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  1. Hser YI, Liang D, Lan YC, Vicknasingam BK, Chakrabarti A
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol, 2016 09;11(3):383-93.
    PMID: 27000123 DOI: 10.1007/s11481-016-9665-x
    Drug abuse and co-occurring infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Asian countries are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious consequences of these risks/problems, as they have some of the highest rates of these diseases. This review describes drug abuse, HIV, and hepatitis C (HCV) in Asian countries. The most commonly used illicit drugs include opioids, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cannabis, and ketamine. Among people who inject drugs, HIV rates range from 6.3 % in China to 19 % in Malaysia, and HCV ranges from 41 % in India and Taiwan to 74 % in Vietnam. In the face of the HIV epidemics, drug policies in these countries are slowly changing from the traditional punitive approach (e.g., incarcerating drug users or requiring registration as a drug user) to embrace public health approaches, including, for example, community-based treatment options as well as harm reduction approaches to reduce needle sharing and thus HIV transmission. HIV and HCV molecular epidemiology indicates limited geographic diffusion. While the HIV prevalence is declining in all five countries, use of new drugs (e.g., ATS, ketamine) continues to increase, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors associated with drug use-increasing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV, particularly among men who have sex with men. Screening, early intervention, and continued scaling up of therapeutic options (drug treatment and recovery support, ART, long-term HIV and HCV care for drug users) are critical for effective control or continued reduction of drug abuse and co-infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coinfection/epidemiology*
  2. Nursyazana MT, Mohdzain SN, Jeffery J
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Jun;30(2):199-210.
    PMID: 23959485 MyJurnal
    A study to determine the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites and endoparasites infesting wild rat population of Carey Island was carried out from June to December 2010. A total of 81 rats were captured from various locations on Carey Island. Four rat species were identified namely, Rattus tiomanicus (45.7%), Rattus rattus diardii (25.9%), Rattus argentiventer (16%) and Rattus norvegicus (12.3%). Low diversity of ecto and endoparasites were observed infecting the rodent population with 8 ecto and 8 endoparasites species recorded. The ectoparasites recovered fell under 3 broad groups, namely mites (Laelaps nuttali, Laelaps echidninus, Laelaps sculpturatus, Listrophoroides sp. and Ornithonyssus bacoti), lice (Polyplax spinulosa and Hoplopleura pacifica) and tick (Ixodes granulatus) while endoparasites recovered were cestodes (Taenia taeniaformis and Hymenolepis diminuta) and nematodes (Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, Mastophorus muris, Heterakis spumosa, Hepatojarakus malayae and Syphacia muris). The rat population was observed harbouring more than one parasite species. Analysis of data also showed neither intrinsic (host age, host sex) nor extrinsic (season) factors influenced the macroparasites community structure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coinfection/epidemiology
  3. Elyana FN, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Ithoi I, Abdulsalam AM, Dawaki S, Nasr NA, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2016 07 16;9(1):398.
    PMID: 27422533 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1678-z
    BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are still major health problems in many developing countries including Malaysia, particularly in the poor and socioeconomically deprived rural and remote communities in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of IPIs and to identify the key factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism as well as to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) on IPIs among rural Orang Asli and Malay communities in Terengganu, Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 340 participants (165 Orang Asli and 175 Malay) aged ≤ 15 years from the Hulu Terengganu and Kemaman districts of Terengganu. Faecal samples were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites by