Tissue engineering focuses on developing biological substitutes to restore, maintain or improve tissue functions. The three main components of its application are scaffold, cell and growthstimulating signals. Scaffolds composed of biomaterials mainly function as the structural support for ex vivo cells to attach and proliferate. They also provide physical, mechanical and biochemical cues for the differentiation of cells before transferring to the in vivo site. Collagen has been long used in various clinical applications, including drug delivery. The wide usage of collagen in the clinical field can be attributed to its abundance in nature, biocompatibility, low antigenicity and biodegradability. In addition, the high tensile strength and fibril-forming ability of collagen enable its fabrication into various forms, such as sheet/membrane, sponge, hydrogel, beads, nanofibre and nanoparticle, and as a coating material. The wide option of fabrication technology together with the excellent biological and physicochemical characteristics of collagen has stimulated the use of collagen scaffolds in various tissue engineering applications. This review describes the fabrication methods used to produce various forms of scaffolds used in tissue engineering applications.
Gelatin and collagen are considered halal-critical ingredients as they are typically derived from either bovine or porcine animals. Current analytical methods for determining the sources of gelatin and collagen suffer from limitations in terms of robustness and false positives in peptide matching. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the utility of monitoring hydroxyproline, a signature amino acid for gelatin and collagen, for identifying potentially haram foodstuffs. To determine the hydroxyproline profiles among animal- and plant-based samples, one-way univariate analysis of variance followed by pair-wise comparison was used to establish statistical significance. Multivariate chemometric analysis through principal component analysis revealed a discrete distribution pattern among 59 samples due to hydroxyproline variability. Finally, inter- and intra-laboratory comparisons demonstrated the validity and robustness of hydroxyproline determination according to ISO 17025. Thus, this preliminary identification technique will aid the identification of potentially haram foodstuffs.
Fibroblast-mediated compaction of collagen gels attracts extensive attention in studies of wound healing, cellular fate processes, and regenerative medicine. However, the underlying mechanism and the cellular mechanical niche still remain obscure. This study examines the mechanical behaviour of collagen fibrils during the process of compaction from an alternative perspective on the primary mechanical interaction, providing a new viewpoint on the behaviour of populated fibroblasts. We classify the collagen fibrils into three types - bent, stretched, and adherent - and deduce the respective equations governing the mechanical behaviour of each type; in particular, from a putative principle based on the stationary state of the instantaneous Hamiltonian of the mechanotransduction system, we originally quantify the stretching force exerted on each stretched fibrils. Via careful verification of a structural elementary model based on this classification, we demonstrate a clear physical picture of the compaction process, quantitatively elucidate the panorama of the micro mechanical niche and reveal an intrinsic biphasic relationship between cellular traction force and matrix elasticity. Our results also infer the underlying mechanism of tensional homoeostasis and stress shielding of fibroblasts. With this study, and sequel investigations on the putative principle proposed herein, we anticipate a refocus of the research on cellular mechanobiology, in vitro and in vivo.
There is an increasing demand of functional foods in developed countries. Yogurt plays an important role in the management of blood pressure. Several bioactive peptides isolated from Allium sativum or fish collagen have shown antihypertensive activity. Thus, in the present study the effects of A. sativum and/or Fish Collagen (FC) on proteolysis and ACE inhibitory activity in yogurt (0, 7 and 14 day) and cheese (0, 14 and 28 day) were investigated. Proteolytic activities were the highest on day 7 of refrigerated storage in A. sativum-FC-yogurt (337.0 +/- 5.3 microg g(-1)) followed by FC-yogurt (275.3 +/- 2.0 microg g(-1)), A. sativum-yogurt (245.8 +/- 4.2 microg g(-1)) and plain-yogurt (40.4 +/- 1.2 microg g(-1)). On the other hand, proteolytic activities in cheese ripening were the highest (p < 0.05) on day 14 of storage for plain and A. sativum-cheeses (411.4 +/- 4.3 and 528.7 +/- 1.6 microg g(-1), respectively). However, the presence of FC increased the proteolysis to the highest level on day 28 of storage for FC- and A. sativum-FC cheeses (641.2 +/- 0.1 and 1128.4 +/- 4.5 microg g(-1), respectively). In addition, plain- and A. sativum-yogurts with or without FC showed maximal inhibition of ACE on day 7 of storage. Fresh plain- and A. sativum-cheeses showed ACE inhibition (72.3 +/- 7.8 and 50.4 +/- 1.6 % respectively), the presence of FC in both type of cheeses reduced the ACE inhibition to 62.9 +/- 0.8 and 44.5 +/- 5.0%, respectively. However, refrigerated storage increased ACE inhibition in cheeses (p < 0.05 on day 28) in the presence of FC more than in the absence. In conclusion, the presence of FC in A. sativum-yogurt or cheese enhanced the proteolytic activity. Thus, it has potential in the development of an effective dietary strategy for hypertension associated cardiovascular diseases.
