived stem cells (HADSCs) were cultured, followed by incubation in smooth muscle cells differentiation media. Differentiated HADSCs were then seeded onto PLGA mesh supported with collagen or fibrin. Evaluation of cell-seeded PLGA composite immersed in culture medium was performed under a light and scanning microscope. To determine if the composite is compatible with the urodynamic properties of urinary bladder, porosity and leaking test was performed. The PLGA samples were subjected to tensile testing was pulled until PLGA fibers break. The results showed that the PLGA composite is biocompatible to differentiated HADSCs. PLGA-collagen mesh appeared to be optimal as a cell carrier while the three-layered PLGA-fibrin composite is better in relation to its leaking/ porosity property. A biomechanical test was also performed for three-layered PLGA with biological adhesive and three-layered PLGA alone. The tensile stress at failure was 30.82 ± 3.80 (MPa) and 34.36 ± 2.57 (MPa), respectively. Maximum tensile strain at failure was 19.42 ± 2.24 (mm) and 23.06 ± 2.47 (mm), respectively. Young's modulus was 0.035 ± 0.0083 and 0.043 ± 0.012, respectively. The maximum load at break was 58.55 ± 7.90 (N) and 65.29 ± 4.89 (N), respectively. In conclusion, PLGA-Fibrin fulfils the criteria as a scaffold for urinary bladder reconstruction.