using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome stain, modified Ziehl Neelsen stain, in vitro cultivation in Jones' medium, Kato Katz and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and behavioural information of the participants and their KAP for IPIs were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Overall, 149 (90.3 %) Orang Asli and 43 (24.6 %) Malay children were infected by at least one parasite species. The overall prevalences of intestinal polyparasitism among the Orang Asli and Malay were 68.5 % (113/165) and 14.3 % (25/175), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that using unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, the presence of domestic animals, not wearing shoes when outside, not washing vegetables before consumption, not washing hands after playing with soil, indiscriminate defecation and the low level of mother's education were the key risk factors for intestinal polyparasitism among the Orang Asli, while working mothers and the presence of domestic animals were the risk factors among the Malay children. Almost all the Malays were well aware about the IPIs while Orang Asli respondents had a poor level of related awareness.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that IPIs are highly prevalent in rural Terengganu, Malaysia. Community awareness about IPIs was found to be imperative in protecting Malay children from these infections. An integrated control programme for the prevention and control of IPIs is highly recommended for these communities, with a special emphasis on the Orang Asli population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Coinfection/epidemiology*
  4. Asma I, Johari S, Sim BL, Lim YA
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Aug;28(2):400-10.
    PMID: 22041762 MyJurnal
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have greater susceptibility to infections by a myriad of microorganisms which can cause significant morbidity and mortality compared to immunocompetent individuals. Of these microbial infections, intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) however are receiving less attention than bacterial and viral infections, hence, the lack of information of parasitic infections in HIV individuals. Prevalence of IPIs among 346 HIV-infected individuals in Malaysia was determined in this study. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) was 37.9% (131 of 346) with protozoa infections (18.8%) being more common compared to helminth infections (7.5%). Observed protozoa include Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (16.8%), Cryptosporidium parvum (12.4%), Isospora belli (10.1%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (4.9%) and Giardia duodenalis (intestinalis) (3.2%) whilst helminthes which were detected comprised of Ascaris lumbricoides (13.9%), Trichuris trichiura (6.4%) and hookworms (0.6%). Among those 131 infected, 50.4% had multiple infections and 48.9% had single parasitic infection. The CD4 counts were significantly lower (i.e., 200 cells/mm³) in patients harbouring IPIs. Of those individuals infected with intestinal parasites, 49% were intravenous drug users and 58% were not on any antiretroviral therapy. Most were asymptomatic and had concurrent opportunistic infections (OIs) mainly with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. These results confirmed that IPIs are ubiquitous among HIV-infected individuals, especially those presenting with low CD4 T cells counts, and provide useful insights into the epidemiology of these infections among HIV-infected patients in Malaysia. It is therefore recommended, that diagnosis of these intestinal parasitic pathogens should be conducted on a routine basis for better management of gastrointestinal illnesses among HIV individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coinfection/epidemiology
  5. Suppiah J, Chan SY, Ng MW, Khaw YS, Ching SM, Mat-Nor LA, et al.
    J. Biomed. Sci., 2017 Jun 28;24(1):40.
    PMID: 28659189 DOI: 10.1186/s12929-017-0344-x
    BACKGROUND: Dengue and leptospirosis infections are currently two major endemics in Malaysia. Owing to the overlapping clinical symptoms between both the diseases, frequent misdiagnosis and confusion of treatment occurs. As a solution, the present work initiated a pilot study to investigate the incidence related to co-infection of leptospirosis among dengue patients. This enables the identification of more parameters to predict the occurrence of co-infection.