The healing process of ruptured tendons is problematic due to scar tissue formation and deteriorated material properties, and in some cases, it may take nearly a year to complete. Mechanical loading has been shown to positively influence tendon healing; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. Computational mechanobiology methods employed extensively to model bone healing have achieved high fidelity. This study aimed to investigate whether an established hyperelastic fibre-reinforced continuum model introduced by Gasser, Ogden and Holzapfel (GOH) can be used to capture the mechanical behaviour of the Achilles tendon under loading during discrete timepoints of the healing process and to assess the model's sensitivity to its microstructural parameters. Curve fitting of the GOH model against experimental tensile testing data of rat Achilles tendons at four timepoints during the tendon repair was used and achieved excellent fits ([Formula: see text]). A parametric sensitivity study using a three-level central composite design, which is a fractional factorial design method, showed that the collagen-fibre-related parameters in the GOH model-[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]-had almost equal influence on the fitting. This study demonstrates that the GOH hyperelastic fibre-reinforced model is capable of describing the mechanical behaviour of healing tendons and that further experiments should focus on establishing the structural and material parameters of collagen fibres in the healing tissue.
Two hundred four cases of fibrous lesions of the gingiva were studied histologically for the presence of calcified tissue, the nature of the connective tissue, the type of keratinization, and the degree of epithelial thickness. Initially these lesions were subcategorized into four specific entities, namely fibrous epulis, fibroepithelial polyp, calcifying fibroblastic granuloma, and ossifying fibrous epulis. It was found that 46.5% of the lesions contained calcifications. The connective tissue was represented predominantly by either the collagenous type (50.5%) or the mixed (cellular and collagenous) type (44.6%). It was also found that 36% of the lesions were ulcerated, and, of these, 79.5% were associated with the cellular type of connective tissue and calcifications. In an attempt to subcategorize the fibrous lesions into specific entities, it was found that 32 cases (15.7%) had mixed features. This fact supports the suggestion that these lesions are stages in the spectrum of a single disease process and should collectively be termed fibroblastic gingival lesions. However, it is also suggested that the two terms, namely peripheral fibroma and fibrous epulis with and without ossification, should be retained whereas the usage of other terminologies should be avoided.
Successful use of tissue expanders depends on the quality of expanded tissue. This study evaluates the impact of anisotropic self-inflating tissue expander (SITE) on the biomechanics of skin. Two different SITE were implanted subcutaneously on sheep scalps; SITE that requires 30days for maximum expansion (Group A; n=5), and SITE that requires 21days for maximum expansion (Group B; n=5). Control animals (n=5) were maintained without SITE implantation. Young's Modulus, D-periodicity, overlap and gap region length, diameter, and height difference between overlap and gap regions on collagen fibrils were analyzed using atomic force microscopy. Histology showed no significant differences in dermal thickness between control and expanded skin of groups A and B. Furthermore, most parameters of expanded skin were similar to controls (p>0.05). However, the height difference between overlap and gap regions was significantly smaller in group B compared to both control and group A (p<0.01). Strong correlation was observed between Young's Modulus of overlap and gap regions of the control and group A, but not group B. Results suggest that a relatively slower SITE can be useful in reconstructive surgery to maintain the biomechanical properties of expanded skin.
Efficiency and effectiveness of collagen extraction process contribute to huge impacts to the quality, supply and cost of the collagen produced. Jellyfish is a potential sustainable source of collagen where their applications are not limited by religious constraints and threats of transmittable diseases. The present study compared the extraction yield, physico-chemical properties and toxicology in vitro of collagens obtained by the conventional acid-assisted and pepsin-assisted extraction to an improved physical-aided extraction process. By increasing physical intervention, the production yield increased significantly compared to the conventional extraction processes (p Collagen extracted using the improved process was found to possess similar proximate and amino acids composition to those extracted using pepsin (p > .05) while retaining high molecular weight distributions and polypeptide profiles similar to those extracted using only acid. Moreover, they exhibited better appearance, instrumental colour and were found to be non-toxic in vitro and free of heavy metal contamination.
