Culturing fishes in marine cages is a rapidly developing area of marine aquaculture. The Asian seabass Lates calcarifer (Bloch) is a fast growing good quality fish that is readily cultured in intensive systems in the South Asian region and in Malaysia in particular. Although several papers have been published to date on viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal organisms causing diseases in the Asian seabass, the occurrence of a coccidian infection in this species has only recently been recorded. We collected sporulated and unsporulated oöcysts of a new species of Goussia Labbé, 1986, from the mucus covering the epithelium of the intestine of L. calcarifer. This paper provides a description of Goussia kuehae n. sp. Sporulated oöcysts of this species are ellipsoidal, 37-40 μm in length and 28-30 μm in width. The ellipsoidal sporocysts are relatively small, 15.2-17 × 5.7-8 μm, and located loosely in the oöcyst. There are residual bodies both in the oöcysts and the sporocysts. Goussia kuehae n. sp. differs from all known species of Goussia in the large size of the oöcysts and in having two types of oöcyst residuum.
During 3 collecting expeditions between October 1996 and December 1996, fecal samples were obtained from 43 adult Gonocephalus grandis from Tanah Rata and the Cameron Highlands in Peninsular Malaysia. Two species of coccidia (Isospora gonocephali n. sp. [9/43, 23%] and Eimeria cameronensis n. sp. [3/43, 7%]) were discovered. Sporulated oocysts of I. gonocephali are subspherical to ovoidal, 22.3 x 18.7 (19-25 x 17-23) microm with a bilayered wall composed of a thin inner wall and a striated outer wall with a pitted surface; oocyst residuum absent; 1 polar granule present; sporocysts are almond-shaped, 13.5 x 9.2 (12-15 x 8.5-10) microm, Stieda body broad, domelike, substieda body fanlike, sporocyst residuum consisting of coarse, nonuniform granules in an amorphous cluster; sporozoites sausage-shaped with 1 large terminal, refractile body and lay randomly in the sporocyst. Sporulated oocysts of E. cameronensis are bilayered, smooth-walled, ellipsoidal, 26.5 x 12.4 (25-28 x 12-13) microm; with 1, small, polar granule composed of 2-3 splinter-like structures fused together; oocyst residuum absent; sporocysts ovoidal, almost rectangular-shaped 8.8 x 6.6 (8-9 x 5-7) microm, with no Stieda or substieda bodies, containing scattered residuum and 2 sausage-shaped sporozoites with 1 terminal, ovoidal refractile body. No individual lizard was host to both coccidian species.
The following species are described from Indonesian birds: Isospora paddae n. sp. with oocysts 41.5-45.5 x 40.3-41.5 (44 +/- 1.15 x 41.2 +/- 0.38) and sporocysts 22.8-24.5 x 14.7-17 (24 +/- 0.55 x 16.2 +/- 0.81) from the Java sparrow, Padda oryzivora, and Isospora indonesianensis n. sp. with oocysts 39.3-43.6 x 37-40.8 (41.8 +/- 1.3 x 39.6 +/- 1.25) and sporocysts 25.6-28.4 x 15.2-18.5 (27.1 +/- 1.05 x 16.8 +/- 1.22) from the chestnut Munia, Lonchura malacca (L). The host birds belong to the order Passerorida.
The occurrence of canine hepatozoonosis in Thailand is primarily caused by Hepatozoon canis. Recently, the relationship of hematology and biochemistry with this disease has been studied, but knowledge regarding the relationship between the quantity of H. canis intracellular gamonts and the hematological profile has not yet been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical, hematological and biochemical profile of H. canis-positive dogs and the relationship of the number of H. canis gamonts, animal signalment, and hematological and biochemical values. A total of 185 H. canis-positive blood samples were examined, including buffy coat smears and comprehensive data. The number of gamonts was randomly counted from buffy coat smears samples (75/185). The dogs infected with H. canis presented to the animal hospital mostly for health status checks, anorexia, or accidents. Observations from the physical examination on the first day of registration included systemic abnormalities such as digestive, integument, respiratory, urogenital, etc. Most of the dogs showed clinical signs of systemic abnormality in more than one system. Our study shows that plasma proteins are correlated with the number of H. canis gamonts, using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient with significant difference (p <0.05). This finding could be applied to improve the diagnosis and treatment of canine hepatozoonosis.