    METHOD: Two hundred sixty eight serum specimens collected from patients that were diagnosed for dengue fever were confirmed for dengue virus serotyping by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Clinical, laboratory and demographic data were extracted from the hospital database to identify patients with confirmed leptospirosis infection among the dengue patients. Thus, frequency of co-infection was calculated and association of the dataset with dengue-leptospirosis co-infection was statistically determined.

    RESULTS: The frequency of dengue co-infection with leptospirosis was 4.1%. Male has higher preponderance of developing the co-infection and end result of shock as clinical symptom is more likely present among co-infected cases. It is also noteworthy that, DENV 1 is the common dengue serotype among all cases identified as dengue-leptospirosis co-infection in this study.

    CONCLUSION: The increasing incidence of leptospirosis among dengue infected patients has posed the need to precisely identify the presence of co-infection for the betterment of treatment without mistakenly ruling out either one of them. Thus, anticipating the possible clinical symptoms and laboratory results of dengue-leptospirosis co-infection is essential.

    Matched MeSH terms: Coinfection/epidemiology*
  6. Wong WK, Mohd-Nor N, Noordin R, Foo PC, Mohamed Z, Haq JA, et al.
    Parasitol. Res., 2019 Sep;118(9):2635-2642.
    PMID: 31363922 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-019-06406-7
    The geographical distribution of tuberculosis (TB) overlaps with various parasitic infections. Uncovering the characteristics of coinfecting parasites that potentially affect the host susceptibility to TB is pertinent as it may provide input to current TB therapeutic and prophylactic measures. The present study was aimed at examining the types of parasitic infections in TB patients and healthy TB contacts (HC) in Orang Asli, Malaysian aborigines, who dwelled in the co-endemic areas. Stool and serum samples were collected from Orang Asli who fulfilled the selection criteria and provided written informed consents. Selected parasitic infections in the two study groups were determined by stool examination and commercial serum antibody immunoassays. The prevalence of parasitic infections in TB and HC participants were 100% (n = 82) and 94.6% (n = 55) respectively. The parasitic infections comprised toxocariasis, trichuriasis, amoebiasis, toxoplasmosis, hookworm infection, ascariasis, strongyloidiasis, and brugian filariasis, in decreasing order of prevalence. Overall, helminth or protozoa infection did not show any significant association with the study groups. However, when the species of the parasite was considered, individuals exposed to trichuriasis and toxoplasmosis showed significant odds reduction (odds ratio (OR) 0.338; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.166, 0.688) and odds increment (OR 2.193; 95% CI 1.051, 4.576) to have active pulmonary TB, respectively. In conclusion, trichuriasis and toxoplasmosis may have distinct negative and positive associations respectively with the increase of host susceptibility to TB.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coinfection/epidemiology
  7. Chen M, Wong WW, Law MG, Kiertiburanakul S, Yunihastuti E, Merati TP, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(3):e0150512.
    PMID: 26933963 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150512
    BACKGROUND: We assessed the effects of hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection on outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD), a multi-center cohort of HIV-infected patients in the Asia-Pacific region.

    METHODS: Patients testing HBs antigen (Ag) or HCV antibody (Ab) positive within enrollment into TAHOD were considered HBV or HCV co-infected. Factors associated with HBV and/or HCV co-infection were assessed by logistic regression models. Factors associated with post-ART HIV immunological response (CD4 change after six months) and virological response (HIV RNA <400 copies/ml after 12 months) were also determined. Survival was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test.

    RESULTS: A total of 7,455 subjects were recruited by December 2012. Of patients tested, 591/5656 (10.4%) were HBsAg positive, 794/5215 (15.2%) were HCVAb positive, and 88/4966 (1.8%) were positive for both markers. In multivariate analysis, HCV co-infection, age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, and HIV-1 subtype were associated with immunological recovery. Age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, ART regimen, prior ART and HIV-1 subtype, but not HBV or HCV co-infection, affected HIV RNA suppression. Risk factors affecting mortality included HCV co-infection, age, CDC stage, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA and prior mono/dual ART. Shortest survival was seen in subjects who were both HBV- and HCV-positive.

    CONCLUSION: In this Asian cohort of HIV-infected patients, HCV co-infection, but not HBV co-infection, was associated with lower CD4 cell recovery after ART and increased mortality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Coinfection/epidemiology
  8. Angal L, Mahmud R, Samin S, Yap NJ, Ngui R, Amir A, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2015 Oct 29;15:467.
    PMID: 26511347 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-015-1178-3
    BACKGROUND: The prison management in Malaysia is proactively seeking to improve the health status of the prison inmates. Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are widely distributed throughout the world and are still gaining great concern due to their significant morbidity and mortality among infected humans. In Malaysia, there is a paucity of information on IPIs among prison inmates. In order to further enhance the current health strategies employed, the present study aims to establish firm data on the prevalence and diversity of IPIs among HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals in a prison, an area in which informed knowledge is still very limited.