This paper describes the influence of different factors on toughness of beef semitendinosus (ST) by means of low temperature-long time cooking with single-stage (60 °C, 65 °C, 70 °C, and 75 °C for 6 h and 12 h) and two-stage sous-vide procedure (45 + 60 °C, 45 + 65 °C, 45 + 70 °C, and 45 + 75 °C; 49 + 60 °C, 49 + 65 °C, 49 + 70 °C, and 49 + 75 °C for 3 h at the first temperature, and either 3 or 9 h at the second temperature). Reduced toughness of ST beef steak muscle could be attained in 6 h at 60 °C and 45 + 60 °C were due from the minimum shrinkage of sarcomere as well as lower perimysial thickness, cooking loss, and elastic modulus. Collagen solubility showed a positive correlation to the toughness values. The relationship between proteolytic activity and shear force can be seen after 12 h of cooking duration. For the other quality attributes, two stepped cooking temperature-time combination seems to be more effective in preserving the redness values and water content than a single-stage sous-vide method.
Collagen was extracted from the body wall of sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra) using the pepsin-solubilized collagen method followed by isolation using dialysis and the ultrafiltration membrane. The yield and physicochemical properties of the collagen obtained from both isolation methods, denoted as D-PSC and UF-PSC, were compared. The ultrafiltration method affords a higher yield of collagen (11.39%) than that of the dialysis (5.15%). The isolated collagens have almost the same amino acid composition, while their functional groups, referred to as amide A, B, I, II, and III bands, were in accordance with commercial collagen, as verified by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The UV-Vis absorption peaks at 240 nm and 220 nm, respectively, indicated that the collagens produced are type-I collagen. The D-PSC showed interconnecting sheet-like fibrils, while the UF-PSC exhibited a flaky structure with flat-sheets arranged very close to each other. The higher yield and comparable physicochemical properties of the collagen obtained by ultrafiltration as compared with dialysis indicate that the membrane process has high potential to be used in large-scale collagen production for food and pharmaceutical applications.
Plain and Lycium barbarum yogurt were made in the presence and absence of fish collagen. Yogurt samples were analyzed for acidification, milk protein proteolysis, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, and sensory evaluation during refrigerated storage for up to 21 days. The o-phthaldialdehyde peptides amount of L. barbarum yogurt both in the presence and absence of fish collagen were significantly increased during 14 days of storage. SDS-PAGE showed improvement in whey proteins degradation of L. barbarum yogurt with/without fish collagen after 3 weeks of storage. L. barbarum yogurt in absence of fish collagen was acting as a great ACE inhibitor reached up to 85% on day 7 of storage. The incorporation of L. barbarum and/or fish collagen affected to a small extent the overall sensory characteristics of yogurt. Yogurt supplemented with L. barbarum and/or fish collagen may lead to the improvement in the production and formulation of yogurt differing in their anti-ACE activity.
The aim of this research is to develop biocompatible nanofibrous mats using hydroxyethyl cellulose with improved cellular adhesion profiles and stability and use these fibrous mats as potential scaffold for skin tissue engineering. Glutaraldehyde was used to treat the scaffolds water insoluble as well as improve their biostability for possible use in biomedical applications. Electrospinning of hydroxyethyl cellulose (5 wt%) with poly(vinyl alcohol) (15 wt%) incorporated with and without collagen was blended at (1:1:1) and (1:1) ratios, respectively, and was evaluated for optimal criteria as tissue engineering scaffolds. The nanofibrous mats were crosslinked and characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning electron microscope images showed that the mean diameters of blend nanofibers were gradually increased after chemically crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was carried out to understand chemical interactions in the presence of aldehyde groups. Thermal characterization results showed that the stability of hydroxyethyl cellulose/poly(vinyl alcohol) and hydroxyethyl cellulose/poly(vinyl alcohol)/collagen nanofibers was increased with glutaraldehyde treatment. Studies on cell-scaffolds interaction were carried out by culturing human fibroblast (hFOB) cells on the nanofibers by assessing the growth, proliferation, and morphologies of cells. The scanning electron microscope results show that better cell proliferation and attachment appeared on hydroxyethyl cellulose/poly(vinyl alcohol)/collagen substrates after 7 days of culturing, thus, promoting the potential of electrospun scaffolds as a promising candidate for tissue engineering applications.