Recent reports from New Zealand indicate Neospora caninum has a possible role in causing abortions in sheep. Transmission of N. caninum via semen has been documented in cattle. This study aimed to investigate if horizontal transmission through semen was also possible in sheep. Initially, 6-month old crossbred ram lambs (n=32), seronegative to N. caninum, were divided into 4 equal groups. Group 1 remained uninoculated whilst the remainder were inoculated with N. caninum tachyzoites intravenously as follows: Group 2 - 50 tachyzoites; Group 3 - 10(3) tachyzoites; Group 4 - 10(7) tachyzoites. Semen samples were collected weekly for 8 weeks for the detection of N. caninum DNA and quantified using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Plasma collected 1 month post-inoculation was subjected to ELISA (IDEXX Chekit) and Western blot. At 2 weeks post-infection, three rams from Group 1 (uninoculated) and three rams from Group 4 (10(7)tachyzoites/ml) were mated with two groups of 16 ewes over two oestrus cycles. Ewe sera collected 1 and 2 months post-mating were tested for seroconversion by ELISA and Western blot. All experimentally infected rams seroconverted by 1 month with ELISA S/P% values ranging from 11% to 36.5% in Group 2, 12-39.5% in Group 3 and 40-81% in Group 4. However, none of the ewes mated with the experimentally infected rams seroconverted. For the Western blot, responses towards immunodominant antigens (IDAs) were observed in ram sera directed against proteins at 10, 17, 21, 25-29, 30, 31, 33 and 37 kDa. Rams in Group 2, 3 and 4 were noted to have at least 3 IDAs present. None of the ewes showed any of the 8 prominent IDAs except for the one at 21 kDa which was seen in 30 out of 32 ewes in both groups. N. caninum DNA was detected intermittently in the ram's semen up to 5 weeks post-inoculation with the concentrations ranging from that equivalent to 1-889 tachyzoites per ml of semen. Low concentrations of N. caninum DNA were also detected in the brain tissue of two rams (Groups 1 and 4). These results suggest that although N. caninum DNA can be found in the semen of experimentally infected rams, the transmission of N. caninum via natural mating is an unlikely event.
Recent reports indicate Neospora caninum has a possible role in causing abortions in sheep in New Zealand. Knowledge about the epidemiology of neosporosis in sheep is limited. This study aimed to adapt and validate a commercially available ELISA assay as an IgG avidity assay to discriminate between acute (primary and re-inoculated) and chronic N. caninum infections in sheep. In addition, it was used to compare the antibody avidity values between lambs from ewes inoculated with N. caninum either during the pregnancy or in the previous year. The avidity assay was undertaken by using 6M urea for the first wash after incubation with the primary antibody in the commercial ELISA (Chekit* Neospora antibody test kit, IDEXX Laboratories, Australia). Sequential serum samples were obtained from naïve ewes (n=16) experimentally inoculated with live N. caninum tachyzoites. All ewes were seropositive by two weeks post-inoculation and remained seropositive for 20 weeks post-inoculation. There was a linear relationship between time after inoculation and avidity values (p<0.05) over the first 24 weeks. In Week 4, all animals had avidity values <35% and by Week 8, 8/16 animals had avidity values of >35%. These results suggest that an avidity value of <35% indicates a recent primary infection while a value of >35% is indicative of a chronic infection. The assay was then validated using samples from other groups of experimentally inoculated sheep as well as samples from naturally infected ewes. When comparing sample to positive ratio (S/P) and avidity values from lambs born from recently inoculated ewes with those from ewes inoculated the previous year and re-inoculated in the current year, it was possible to differentiate the lambs at 2 weeks of age. Lambs from recently inoculated ewes had low S/P and avidity values at 2 weeks of age which increased by 12 weeks of age. In comparison, lambs from re-inoculated ewes had high S/P and avidity values at 2 weeks of age, due to maternal antibody influence but values were similar to those from lambs that were born from recently inoculated ewes at 12 weeks of age. Avidity values for four naturally infected ewes were all >60% indicating chronic infection. These results suggest that the assay is able to discriminate between recent and chronic infection in sheep as well as able to differentiate lambs with maternal immunity compared to their own de novo immunity. As such it can be utilized to understand the kinetics of N. caninum infection in sheep.
Faecal samples of 56 common house crows (Corvus splendens Vieillot) were collected from the Petaling Jaya and Kelang districts of Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, and examined for coccidia. Intestinal tracts of 8 of the above crows wee histologically examined under light microscopy to determine the site of coccidial infection and the endogenous stages present. Fifty three (94.6%) crows had coccidial oocysts morphologically conforming to only one species of Isospora in their faeces at the time they were examined. The sporulated oocysts were found to be Isospora corviae (Ray et al. 1952) which has been emended to I. corvi. These oocysts are redescribed in greater detail. Corvus splendens is a new host record for I. corvi. Coccidial infection was observed in all the intestinal tracts and generally confined to the anterior two thirds of the intestine. The parasites occurred within intestinal epithelial cells, located usually above the host cell nucleus. Developmental stages of both the asexual and sexual phases were found in the epithelium, and are deemed to be the endogenous stages of I. corvi on the basis of the oocysts recovered from the same crows used for histological study. These stages are described here for the first time. The prevalence of I. corvi, its relationship with the host C. splendens, and its probable transmission from C. macrorhynchus are discussed.