    METHODS: Samples were subjected to microscopy examination and serological test (only for Strongyloides). Speciation for parasites on microscopy-positive samples and seropositive samples for Strongyloides were further determined via polymerase chain reaction. SPSS was used for statistical analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 294 stool and blood samples each were successfully collected, involving 131 HIV positive and 163 HIV negative adult male inmates whose age ranged from 21 to 69-years-old. Overall prevalence showed 26.5% was positive for various IPIs. The IPIs detected included Blastocystis sp., Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and Trichuris trichiura. Comparatively, the rate of IPIs was slightly higher among the HIV positive inmates (27.5%) than HIV negative inmates (25.8%). Interestingly, seropositivity for S. stercoralis was more predominant in HIV negative inmates (10.4%) compared to HIV-infected inmates (6.9%), however these findings were not statistically significant. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of Blastocystis, Strongyloides, Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar.

    CONCLUSIONS: These data will enable the health care providers and prison management staff to understand the trend and epidemiological situations in HIV/parasitic co-infections in a prison. This information will further assist in providing evidence-based guidance to improve prevention, control and management strategies of IPIs co-infections among both HIV positive and HIV negative inmates in a prison environment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Coinfection/epidemiology
  9. Akhtar A, Khan AH, Sulaiman SA, Soo CT, Khan K
    J. Med. Virol., 2016 Mar;88(3):455-60.
    PMID: 26255632 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24347
    According to WHO, Malaysia has been classified as a concentrated epidemic country due to progression of HIV infection in the population of injecting drug users. The main objectives of current study are to determine the prevalence of HBV among HIV-positive individuals in a tertiary care hospital of Malaysia and to assess the predictors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients. A retrospective, cross-sectional study is conducted at Hospital Palau Pinang, Malaysia. The collection of socio-demographic data as well as clinical data is done with the help of data collection form. Data were analyzed after putting the collected values of required data by using statistical software SPSS version 20.0 and P > 0.05 is considered as significant. Results show that the overall prevalence of HBV was 86 (13%) including 495 (74.5%) males and 169 (25.5%) females among a total of 664 HIV-infected patients. It was observed that there is a high prevalence of HIV-HBV co-infection in males 76 (11.4%) as compared to females 10 (1.5%) (P = 0.002). The median age of the study population was 39 years. The statistical significant risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were observed in the variables of gender, age groups, and injecting drug users. The findings of the present study shows that the prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-positive patients was 13% and the risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were gender, age, and intravenous drug users.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coinfection/epidemiology*
  10. William T, Parameswaran U, Lee WK, Yeo TW, Anstey NM, Ralph AP
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2015;15:32.
    PMID: 25636334 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-015-0758-6
    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is generally well controlled in Malaysia, but remains an important problem in the nation's eastern states. In order to better understand factors contributing to high TB rates in the eastern state of Sabah, our aims were to describe characteristics of patients with TB at a large outpatient clinic, and determine the prevalence of HIV co-infection. Additionally, we sought to test sensitivity and specificity of the locally-available point-of-care HIV test kits.
    METHODS: We enrolled consenting adults with smear-positive pulmonary TB for a 2-year period at Luyang Clinic, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. Participants were questioned about ethnicity, smoking, prior TB, disease duration, symptoms and comorbidities. Chest radiographs were scored using a previously devised tool. HIV was tested after counselling using 2 point-of-care tests for each patient: the test routinely in use at the TB clinic (either Advanced Quality™ Rapid Anti-HIV 1&2, FACTS anti-HIV 1/2 RAPID or HIV (1 + 2) Antibody Colloidal Gold), and a comparator test (Abbott Determine™ HIV-1/2, Inverness Medical). Positive tests were confirmed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), particle agglutination and line immunoassay.
    RESULTS: 176 participants were enrolled; 59 (33.5%) were non-Malaysians and 104 (59.1%) were male. Smoking rates were high (81/104 males, 77.9%), most had cavitary disease (51/145, 64.8%), and 81/176 (46.0%) had haemoptysis. The median period of symptoms prior to treatment onset was 8 weeks. Diabetes was present in 12. People with diabetes or other comorbidities had less severe TB, suggesting different healthcare seeking behaviours in this group. All participants consented to HIV testing: three (1.7%) were positive according to Determine™ and EIA, but one of these tested negative on the point-of-care test available at the clinic (Advanced Quality™ Rapid Anti-HIV 1&2). The low number of positive tests and changes in locally-available test type meant that accurate estimates of sensitivity and specificity were not possible.
    CONCLUSION: Patients had advanced disease at diagnosis, long diagnostic delays, low HIV co-infection rates, high smoking rates among males, and migrants may be over-represented. These findings provide important insights to guide local TB control efforts. Caution is required in using some point-of-care HIV tests, and ongoing quality control measures are of major importance.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan Luyang (Tuberculosis Clinic), Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia,
    Matched MeSH terms: Coinfection/epidemiology*
  11. Gharamah AA, Moharram AM, Ismail MA, Al-Hussaini AK
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2012 Aug;2(8):655-9.
    PMID: 23569989 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60115-4
    To study risk factors, contributing factors of bacterial and fungal endophthalmitis in Upper Egypt, test the isolated species sensitive to some therapeutic agents, and to investigate the air-borne bacteria and fungi in opthalmology operating rooms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coinfection/epidemiology
  12. Jegede FE, Oyeyi TI, Abdulrahman SA, Mbah HA, Badru T, Agbakwuru C, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(3):e0174233.
    PMID: 28346490 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174233
    BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria co-infection may present worse health outcomes in the tropics. Information on HIV/malaria co-infection effect on immune-hematological profiles is critical for patient care and there is a paucity of such data in Nigeria.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immune-hematological profiles among HIV infected patients compared to HIV/malaria co-infected for ART management improvement.

    METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted at Infectious Disease Hospital, Kano. A total of 761 consenting adults attending ART clinic were randomly selected and recruited between June and December 2015. Participants' characteristics and clinical details including two previous CD4 counts were collected. Venous blood sample (4ml) was collected in EDTA tube for malaria parasite diagnosis by rapid test and confirmed with microscopy. Hematological profiles were analyzed by Sysmex XP-300 and CD4 count by Cyflow cytometry. Data was analyzed with SPSS 22.0 using Chi-Square test for association between HIV/malaria parasites co-infection with age groups, gender, ART, cotrimoxazole and usage of treated bed nets. Mean hematological profiles by HIV/malaria co-infection and HIV only were compared using independent t-test and mean CD4 count tested by mixed design repeated measures ANOVA. Statistical significant difference at probability of <0.05 was considered for all variables.

    RESULTS: Of the 761 HIV infected, 64% were females, with a mean age of ± (SD) 37.30 (10.4) years. Prevalence of HIV/malaria co-infection was 27.7% with Plasmodium falciparum specie accounting for 99.1%. No statistical significant difference was observed between HIV/malaria co-infection in association to age (p = 0.498) and gender (p = 0.789). A significantly (p = 0.026) higher prevalence (35.2%) of co-infection was observed among non-ART patients compared to (26%) ART patients. Prevalence of co-infection was significantly lower (20.0%) among cotrimoxazole users compared to those not on cotrimoxazole (37%). The same significantly lower co-infection prevalence (22.5%) was observed among treated bed net users compared to those not using treated bed nets (42.9%) (p = 0.001). Out of 16 hematology profiles evaluated, six showed significant difference between the two groups (i) packed cell volume (p = <0.001), (ii) mean cell volume (p = 0.005), (iii) mean cell hemoglobin concentration (p = 0.011), (iv) absolute lymphocyte count (p = 0.022), (v) neutrophil percentage count (p = 0.020) and (vi) platelets distribution width (p = <0.001). Current mean CD4 count cell/μl (349±12) was significantly higher in HIV infected only compared to co-infected (306±17), (p = 0.035). A significantly lower mean CD4 count (234.6 ± 6.9) was observed among respondents on ART compared to non-ART (372.5 ± 13.2), p<0.001, mean difference = -137.9).