The chief obstacle for reconstructing the bladder is the absence of a biomaterial, either permanent or biodegradable, that will function as a suitable scaffold for the natural process of regeneration. In this study, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) plus collagen or fibrin was evaluated for its suitability as a scaffold for urinary bladder construct. Human adipose-derived stem cells (HADSCs) were cultured, followed by incubation in smooth muscle cells differentiation media. Differentiated HADSCs were then seeded onto PLGA mesh supported with collagen or fibrin. Evaluation of cell-seeded PLGA composite immersed in culture medium was performed under a light and scanning microscope. To determine if the composite is compatible with the urodynamic properties of urinary bladder, porosity and leaking test was performed. The PLGA samples were subjected to tensile testing was pulled until PLGA fibers break. The results showed that the PLGA composite is biocompatible to differentiated HADSCs. PLGA-collagen mesh appeared to be optimal as a cell carrier while the three-layered PLGA-fibrin composite is better in relation to its leaking/ porosity property. A biomechanical test was also performed for three-layered PLGA with biological adhesive and three-layered PLGA alone. The tensile stress at failure was 30.82 ± 3.80 (MPa) and 34.36 ± 2.57 (MPa), respectively. Maximum tensile strain at failure was 19.42 ± 2.24 (mm) and 23.06 ± 2.47 (mm), respectively. Young's modulus was 0.035 ± 0.0083 and 0.043 ± 0.012, respectively. The maximum load at break was 58.55 ± 7.90 (N) and 65.29 ± 4.89 (N), respectively. In conclusion, PLGA-Fibrin fulfils the criteria as a scaffold for urinary bladder reconstruction.
The main focus of this study is the incorporation of collagen peptides to fabricate P(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] nano-fiber construct to further enhance surface wettability and support cell growth while harbouring desired properties for biodegradable wound dressing. Simultaneous electrospinning of nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct was carried out using dual syringe system. The wettability of the constructs increased with the increase in 4HB molar fraction from 20mol% 4HB [53.2°], P(3HB-co-35mol%4HB)[48.9°], P(3HB-co-50mol%4HB)[44.5°] and P(3HB-co-82mol%4HB) [37.7°]. In vitro study carried out using mouse fibroblast cells (L929) grown on nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct showed an increase in cell proliferation. In vivo study using animal model (Sprague Dawley rats) showed that nanofibrous P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct had a significant effect on wound contractions with the highest percentage of wound closure of 79%. Hence, P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct suitable for wound dressing have been developed using nano-fabrication technique.
Amniotic membrane has the potential to be used as scaffold in various tissue engineering applications. However, increasing its biostability at the same time maintaining its biocompatibility is important to enhance its usage as a scaffold. This studied characteristics genipin-crosslinked amniotic membrane as a bioscaffold. Redundant human amniotic membranes (HAM) divided into native (nAM), decellularized (dAM) and genipin-crosslinked (clAM) groups. The dAM and clAM group were decellularized using thermolysin (TL) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Next, clAM group was crosslinked with 0.5% and 1.0% (w/v) genipin. The HAM was then studied for in vitro degradation, percentage of swelling, optical clarity, ultrastructure and mechanical strength. Meanwhile, fibroblasts isolated from nasal turbinates were then seeded onto nAM, dAM and clAM for biocompatibility studies. clAM had the slowest degradation rate and were still morphologically intact after 30 days of incubation in 0.01% collagenase type 1 solution. The dAM had a significantly highest percentage of swelling than other groups (p collagen content at similar level of nAM. Although the dAM had highest mechanical strength compared to the rest of the groups, the differences were statistically insignificant. Cell attachment on dAM and 0.5% clAM was higher compared to that on nAM and 1.0% clAM. In conclusion, clAM have better biostability and biocompatibility compared to the nAM and dAM. Together with other suitable characteristics of the clAM such as percentage of swelling, structural integrity and ECM content, clAM is suitable as scaffold for various tissue engineering applications.
The zinc oxide nanoparticles (particles size <50nm) incorporated into chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds and investigated the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation on microstructure, mechanical properties, biodegradation and cytocompatibility of 3D porous scaffolds. The 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 4.0% zinc oxide nanoparticles chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds were fabricated via freeze-drying technique. The zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation effects consisting in chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds were investigated by mechanical and swelling tests, and effect on the morphology of scaffolds examined microscopically. The biodegradation and cytocompatibility tests were used to investigate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation on the ability of scaffolds to use for tissue engineering application. The mean pore size and swelling ratio of scaffolds were decreased upon incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles however, the porosity, tensile modulus and biodegradation rate were increased upon incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles. In vitro culture of human fibroblasts and keratinocytes showed that the zinc oxide nanoparticles facilitated cell adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds. It was found that the zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation enhanced porosity, tensile modulus and cytocompatibility of chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds.
