MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study conducted at Sarawak General Hospital from 1st June to 30th September 2021. Patients who received intravenous methylprednisolone for severe COVID-19 in the ICU were identified and divided into two groups: higher dose (cumulative dose more than 10 mg per kg) and lower dose (cumulative dose less than 10 mg per kg).
RESULTS: Out of a total of 165 patients, 40 (24.2%) patients received higher dose methylprednisolone. There was no significant difference in socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, body mass index), COVID-19 vaccination status, laboratory parameters (lymphocyte count, CRP, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer), or usage of immunomodulator therapy between the groups. Overall mortality was 23.6%. Mortality in the higher dose group was twice as high compared to lower dose group (37.5% versus 19.2%) (OR 3.79, 95% CI 1.24-11.59, p<0.05). In addition, the higher dose cohort developed more secondary infections (87.5%) and had longer stays in ICU (median 11 days, IQR 8- 15). No significant difference was found between both cohorts in terms of CRP reduction, improvement of PF ratio, or the need for mechanical ventilation post methylprednisolone.
CONCLUSION: In this study, the use of higher dose methylprednisolone in COVID-19 with ARDS was not associated with better clinical outcomes. A lower dose of methylprednisolone might be sufficient in treating severe COVID-19 with ARDS.
METHODS: Secondary data from MyTB version 2.1, a national database, were analysed using R version 3.6.1. Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression were conducted to identify treatment success and its determinants.
RESULTS: In total, 3630 cases of TB cases were registered among children in Malaysia between 2013 and 2017. The overall treatment success rate was 87.1% in 2013 and plateaued between 90.1 and 91.4% from 2014 to 2017. TB treatment success was positively associated with being a Malaysian citizen (aOR = 3.43; 95% CI = 2.47, 4.75), being a child with BCG scars (aOR = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.39, 2.68), and being in the older age group (aOR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.09). Having HIV co-infection (aOR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.16, 0.63), undergoing treatment in public hospitals (aOR = 0.38; 95% CI =0.25, 0.58), having chest X-ray findings of advanced lesion (aOR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.33, 0.69), having EPTB (aOR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.41, 0.82) and having sputum-positive PTB (aOR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.43, 0.79) were negatively associated with TB treatment success among children.
CONCLUSIONS: The overall success rate of treatment among children with TB in Malaysia has achieved the target of 90% since 2014 and remained plateaued until 2017. The socio-demographic characteristics of children, place of treatment, and TB disease profile were associated with the likelihood of TB treatment success among children. The treatment success rate can be increased by strengthening contact tracing activities and promoting early identification targeting the youngest children and non-Malaysian children.
METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on hospitalised COVID-19 patients from April 2021 to June 2021 in a tertiary care centre. Ethical approval was taken from the Institutional Review Committee (Reference number: 2078/79/05). The hospital data were collected in the proforma by reviewing the patient's medical records during the study period of 2 months. Convenience sampling was used. Point estimate and 95% Confidence Interval were calculated.
RESULTS: Among 106 hospitalised COVID-19 patients, the prevalence of antibiotic use was 104 (98.11%) (95.52-100, 95% Confidence Interval). About 74 (71.15%) of patients received multiple antibiotics. The most common classes of antibiotics used were cephalosporins, seen in 85 (81.73%) and macrolides, seen in 57 (54.81%) patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of antibiotic use among hospitalised COVID-19 patients was found to be higher when compared to other studies conducted in similar settings.
KEYWORDS: antibiotics; bacterial infection; co-infection; COVID-19.
METHOD: Two hundred sixty eight serum specimens collected from patients that were diagnosed for dengue fever were confirmed for dengue virus serotyping by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Clinical, laboratory and demographic data were extracted from the hospital database to identify patients with confirmed leptospirosis infection among the dengue patients. Thus, frequency of co-infection was calculated and association of the dataset with dengue-leptospirosis co-infection was statistically determined.
RESULTS: The frequency of dengue co-infection with leptospirosis was 4.1%. Male has higher preponderance of developing the co-infection and end result of shock as clinical symptom is more likely present among co-infected cases. It is also noteworthy that, DENV 1 is the common dengue serotype among all cases identified as dengue-leptospirosis co-infection in this study.
CONCLUSION: The increasing incidence of leptospirosis among dengue infected patients has posed the need to precisely identify the presence of co-infection for the betterment of treatment without mistakenly ruling out either one of them. Thus, anticipating the possible clinical symptoms and laboratory results of dengue-leptospirosis co-infection is essential.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 110 nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) were collected from children aged one month to 12 years old who were admitted with ARI in UKMMC during a one-year period. The two qPCR assays were conducted in parallel.
RESULTS: Ninety-seven samples (88.2%) were positive by QIAstat-Dx RP and 86 (78.2%) by RespiFinder assay. The overall agreement on both assays was substantial (kappa value: 0.769) with excellent concordance rate of 96.95%. Using both assays, hRV/EV, INF A/H1N1 and RSV were the most common pathogens detected. Influenza A/H1N1 infection was significantly seen higher in older children (age group > 60 months old) (53.3%, p-value < 0.05). Meanwhile, RSV and hRV/EV infection were seen among below one-year-old children. Co-infections by two to four pathogens were detected in 17 (17.5%) samples by QIAstat-Dx RP and 12 (14%) samples by RespiFinder, mainly involving hRV/EV. Bacterial detection was observed only in 5 (4.5%) and 6 (5.4%) samples by QIAstat-Dx RP and RespiFinder, respectively, with Mycoplasma pneumoniae the most common detected.
CONCLUSION: The overall performance of the two qPCR assays was comparable and showed excellent agreement. Both detected various clinically important respiratory pathogens in a single test with simultaneous multiple infection detection. The use of qPCR as a routine diagnostic test can improve diagnosis and management.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 340 participants (165 Orang Asli and 175 Malay) aged ≤ 15 years from the Hulu Terengganu and Kemaman districts of Terengganu. Faecal samples were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites by using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome stain, modified Ziehl Neelsen stain, in vitro cultivation in Jones' medium, Kato Katz and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and behavioural information of the participants and their KAP for IPIs were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire.
RESULTS: Overall, 149 (90.3 %) Orang Asli and 43 (24.6 %) Malay children were infected by at least one parasite species. The overall prevalences of intestinal polyparasitism among the Orang Asli and Malay were 68.5 % (113/165) and 14.3 % (25/175), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that using unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, the presence of domestic animals, not wearing shoes when outside, not washing vegetables before consumption, not washing hands after playing with soil, indiscriminate defecation and the low level of mother's education were the key risk factors for intestinal polyparasitism among the Orang Asli, while working mothers and the presence of domestic animals were the risk factors among the Malay children. Almost all the Malays were well aware about the IPIs while Orang Asli respondents had a poor level of related awareness.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that IPIs are highly prevalent in rural Terengganu, Malaysia. Community awareness about IPIs was found to be imperative in protecting Malay children from these infections. An integrated control programme for the prevention and control of IPIs is highly recommended for these communities, with a special emphasis on the Orang Asli population.