    CONCLUSION: The study revealed a high burden of HIV and malaria co-infection among the studied population. Co-infection was significantly lower among patients who use treated bed nets as well as cotrimoxazole chemotherapy and ART. Six hematological indices differed significantly between the two groups. Malaria and HIV co-infection significantly reduces CD4 count. In general, to achieve better management of all HIV patients in this setting, diagnosing malaria, prompt antiretroviral therapy, monitoring CD4 and some hematology indices on regular basis is critical.

    Matched MeSH terms: Coinfection/epidemiology
  13. Dhanoa A, Hassan SS, Ngim CF, Lau CF, Chan TS, Adnan NA, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2016 08 11;16(1):406.
    PMID: 27514512 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-016-1731-8
    BACKGROUND: The co-circulation of 4 DENV serotypes in geographically expanding area, has resulted in increasing occurrence of DENV co-infections. However, studies assessing the clinical impact of DENV co-infections have been scarce and have involved small number of patients. This study explores the impact of DENV co-infection on clinical manifestations and laboratory parameters.

    METHODS: This retrospective study involved consecutive hospitalized patients with non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen positivity during an outbreak (Jan to April 2014). Multiplex RT-PCR was performed directly on NS1 positive serum samples to detect and determine the DENV serotypes. All PCR-positive serum samples were inoculated onto C6/36 cells. Multiplex PCR was repeated on the supernatant of the first blind passage of the serum-infected cells. Random samples of supernatant from the first passage of C6/36 infected cells were subjected to whole genome sequencing. Clinical and laboratory variables were compared between patients with and without DENV co-infections.

    RESULTS: Of the 290 NS1 positive serum samples, 280 were PCR positive for DENV. Medical notes of 262 patients were available for analysis. All 4 DENV serotypes were identified. Of the 262 patients, forty patients (15.3 %) had DENV co-infections: DENV-1/DENV-2(85 %), DENV-1/DENV-3 (12.5 %) and DENV-2/DENV-3 (2.5 %). Another 222 patients (84.7 %) were infected with single DENV serotype (mono-infection), with DENV- 1 (76.6 %) and DENV- 2 (19.8 %) predominating. Secondary dengue infections occurred in 31.3 % patients. Whole genome sequences of random samples representing DENV-1 and DENV-2 showed heterogeneity amongst the DENVs. Multivariate analysis revealed that pleural effusion and the presence of warning signs were significantly higher in the co-infected group, both in the overall and subgroup analysis. Diarrhoea was negatively associated with co-infection. Additionally, DENV-2 co-infected patients had higher frequency of patients with severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 50,000/mm(3)), whereas DENV-2 mono-infections presented more commonly with myalgia. Elevated creatinine levels were more frequent amongst the co-infected patients in univariate analysis. Haemoconcentration and haemorrhagic manifestations were not higher amongst the co-infected patients. Serotypes associated with severe dengue were: DENV-1 (n = 9), DENV-2 (n = 1), DENV-3 (n = 1) in mono-infected patients and DENV-1/DENV-2 (n = 5) and DENV-1/DENV-3 (n = 1) amongst the co-infected patients.