The study was conducted to determine anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities of the extracted collagen hydrolysate (CH) derived from Malaysian jellyfish, Rhopilema hispidum. Collagen was extracted using 1:1 (w:v) 0.1 M NaOH solution at temperature 25 °C for 48 hr followed by treatment of 1:2 (w:v) distilled water for another 24 hr and freeze-dried. The extracted collagen was hydrolyzed using papain at optimum temperature, pH and enzyme/substrate ratio [E/S] of 60 °C, 7.0 and 1:50, respectively. CH was found to exhibit tyrosinase inhibitory activity, DPPH radical scavenging and metal ion-chelating assays up to 64, 28, and 83%, respectively, after 8 hr of hydrolysis process. The molecular weight of CH was found <10 kDa consisting of mainly Gly (19.219%), Glu (10.428%), and Arg (8.848%). The UV-visible spectrum analysis showed a major and minor peak at 218 and 276 nm, accordingly. The FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the amide groups in CH. The SEM images demonstrated spongy and porous structure of CH. In the cytotoxicity study, CH has no cytotoxicity against mouse embryonic 3T3 fibroblast cell line with IC50 value >500 µg/ml. Results revealed that the CH generated from this study has a potential to be developed as active ingredient in cosmeceutical application.
Despite the fact that intrinsic oxidative stress is inevitable, the extrinsic factor such as ultraviolet radiation enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation resulting in premature skin aging. Nanoemulsion was loaded with fullerene, a strong free radical scavenger, and its efficacy to provide protection and regenerative effect against ROS-induced collagen breakdown in human skin was studied. Stable fullerene nanoemulsions were formulated using high shear homogenization and ultrasonic dispersion technique. An open trial was conducted using fullerene nanoemulsion on skin twice a day for 28 days. The mean collagen score significantly increased (P<0.05) from 36.53±4.39 to 48.69±5.46 with 33.29% increment at the end of the treatment. Biophysical characteristics of skin revealed that skin hydration was increased significantly (P<0.05) from 40.91±7.01 to 58.55±6.08 corneometric units (43.12% increment) and the water was able to contain within the stratum corneum without any increased in transepidermal water loss. In the in vitro safety evaluation, fullerene nanoemulsion showed no acute toxicity on 3T3 fibroblast cell line for 48h and no indication of potential dermal irritation. Hence, the fullerene nanoemulsion may assist in protecting collagen from breakdown with cosmeceutical benefit.
Earlier studies in our laboratory demonstrated that collagen extracted from ovine tendon is biocompatible towards human dermal fibroblast. To be able to use this collagen as a scaffold in skin tissue engineering, a mechanically stronger scaffold is required that can withstand manipulation before transplantation. This study was conducted to improve the mechanical strength of this collagen sponge using chemical crosslinkers, and evaluate their effect on physical, chemical and biocompatible properties. Collagen sponge was crosslinked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and glutaraldehyde (GA). Tensile test, FTIR study and mercury porosimetry were used to evaluate mechanical properties, chemical property and porosity, respectively. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of crosslinked collagen sponge on human dermal fibroblasts. The FTIR study confirmed the successful crosslinking of collagen sponge. Crosslinking with EDC and GA significantly increased the mechanical strength of collagen sponge, with GA being more superior. Crosslinking of collagen sponge significantly reduced the porosity and the effect was predominant in GA-crosslinked collagen sponge. The GA-crosslinked collagen showed significantly lower, 60% cell viability towards human dermal fibroblasts compared to that of EDC-crosslinked collagen, 80% and non-crosslinked collagen, 100%. Although the mechanical strength was better when using GA but the more toxic effect on dermal fibroblast makes EDC a more suitable crosslinker for future skin tissue engineering.
The molecular mass distribution, amino acid composition and radical-scavenging activity of collagen hydrolysates prepared from collagen isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus vastus were investigated. β and α1 chains of the collagen were successfully hydrolysed by trypsin. The molecular mass distribution of the hydrolysates ranged from 5 to 25 kDa, and they were rich in glycine, alanine, glutamate, proline and hydroxyproline residues. The hydrolysates exhibited excellent radical-scavenging activity. These results indicate that collagen hydrolysates from S. vastus can be used as a functional ingredient in food and nutraceutical products.