    CONCLUSION: DENV co-infections are not uncommon in a hyperendemic region and co-infected patients are skewed towards more severe clinical manifestations compared to mono-infected patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Coinfection/epidemiology
  14. Durier N, Yunihastuti E, Ruxrungtham K, Kinh NV, Kamarulzaman A, Boettiger D, et al.
    J. Viral Hepat., 2017 03;24(3):187-196.
    PMID: 27917597 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12630
    Data on markers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients in resource-limited settings are scarce. We assessed HCV RNA, HCV genotype (GT), IL28B GT and liver fibrosis (FibroScan® ) in 480 HIV-infected patients with positive HCV antibody in four HIV treatment centres in South-East Asia. We enrolled 165 (34.4%) patients in Jakarta, 158 (32.9%) in Bangkok, 110 (22.9%) in Hanoi and 47 (9.8%) in Kuala Lumpur. Overall, 426 (88.8%) were male, the median (IQR) age was 38.1 (34.7-42.5) years, 365 (76.0%) reported HCV exposure through injecting drug use, and 453 (94.4%) were on combination antiretroviral therapy. The median (IQR) CD4 count was 446 (325-614) cells/mm3 and 208 (94.1%) of 221 patients tested had HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL. A total of 412 (85.8%) had detectable HCV RNA, at a median (IQR) of 6.2 (5.4-6.6) log10 IU/mL. Among 380 patients with HCV GT, 223 (58.7%) had GT1, 97 (25.5%) had GT3, 43 (11.3%) had GT6, eight (2.1%) had GT4, two (0.5%) had GT2, and seven (1.8%) had indeterminate GT. Of 222 patients with IL28B testing, 189 (85.1%) had rs12979860 CC genotype, and 199 (89.6%) had rs8099917 TT genotype. Of 380 patients with FibroScan® , 143 (37.6%) had no/mild liver fibrosis (F0-F1), 83 (21.8%) had moderate fibrosis (F2), 74 (19.5%) had severe fibrosis (F3), and 79 (20.8%) had cirrhosis (F4). One patient (0.3%) had FibroScan® failure. In conclusion, a high proportion of HIV-HCV-coinfected patients had chronic HCV infection. HCV GT1 was predominant, and 62% of patients had liver disease warranting prompt treatment (≥F2).
    Matched MeSH terms: Coinfection/epidemiology
  15. Aurpibul L, Kariminia A, Vibol U, Fong MS, Le ON, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 2018 08;37(8):788-793.
    PMID: 29846357 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001901
    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HBV)-HIV coinfection is associated with liver inflammation, which can progress to liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We determined HBV seroprevalence in children and adolescents participating in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.

    METHODS: A multisite cross-sectional study was conducted in HIV-infected patients currently <25 years old receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) who had HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), or HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs) or HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) tested during 2012-2013. HBV coinfection was defined as having either a positive HBsAg test or being anti-HBc positive and anti-HBs negative, reflective of past HBV infection. HBV seroprotection was defined as having a positive anti-HBs test.

    RESULTS: A total of 3380 patients from 6 countries (Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia and India) were included. The current median (interquartile range) age was 11.2 (7.8-15.1) years. Of the 2755 patients (81.5%) with HBsAg testing, 130 (4.7%) were positive. Of 1558 (46%) with anti-HBc testing, 77 (4.9%) were positive. Thirteen of 1037 patients with all 3 tests were anti-HBc positive and HBsAg and anti-HBs negative. One child was positive for anti-HBc and negative for anti-HBs but did not have HBsAg tested. The prevalence of HBV coinfection was 144/2759 (5.2%) (95% confidence interval: 4.4-6.1). Of 1093 patients (32%) with anti-HBs testing, 257 (23.5%; confidence interval: 21.0-26.0) had positive tests representing HBV seroprotection.

    CONCLUSIONS: The estimated prevalence of HBV coinfection in this cohort of Asian HIV-infected children and adolescents on ART was 5.2%. The majority of children and adolescents tested in this cohort (76.5%) did not have protective HBV antibody. The finding supports HBV screening of HIV-infected children and adolescents to guide revaccination, the use of ART with anti-HBV activity and future monitoring.

    Matched MeSH terms: Coinfection/epidemiology*
  16. Yap SH, Abdullah NK, McStea M, Takayama K, Chong ML, Crisci E, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(10):e0186000.
    PMID: 29016635 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0186000
    BACKGROUND: Co-infections with human herpesvirus (HHV) have been associated with residual chronic inflammation in antiretroviral (ART)-treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, the role of HHV in modulating the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected individuals is poorly understood. Thus, we investigated the seroprevalence of four common HHVs among treated HIV-infected participants and their impact on kynurenine/tryptophan (K/T) ratio and long-term CD4 T-cell recovery in HIV/HHV co-infected participants.

    METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, HIV-infected participants receiving suppressive ART for a minimum of 12 months were recruited from the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia. Stored plasma was analyzed for CMV, VZV, HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgG antibody levels, immune activation markers (interleukin-6, interferon-γ, neopterin and sCD14), kynurenine and tryptophan concentrations. The influence of the number of HHV co-infection and K/T ratio on CD4 T-cell recovery was assessed using multivariate Poisson regression.

    RESULTS: A total of 232 HIV-infected participants were recruited and all participants were seropositive for at least one HHV; 96.1% with CMV, 86.6% with VZV, 70.7% with HSV-1 and 53.9% with HSV-2. K/T ratio had a significant positive correlation with CMV (rho = 0.205, p = 0.002), VZV (rho = 0.173, p = 0.009) and a tendency with HSV-2 (rho = 0.120, p = 0.070), with CMV antibody titer demonstrating the strongest modulating effect on K/T ratio among the four HHVs assessed in SOM analysis. In multivariate analysis, higher K/T ratio (p = 0.03) and increasing number of HHV co-infections (p<0.001) were independently associated with poorer CD4 T-cell recovery following 12 months of ART initiation.

    CONCLUSION: Multiple HHV co-infections are common among ART-treated HIV-infected participants in the developing country setting and associated with persistent immune activation and poorer CD4 T-cell recovery.

    Matched MeSH terms: Coinfection/epidemiology*
  17. Jiram AI, Ooi CH, Rubio JM, Hisam S, Karnan G, Sukor NM, et al.
    Malar. J., 2019 May 02;18(1):156.
    PMID: 31046769 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-019-2786-y
    BACKGROUND: Malaysia has declared its aim to eliminate malaria with a goal of achieving zero local transmission by the year 2020. However, targeting the human reservoir of infection, including those with asymptomatic infection is required to achieve malaria elimination. Diagnosing asymptomatic malaria is not as straightforward due to the obvious lack of clinical manifestations and often subpatent level of parasites. Accurate diagnosis of malaria is important for providing realistic estimates of malaria burden and preventing misinformed interventions. Low levels of parasitaemia acts as silent reservoir of transmission thus remains infectious to susceptible mosquito vectors. Hence, the aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of asymptomatic submicroscopic malaria (SMM) in the District of Belaga, Sarawak.

    METHODS: In 2013, a total of 1744 dried blood spots (DBS) were obtained from residents of 8 longhouses who appeared healthy. Subsequently, 251 venous blood samples were collected from residents of 2 localities in 2014 based on the highest number of submicroscopic cases from prior findings. Thin and thick blood films were prepared from blood obtained from all participants in this study. Microscopic examination were carried out on all samples and a nested and nested multiplex PCR were performed on samples collected in 2013 and 2014 respectively.

    RESULTS: No malaria parasites were detected in all the Giemsa-stained blood films. However, of the 1744 samples, 29 (1.7%) were positive for Plasmodium vivax by PCR. Additionally, of the 251 samples, the most prevalent mono-infection detected by PCR was Plasmodium falciparum 50 (20%), followed by P. vivax 39 (16%), P. knowlesi 9 (4%), and mixed infections 20 (8%).

    CONCLUSIONS: This research findings conclude evidence of Plasmodium by PCR, among samples previously undetectable by routine blood film microscopic examination, in local ethnic minority who are clinically healthy. SMM in Belaga district is attributed not only to P. vivax, but also to P. falciparum and P. knowlesi. In complementing efforts of programme managers, there is a need to increase surveillance for SMM nationwide to estimate the degree of SMM that warrant measures to block new transmission of malaria.

    Matched MeSH terms: Coinfection/epidemiology
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